Advertisement

Instructed Second Language Acquisition

  • Shawn Loewen

Abstract

The primary concern in instructed second language acquisition (ISLA) is how best to facilitate the development of a second or additional language. However, theoretical perspectives and pedagogical suggestions are only as good as the research methods that are used to advance them. This chapter discusses important constructs, such as implicit and explicit L2 knowledge, noticing, and discourse, that are the focus of ISLA research. The chapter also addresses various methods that have been used to investigate these constructs. Challenges in ISLA research methods such as construct validity, generalizability, and study quality are discussed. The chapter ends with recommendations for future research in two areas: the increasing use of technology as both a pedagogical tool and a research method and the improvement of information about how ISLA researchers acquire and maintain quantitative and statistical knowledge.

Keywords

Second language Classroom Acquisition Second language knowledge 

References

  1. Ahmadian, M. J., & Tavakoli, M. (2011). The effects of simultaneous use of careful on line planning and task repetition on accuracy, complexity, and fluency in EFL learners’ oral production. Language Teaching Research, 16, 129–149.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Benson, P., Chik, A., Gao, X., Huang, J., & Wang, W. (2009). Qualitative research in language teaching and language learning journals, 1997–2006. Modern Language Journal, 93, 79–90.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bowles, M. (2011). The think aloud controversy in language acquisition research. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  4. Bowles, M., Toth, P., & Adams, R. (2014). A comparison of L2-L2 and L2-heritage learner interactions in Spanish language classrooms. Modern Language Journal, 98, 497–517.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Burston, J. (2015). Twenty years of MALL project implementation: A meta-analysis of learner outcomes. ReCALL, 27, 4–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cerezo, L., Caras, A., & Leow, R. P. (2016). The effectiveness of guided induction versus deductive instruction on the development of complex Spanish gustar structures. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 38, 265–291.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chapelle, C. (2010). The spread of computer-assisted language learning. Language Teaching, 43, 66–74.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. De Costa, P., Valmori, L., & Choi, I. (2017). Qualitative research. In S. Loewen & M. Sato (Eds.), The Routledge handbook of instructed second language acquisition (pp. 522–540). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  9. DeKeyser, R. (2015). Skill acquisition theory. In B. VanPatten & J. Williams (Eds.), Theories in second language acquisition: An introduction (pp. 94–112). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  10. Doughty, C. (2003). Instructed SLA: Constraints, compensation, and enhancement. In C. Doughty & M. Long (Eds.), The handbook of second language acquisition (2nd ed., pp. 256–310). Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Eckerth, J. (2009). Negotiated interaction in the L2 classroom. Language Teaching, 42, 109–130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Ellis, R. (2003). Task-based language learning and teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  13. Ellis, R. (2005). Measuring implicit and explicit knowledge of a second language: A psychometric study. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 27, 141–172.Google Scholar
  14. Ellis, R., Basturkmen, H., & Loewen, S. (2001). Learner uptake in communicative ESL. Language Learning, 51, 281–318.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Ellis, R., Loewen, S., & Erlam, R. (2006). Implicit and explicit corrective feedback and the acquisition of L2 grammar. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 28, 339–368.Google Scholar
  16. Erlam, R. (2006). Elicited imitation as a measure of L2 implicit knowledge: An empirical validation study. Applied Linguistics, 27, 464–491.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Gass, S. M., & Mackey, A. (2017). Stimulated recall methodology in applied linguistics and L2 research. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  18. Gass, S. M., Mackey, A., & Ross-Feldman, L. (2005). Task-based interactions in classroom and laboratory setting. Language Learning, 55, 575–611.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Gonulal, T. (2016). Statistical literacy among second language acquisition graduate students. Unpublished PhD manuscript, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI.Google Scholar
  20. Gregersen, T., MacIntyre, P., & Meza, M. (2014). The motion of emotion: Idiodynamic case studies of learners’ foreign language anxiety. Modern Language Journal, 98, 574–588.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Horwitz, E. K., Horwitz, M. B., & Cope, J. A. (1986). Foreign language classroom anxiety. Modern Language Journal, 70, 125–132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Housen, A., Kuiken, F., & Vedder, I. (Eds.). (2012). Dimensions of L2 performance and proficiency. Complexity, accuracy, and fluency in SLA. Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins.Google Scholar
  23. Krashen, S. (1982). Principles and practice in second language acquisition. Oxford: Pergamon.Google Scholar
  24. Larson-Hall, J., & Plonsky, L. (2015). Reporting and interpreting quantitative research findings: What gets reported and recommendations for the field. Language Learning, 65(S1), 127–159.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Lazaraton, A. (2000). Current trends in research methodology and statistics in applied linguistics. TESOL Quarterly, 34, 175–181.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Lazaraton, A., Riggenbach, H., & Ediger, A. (1987). Forming a discipline: Applied linguists’ literacy in research methodology and statistics. TESOL Quarterly, 21, 263–277.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Loewen, S. (2004). Uptake in incidental focus on form in meaning-focused ESL lessons. Language Learning, 54, 153–187.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Loewen, S. (2015). Introduction to instructed second language acquisition. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  29. Loewen, S., & Gass, S. (2009). Research timeline: The use of statistics in L2 acquisition research. Language Teaching, 42, 181–196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Loewen, S., Lavolette, B., Spino, L., Papi, M., Schmidtke, J., Sterling, S., & Wolff, D. (2014). Statistical literacy among applied linguists and second language acquisition researchers. TESOL Quarterly, 48, 360–388.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Long, M. H. (1996). The role of the linguistic environment in second language acquisition. In W. Ritchie & T. Bhatia (Eds.), Handbook of second language acquisition (pp. 413–468). San Diego: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  32. Lyster, R., & Ranta, L. (1997). Corrective feedback and learner uptake: Negotiation of form in communicative classrooms. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 19, 37–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Markee, N. (2000). Conversation analysis. Mahwah, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  34. Marsden, E., Mackey, A., & Plonsky, L. (2016). Breadth and depth: The IRIS repository. In A. Mackey & E. Marsden (Eds.), Advancing methodology and practice: The IRIS repository of instruments for research into second languages (pp. 1–21). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  35. Norris, J., & Ortega, L. (2000). Effectiveness of L2 instruction: A research synthesis and quantitative meta-analysis. Language Learning, 50, 417–528.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Norris, J. M. (2015). Statistical significance testing in second language research: Basic problems and suggestions for reform. Language Learning, 65(S1), 97–126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Plonsky, L. (2013). Study quality in SLA: An assessment of designs, analyses, and reporting practices in quantitative L2 research. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 35, 655–687.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Plonsky, L. (2014). Study quality in quantitative L2 research (1990–2010): A methodological synthesis and call for reform. Modern Language Journal, 98, 450–470.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Porte, G. (2012). Replication research in applied linguistics. New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  40. Rebuschat, P. (2013). Measuring implicit and explicit knowledge in second language research. Language Learning, 63, 595–626.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Riazi, A. M., & Candlin, C. N. (2014). Mixed-method research in language teaching and learning: Opportunities, issues and challenges. Language Teaching, 47, 135–173.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Roushad, A., Wigglesworth, G., & Storch, N. (2016). The nature of negotiations in face-to-face versus computer-mediated communication in pair interactions. Language Teaching Research, 20, 514–534.Google Scholar
  43. Sauro, S. (2011). SCMC for SLA: A research synthesis. CALICO Journal, 28, 369–391.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Schmidt, R. (2001). Attention. In P. Robinson (Ed.), Cognition and second language instruction (pp. 3–32). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Sheen, Y. (2004). Corrective feedback and learner uptake in communicative classrooms across instructional settings. Language Teaching Research, 8, 263–300.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Smith, B. (2004). Computer-mediated negotiated interaction and lexical acquisition. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 26, 365–398.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Tolentino, L. C., & Tokowicz, N. (2011). Across languages, space, and time: A review of the role of cross-language similarity in L2 (morpho)syntactic processing as revealed by fMRI and ERP methods. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 33, 91–125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Vafaee, P., Kachisnke, I., & Suzuki, Y. (2015). Validating grammaticality judgment tests: Evidence from two new psycholinguistic measures. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 39, 59–95.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Winke, P., Godfroid, A., & Gass, S. M. (2013). Introduction to the special issue: Eye-movement recordings in second language research. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 35, 205–212.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Ziegler, N. (2016). Synchronous computer-mediated communication and interaction: A meta-analysis. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 38, 553–586.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Linguistics and LanguagesMichigan State UniversityEast LansingUSA

Personalised recommendations