Ma Thinking and Innovation in Global High Tech Companies: The Lessons of Business Model Innovation in Apple and Cisco Systems

  • Mitsuru Kodama
  • Takehiko Yasuda
  • Katsuhiko Hirasawa


This chapter examines Ma thinking and innovation in global high tech companies Apple and Cisco Systems by observing and analyzing the process of the dynamic formation of informal organizations free of the constraints of formal organizations, and the emergence of innovation through dynamic and recursive practice activities between formal and informal organizations from the perspective of Ma thinking. This chapter also identifies how new business model innovations originate in this dynamic recursion between formal and informal organizations based on the five types of Ma thinking as they engender five architect capabilities in practitioners.


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Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mitsuru Kodama
    • 1
  • Takehiko Yasuda
    • 1
  • Katsuhiko Hirasawa
    • 1
  1. 1.College of CommerceNihon UniversityTokyoJapan

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