Unbecoming Standards Through Ojibwe Immersion: The Wolf Meets Ma’iingan

  • Mary Hermes
  • Michelle Haskins
Part of the Palgrave Studies in Minority Languages and Communities book series (PSMLC)


In this chapter Hermes and Haskins closely investigate examples from Haskins’ teaching at an Ojibwe immersion school to show the way the Ojibwe language itself brings the institutional racism of the state standards to the surface. As educational standards are becoming less local and more uniform at a national level, they are promoted as being universal and, in fact, an equalizing factor for minority students. In this chapter, we show clearly how these standards are in fact not universal but very culturally specific when understood in relation to the enactment of an Ojibwe language-centered curriculum.


Indigenous knowledge Ojibwe Epistemology Early literacy Curriculum Structural racism USA 


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Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mary Hermes
    • 1
  • Michelle Haskins
    • 2
  1. 1.University of MinnesotaTwin CitiesUSA
  2. 2.Lac Courte Oreilles Ojibwe Community CollegeChief LakeUSA

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