Advertisement

Balanced Time Perspective: Developing Empirical Profile and Exploring Its Stability over Time

  • Britt Wiberg
  • Anna Sircova
  • Marie Wiberg
  • Maria G. Carelli
Chapter

Abstract

Balanced time perspective (BTP) is characterized by flexible switching between a person’s past, present and future time orientations, depending on situational demands, personal resources, experiences, and social evaluations. The present study aimed to explore the psychological characteristics of people with a BTP profile and attain a deeper understanding of the BTP construct. Seven people with BTP profiles were investigated using in-depth interviews, self-report instruments, and a projective test. By testing the participants on two occasions within an 18-month interval, we investigated the stability of BTP. Analyses showed that participants were aware of the “now” and had a synchronicity between the present and the past, and also between the present and the future. Results indicated a degree of temporal stability in the BTP profile and that people’s interpretations and interactions within the surrounding context of events influences their time perspectives.

References

  1. Beck, A. T., Steer, R. A., & Brown, G. (2006). Beck depression inventory—Manual, svensk version. Sandviken: Psykologiförlaget AB.Google Scholar
  2. Bergson, H. (1889). Essai sur les données immédiates de la conscience. Translation (2007) Time and Free Will. Paris: Presses Universitaires de France.Google Scholar
  3. Boniwell, I. (2005). Beyond time management: How the latest research on time perspective and perceived time use can assist clients with time-related concerns. International Journal of Evidence Based Coaching and Mentoring, 3(2), 61–74.Google Scholar
  4. Boniwell, I. (2009). Perspectives on time. In S. J. Lopez & C. R. Snyder (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of positive psychology (2nd ed., Chapter 27, pp. 295–302). New York: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  5. Boniwell, I., Osin, E., Linley, P. A., & Ivanchenko, G. V. (2010). A question of balance: Time perspective and well-being in British and Russian samples. The Journal of Positive Psychology, 5(1), 24–40.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Boniwell, I., & Zimbardo, P. G. (2004). Balancing time perspective in pursuit of optimal functioning. In P. A. Linley & S. Joseph (Eds.), Positive psychology in practice (Chapter 10, pp. 165–178). New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons.Google Scholar
  7. Boyd, J. N., & Zimbardo, P. G. (2005). Time perspective, health, and risk taking. In A. Strathman & J. Joireman (Eds.), Understanding behavior in the context of time: Theory, research and application (pp. 85–107). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc.Google Scholar
  8. Carelli, M. G., & Olsson, C. J. (2015). Neural correlates of time perspective. In M. Stolarski, N. Fieulaine & W. van Beek. (Eds.), Time perspective theory; Review, research and application—Essays in honor of Philip G. Zimbardo (1st ed., pp. 231–242). Cham, Switzerland: Springer International Publishing. ISBN: 978-3-319-07367-5.Google Scholar
  9. Carelli, M. G., & Wiberg, B. (2012). Time out of mind temporal perspective in adults with ADHD. Journal of Attention Disorders, 16(6), 460–466.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Carelli, M. G., Wiberg, B., & Åström, E. (2015). Broadening the TP profile: Future negative time perspective. In M. Stolarski, N. Fieulaine & W. van Beek (Eds.), Time perspective theory; Review, research and application—Essays in honor of Philip G. Zimbardo (1st ed., Chapter 5, pp. 87–97). Cham, Switzerland: Springer International Publishing. ISBN: 978-3-319-07367-5.Google Scholar
  11. Carelli, M. G., Wiberg, B., & Wiberg, M. (2011). Development and construct validation of the Swedish Zimbardo time perspective inventory. European Journal of Psychological Assessment, 27(4), 220–227.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Cottle, T. J. (1967). The circles test: An investigation of perceptions of temporal relatedness and dominance. Journal of Projective Techniques & Personality Assessment, 31(5), 58–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Cottle, T. J. (1976). Perceiving time: A psychological investigation with men and women. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  14. Derogatis, L. R. (1977). The SCL-90 manual I: Scoring, administration and procedures for the SCL-90. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Clinical Psychometrics Unit.Google Scholar
  15. Derogatis, L. R., Lipman, R. S., & Covi, L. (1973). SCL-90: An outpatients psychiatric rating scale—a preliminary report. Psychopharmacological Bulletin, 9, 13–28.Google Scholar
  16. Diener, E. D., Emmons, R. A., Larsen, R. J., & Griffin, S. (1985). The satisfaction with life scale. Journal of Personality Assessment, 49(1), 71–75.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Drake, L., Duncan, E., Sutherland, F., Abernethy, C., & Henry, C. (2008). Time perspective and correlates of wellbeing. Time & Society, 17(1), 47–61.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Epel, E., Bandura, A., & Zimbardo, P. G. (1999). Escaping homelessness: The influences of self-efficacy and time perspective on coping with homelessness. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 29, 575–596.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Fraisse, P. (1957). La période réfractaire psychologique. L’année Psychologique, 57(2), 315–328.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. James, W. (1890). The principles of psychology (Vol. 1). New York: Henry Holt and Co. (Reprint, 1950, New York: Dover).Google Scholar
  21. Lewin, K. (1942). Time perspective and morale. In G. Lewin (Ed.), Resolving social conflicts (pp. 103–124). New York: Harper.Google Scholar
  22. Lewin, K. (1951). Field theory in the social sciences: Selected theoretical papers. New York: Harper.Google Scholar
  23. Litvinovic, G. (1998). Perceived change, time orientation and subjective well-being through the life span in Yugoslavia and the United States. Unpublished doctoral dissertation, University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill.Google Scholar
  24. McTaggart, J. E. (1908). The unreality of time. Mind, 17(68), 457–474. Retrieved from http://www.jstor.org/stable/2248314 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Nuttin, J. R., & Lens, W. (1985). Future time perspective and motivation: Theory and research method. Leuven: Leuven University Press & Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  26. Paykel, E. S. (1983). Methodological aspects of life events research. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 27(5), 341–352.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Ryff, C. D. (1989). Happiness is everything, or is it? Explorations on the meaning of psychological well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57(6), 1069–1081.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Seifert, T. A. (2005). The Ryff scales of psychological well-being. Center of Inquiry Home. University of Iowa. Recuperado de. Retrieved from http://www.liberalarts.wabash.edu/ryff-scales
  29. Shostrom, E. L. (1964). An inventory for the measurement of self-actualization. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 24, 207–218.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Shostrom, E. L. (1968). Time as an integrating factor. In C. Bühler & F. Massarik (Eds.), The course of human life: A study of goals in the humanistic perspective (Chapter 20, pp. 351–359). New York: Springer Publishing Company, Inc.Google Scholar
  31. Shostrom, E. L. (1974). Manual for the personal orientation inventory. San Diego, CA: Educational and Industrial Testing Service.Google Scholar
  32. Sircova, A., & Mitina, O. (2008). Balanced time perspective (BTP) as a resource of person’s optimal functioning. Paper presented at the 4th European Conference on Positive Psychology, Opatija, Croatia.Google Scholar
  33. Sircova, A., van de Vijver, F. J., Osin, E., Milfont, T. L., Fieulaine, N., Kislali-Erginbilgic, A., … Boyd, N. J. (2014). A global look at time—A 24-country study of the equivalence of the Zimbardo time perspective inventory. Sage Open, 4(1), 1–12. https://doi.org/10.1177/2158244013515686 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Smith, J. A., Flowers, P., & Larkin, M. (2009). Interpretative phenomenological analysis: Theory, method and research. London: SAGE Publications Ltd.Google Scholar
  35. Stolarski, M., Bitner, J., & Zimbardo, P. G. (2011). Time perspective, emotional intelligence and discounting of delayed awards. Time & Society, 20(3), 346–363.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Stolarski, M., Wiberg, B., & Osin, E. (2015). Assessing temporal harmony: The issue of a balanced time perspective. In M. Stolarski, N. Fieulaine & W. van Beek (Eds.), Time perspective theory; Review, research and application—Essays in honor of Philip G. Zimbardo (1st ed., Chapter 3, pp. 57–71). Cham, Switzerland: Springer International Publishing. ISBN: 978-3-319-07367-5.Google Scholar
  37. Wiberg, B., Wiberg, M., Carelli, M. G., & Sircova, A. (2012). A qualitative and quantitative study of seven persons with balanced time perspective (BTP) according to S-ZTPI. Poster presentation at the Ist International Conference on Time Perspective and Research: Converging Paths in Psychology Time Theory and Research (pp. 120–120). ESPACOBRANCO.Google Scholar
  38. Wiberg, M., Sircova, A., Wiberg, B., & Carelli, M. G. (2012). Operationalizing balanced time perspective in a Swedish sample. The International Journal of Educational and Psychological Assessment, 12(1), 95–107.Google Scholar
  39. Worrell, F. C., & Zeno, R. M. (2007). The reliability and validity of Zimbardo time perspective inventory scores in academically talented adolescents. Educational and Psychological Measurement, 67(3), 487–504.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Zhang, J. W., Howell, R. T., & Stolarski, M. (2013). Comparing three methods to measure a balanced time perspective: The relationship between a balanced time perspective and subjective well-being. Journal of Happiness Studies, 14(1), 169–184.Google Scholar
  41. Zimbardo, P. G., & Boyd, J. N. (1999). Putting time in perspective: A valid, reliable individual-differences metric. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 77, 1271–1288.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Zimbardo, P. G., & Boyd, J. N. (2008). The time paradox: The new psychology of time that will change your life. New York, NY: Free Press.Google Scholar
  43. Åström, E., Wiberg, B., Sircova, A., Wiberg, M., & Carelli, M. G. (2014). Insights into features of anxiety through multiple aspects of psychological time. Journal of Integrative Psychology and Therapeutics, 2(1), 3.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Britt Wiberg
    • 1
  • Anna Sircova
    • 2
  • Marie Wiberg
    • 3
  • Maria G. Carelli
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUmeå UniversityUmeåSweden
  2. 2.Time Perspective NetworkCopenhagenDenmark
  3. 3.Department of StatisticsUSBE, Umeå UniversityUmeåSweden

Personalised recommendations