The Five Types of Ma Thinking and Five Architect Capabilities: Theoretical Concepts

  • Mitsuru Kodama


Ma characteristics can be observed as phenomena (events and matters) in the daily hands-on activities of people working not only in business and management activities, but also in architecture, the arts, language, culture and so forth. Leading practitioners demonstrate Ma thinking either consciously or unconsciously to achieve innovations, doing so not only in the world of business and management but in other areas.

This chapter begins by presenting a theoretical concept of the five types of Ma thinking. It then provides a theoretical framework for the five architect capabilities that are born of Ma thinking, in the context of architect capability. Finally, the chapter identifies how the five architect capabilities of practitioners based on the five types of Ma thinking achieve innovation by dynamically synthesizing paradoxical thoughts and actions.


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© The Author(s) 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mitsuru Kodama
    • 1
  1. 1.College of CommerceNihon UniversityTokyoJapan

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