This chapter weighs the advantages and disadvantages of data collection through online questionnaires, as opposed to the traditional pen-and-paper method. Online questionnaires, which are frequently used in psychology, allow researchers to reach out to a larger, more diverse and more motivated pool of potential participants (i.e. not just their own students), which strengthens the ecological validity of the resulting database. Critics have raised issues of self-selection biases and lack of context. The chapter considers these issues and offers practical advice on how to develop questionnaires, how to run them and how to interpret the findings.


Questionnaires Sampling Sample size Attractiveness Validity Language learning Online questionnaires 


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© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Applied Linguistics and CommunicationBirkbeck, University of LondonLondonUK

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