Advertisement

Who Was the Child Before It Was Born? Prenatal Time Perspective

  • Wessel van Beek
Chapter

Abstract

Time perspective theory has integrated many elements of human development, including both internal and external influences. One aspect the author discusses in this chapter is what he calls prenatal time: the expectations of the parents and family concerning the development of the unborn child. This chapter discusses the theory of prenatal psychological development, the author’s own experiences, and three clinical cases.

References

  1. Ainsworth, M. D. S., Blehar, M. C., Waters, E., & Wall, S. (1978). Patterns of attachment: A psychological study of the strange situation. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  2. Akthar, S. (2012). Between hours: A collection of poems by psychoanalysts. London: Karnac Books.Google Scholar
  3. Beebe, B., & Lachman, F. (1988). The contribution of mother–infant mutual influence to the origins of self- and object-representations. Psychoanalytic Psychology, 5, 305–337.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Van Beek, W., & Chistopolskaya, K. (2014). Friend or foe? Escape from death, or death as an escape. In M. Stolarski, N. Fieulaine, & W. van Beek (Eds.), Time perspective theory; Review, research and application (pp. 471–481). Cham: Springer International Publisher.Google Scholar
  5. Van Beek, W., & Kairys, A. (2014). Time perspective and transcendental future thinking. In M. Stolarski, N. Fieulaine, & W. van Beek (Eds.), Time perspective theory; Review, research and application (pp. 73–87). Cham: Springer International Publisher.Google Scholar
  6. Benoit, D., Parker, K., & Zeanah, C. (1997). Mother’s representations of their infants assessed prenatally: Stability and association with infants’ attachment classifications. Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, and Allied Disciplines, 38, 307–313.Google Scholar
  7. Van den Bergh, B. R. H., & Simons, A. M. T. (2009). A review of scales to measure the mother-foetus relationship. Journal of Reproductive and Infant Psychology, 27(2), 114–126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bergner, S., Monk, C., & Werner, E. A. (2008). Dyadic intervention during pregnancy? Treating pregnant women and possibly reaching the future baby. Infant Mental Health Journal, 29, 399–419.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  9. Blankley, G., Galbally, M., Snellen, M., Power, J., & Lewis, A. J. (2015). Borderline personality disorder in the perinatal period: Early infant and maternal outcomes. Australasian Psychiatry, 23(6), 688–692.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  10. Boscolo, L., & Bertrando, P. (1992). The reflexive loop of past, present, and future in systemic therapy and consultation. Family Process, 31, 119–130.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  11. Boyd, J. N., & Zimbardo, P. G. (1997). Constructing time after death: The transcendental-future time perspective. Time & Society, 6(1), 35–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Brazelton, T. B., & Kramer, B. G. (1991). The earliest relationship: Parents, infants, and the drama of early attachment. London: Karnac Books.Google Scholar
  13. Bruschweiler-Stern, N., & Stern, D. N. (1989). A model for conceptualizing the role of the mother’s representational world in various mother-infant therapies. Infant Mental Health Journal, 10(3), 16–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Carelli, M. G., Wiberg, B., & Åström, E. (2014). Broadening the TP profile: Future negative time perspective. In M. Stolarski, N. Fieulaine, & W. van Beek (Eds.), Time perspective theory; review, research and application (pp. 87–97). Springer International Publishing.Google Scholar
  15. Chamberlain, D. B. (1994). The sentient prenate: What every parent should know. Journal of Prenatal and Perinatal Psychology and Health, 26(1), 37–59.Google Scholar
  16. Crandell, L. E., Patrick, M. P. H., & Hobson, R. P. (2003). ‘Still-face’ interactions between mothers with borderline personality disorder and their 2-month-old infants. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 183(3), 239–247.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Cranley, M. S. (1981a). Roots of attachment: The relationship of parents with their unborn. Birth Defects, 6, 59–83.Google Scholar
  18. Cranley, M. S. (1981b). Development of a tool for the measurement of maternal attachment during pregnancy. Nursing Research, 30, 281–284.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Dayton, C. J., Levendosky, A. A., Davidson, W. S., & Bogat, G. A. (2010). The child as held in the mind of the mother: The influence of prenatal maternal representations on parenting behaviors. Infant Mental Health Journal, 31(2), 220–241.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Doan, H., & Zimerman, A. (2003). Conceptualizing prenatal attachment: Toward a multidimensional view. Journal of Prenatal and Perinatal Psychology and Health, 18, 131–148.Google Scholar
  21. Draper, H., & Ives, J. (2013). Men’s involvement in antenatal care and labour: Rethinking a medical model. Midwifery, 29(7), 723–729.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Eccles, J. S., & Harold, R. (1991). Gender differences in sport involvement: Applying the Eccles’ expectancy-value model. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 3, 7–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Flykt, M., Lindblom, J., Punamäki, R.-L., Poikkeus, P., Repokari, L., Unkila-Kallio, L., … Tulppala, M. (2009). Prenatal expectations in transition to parenthood: Former infertility and family dynamic considerations. Journal of Family Psychology, 23(6), 779–789.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Ford, N. M. (2002). The prenatal person: Ethics from conception to birth. Oxford: Blackwell Publishers Ltd.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Fraiberg, S., Adelson, E., & Shapiro, V. (1975). Ghosts in the nursery: A psychoanalytic approach to the problem of impaired infant–mother relationships. Journal of the American Academy of Child Psychiatry, 14, 387–421.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Gizir, C. A., & Aydin, G. (2009). Protective factors contributing to the academic resilience of students living in poverty in turkey. Professional School Counseling, 13(1), 38–49.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Habib, C., & Lancaster, S. (2006). The transition to fatherhood: Identity and bonding in early pregnancy. Fathering: A Journal of Theory, Research, and Practice about Men as Fathers, 4(3), 235–253.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Hobson, R. P., Patrick, M. P. H., Hobson, J. A., Crandell, L., Bronfman, E., & Lyons-Ruth, K. (2009). How mothers with bordeline personality disorder relate to their year-old infants. British Journal of Psychiatry, 195, 325–333.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Jensen, A. C., & McHale, S. M. (2015). What makes siblings different? The development of sibling differences in academic achievement and interests. Journal of Family Psychology, 29(3), 469–478.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  30. Kapur, M. (2014). Consciousness, memory and dreams in Kashyapa Samhita. In S. Menon, A. Sinha, & B. V. Sreekantan (Eds.), Interdisciplinary perspectives on consciousness and the self (pp. 73–79). New Delhi: Springer.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Kim, P., Mayes, L., Feldman, R., Leckman, J. F., & Swain, J. E. (2013). Early postpartum parental preoccupation and positive parenting thoughts: Relationship with parent–infant interaction. Infant Mental Health Journal, 34(2), 104–116.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  32. Kim, P., Rigo, P., Leckman, J. F., Mayes, L. C., Cole, P. M., Feldman, R., & Swain, J. E. (2015). A prospective longitudinal study of perceived infant outcomes at 18–24 months: Neural and psychological correlates of parental thoughts and actions assessed during the first month postpartum. Frontiers in Psychology, 6, 1772. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2015.01772 PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  33. Košťál, J., Klicperová-Baker, M., Lukavská, K., & Lukavský, J. (2015). Short version of the Zimbardo time perspective inventory (ZTPI–short) with and without the future-negative scale, verified on nationally representative samples. Time & Society, 25(2), 169–192.Google Scholar
  34. Lagercrantz, H. (2014). The emergence of consciousness: Science and ethics. Seminars in Fetal & Neonatal Medicine, 19(5), 300–305.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Lagercrantz, H., & Changeux, J. P. (2009). The emergence of human consciousness: From fetal to neonatal life. Pediatric Research, 65(3), 255–260.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Lazarus, K., & Rossouw, P. J. (2015). Mother’s expectations of parenthood: The impact of prenatal expectations on self-esteem, depression, anxiety, and stress post birth. International Journal of Neuropsychotherapy, 3(2), 102–123.Google Scholar
  37. Levendosky, A. A., Bogat, G. A., Huth-Bocks, A. C., Rosenblum, K., & Von Eye, A. (2011). The effects of domestic violence on the stability of attachment from infancy to preschool. Journal of Clinical Child & Adolescent Psychology, 40(3), 398–410.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Lieberman, A., Padrón, E., Van Horn, P., & Harris, W. (2005). Angels in the nursery: The intergenerational transmission of benevolent parental influences. Infant Mental Health Journal, 26(6), 504–520.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Littleton, H. L., Bye, K. S., Buck, K., & Amacker, A. (2010). Psychosocial stress during pregnancy and perinatal outcomes: A meta-analytic review. Journal of Psychosomatic Obstetrics and Gynecology, 31, 219–228.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Loeb, P. S. (2013). Eternal recurrence. In K. Gemes & J. Richardson (Eds.), The Oxford handbook of Nietzsche. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  41. López-Teijón, M., Garcia-Faura, A., & Prats-Galino, A. (2015). Fetal facial expression in response to intravaginal music emission. Ultrasound, 23(4), 216–223.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  42. Lumley, J. M. (1982). Attitudes to the fetus among primigravidae. Australian Pediatric Journal, 18, 106–109.Google Scholar
  43. Maas, A. J., Vreeswijk, M. J. M., de Cock, S. A., Rijk, H. A. M., & van Bakel, J. A. (2012). “Expectant parents”: Study protocol of a longitudinal study concerning prenatal (risk) factors and postnatal infant development, parenting, and parent-infant relationships. BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth, 12, 46.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  44. Mahler, M. (1952). On child psychosis and schizophrenia: Autistic and symbiotic infantile psychoses. Psychoanalytic Study of the Child, 7, 286–305.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Mikulincer, M., Dolev, T., & Shaver, P. R. (2004). Attachment-related strategies during thought-suppression: Ironic rebounds and vulnerable self-representations. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 87, 940–956.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  46. Newman, L., & Stevenson, C. (2008). Issues in infant-parent psychotherapy for mothers with borderline personality disorder. Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry, 13(4), 505–514.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  47. Nickell, A. D., Waudby, C. J., & Trull, T. J. (2002). Attachment, parental bonding and borderline personality disorder features in young adults. Journal of Personality Disorders, 16(2), 148–159.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  48. Obegi, J. H., & Berant, E. (2009). Attachment theory and research in clinical work with adults. New York: Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  49. Oppenheim, D., Koren-Karie, N., & Sagi-Schwartz, A. (2007). Emotion dialogues between mothers and children at 4.5 and 7.5 years: Relations with children’s attachment at 1 year. Child Development, 78, 38–52.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  50. Raffai, J. (1997). Mother-child bonding-analysis in the prenatal realm. International Journal of Prenatal and Perinatal Psychology and Medicine, 9(4), 407–415.Google Scholar
  51. Rank, O. (1929). The trauma of birth. New York: Dover Publications.Google Scholar
  52. Schroth, G. (2010). Prenatal bonding (BA): A method of encountering the unborn: Introduction and case study. Journal of Prenatal and Perinatal Psychology and Health, 25(1), 3–16.Google Scholar
  53. Selin, H. (Ed.). (2014). Parenting across cultures: Childrearing, motherhood and fatherhood in non-western cultures. Dordrecht/New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  54. Stern, D. N. (1995). The motherhood constellation. A unified view of parent-infant psychotherapy. New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  55. Stolarski, M., Fieulaine, N., & van Beek, W. (2014). Time perspective theory; Review, research and application. Cham: Springer International Publisher.Google Scholar
  56. Thapar, R. (2002). Cyclic and linear time in early India. In K. Ridderbos (Ed.), Time (pp. 27–45). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Tomm, K. (1987). Interventive interviewing: Part I. Strategizing as a fourth guideline for the therapist. Family Process, 26(1), 3–13.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. Tyano, S., Keren, M., Herrman, H., & Cox, J. (2010). Parenthood and mental health: A bridge between infant and adult psychiatry. Chichester: John Wiley & Sons Ltd.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Verny, T., & Kelly, J. (1981). The secret life of the unborn child. New York: Summit Books.Google Scholar
  60. Vowinckel, J. C., Westerhof, G. J., Bohlmeijer, E. T., & Webster, J. D. (2015). Flourishing in the now: Initial validation of a present-eudaimonic time perspective scale. Time & Society. https://doi.org/10.1177/0961463X15577277.
  61. Vreeswijk, C. M. J. M., Maas, A. J., Rijk, C. H. A. M., & van Bakel, H. J. A. (2014). Stability of fathers’ representations of their infants during the transition to parenthood. Attachment & Human Development, 16(3), 292–306.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Wilson, M. E., White, M. A., Cobb, B., Curry, R., Greene, D., & Popovich, D. (2000). Family dynamics, parental-fetal attachment and infant temperament. Journal of Advanced Nursing, 31, 204–210.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  63. Winsper, C., Wolke, D., & Lereya, T. (2016). Prospective associations between prenatal adversities and borderline personality disorder at 11–12 years. Psychological Medicine, 45(5), 1025–1037.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Zeanah, C. H., Zeanah, P. D., & Stewart, L. K. (1990). Parents’ constructions of their Infants’ personalities before and after birth: A descriptive study. Child Psychiatry and Human Development, 20(3), 191–206.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  65. Zimbardo, P. G., & Boyd, J. N. (1999). Putting time in perspective: A valid, reliable individual-differences metric. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 77(6), 1271–1288.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Wessel van Beek
    • 1
  1. 1.GGZ VeenendaalVeenendaalThe Netherlands

Personalised recommendations