Cuba: Women’s Complicated Political Participation and Representation
Wylie and Shoker offer an analysis of women’s political participation in Cuba. Their chapter reviews the history of women within the Cuban revolution and government, highlighting the successes and the failures of the government to advance equality. While Cuban women have almost equal representation in parliament, the authors show that these figures are misleading because of the complexities of the political system. Despite the appearance of political and legal equality, Cuban women remain disadvantaged and underrepresented at the highest levels of power. The chapter also examines the role of women in nation building, focusing on the symbiosis between the Federacion de Mujeres Cubanas (FMC) and the goals of the state, revealing that women’s rights still occupy a tense and sometimes contradictory position in Cuban politics.
- Alberty Loforte, Arlin. 2015. Más de siete millones de cubanos ejercieron su derecho al voto. Granma, April 20. http://www.granma.cu/elecciones-en-cuba-2015/2015-04-20/mas-de-siete-millones-de-cubanos-ejercieron-su-derecho-al-voto. Accessed 12 May 2016.
- Álvarez, Mayda, et al. 2000. Situación de la niñez, la adolescencia, la mujer y la familia en Cuba. La Habana: FMC/UNICEF.Google Scholar
- Azicri, M. 1984. Women’s Development Through Revolutionary Mobilization. Cuban Communism, 6th ed. New Brunswick and Oxford: Transaction Books.Google Scholar
- Castro, Fidel. 1966. Speech Located in Women & The Cuban Revolution, Speeches by Fidel Castro, Articles by Linda Jenness (1970) (Pathfinder Press) Box 5, Folder 94 American Left Ephemera Collection, 1894–2008, AIS.2007.11, Archives Service Center, University of Pittsburgh. Online at http://digital.library.pitt.edu/u/ulsmanuscripts/pdf/31735066228333.pdf. Accessed 15 June 2016.
- Cuba, The Constitution of the Republic of Cuba. 1976 (as Amended to 2002). http://www.constitutionnet.org/files/Cuba%20Constitution.pdf. Accessed 1 June 2016.
- Cuba, Miembros Del Consejo de Ministros. 2014. http://www.cubagob.cu/gobierno/cur_min.htm. Accessed 29 June 2016.
- Cuban Women in Parliament: Beyond the Figures. 2013. Granma International, February 21. http://www.granma.cu/idiomas/ingles/cuba-i/cuba-i2.html. Accessed 27 June 2016.
- Enloe, Cynthia. 2004. The Curious Feminist: Searching for Women in the New Age of Empire. Berkley: University of California.Google Scholar
- Espín, Vilma, Asela de los Santos, and Yolanda Ferrer. 2012. Women in Cuba. The Making of a Revolution Within the Revolution, ed. Mary Alice Waters. New York: Pathfinder Press.Google Scholar
- Evenson, Debra. 1986. Women’s Equality in Cuba: What Difference Does a Revolution Make. Law and Inequality 4: 295.Google Scholar
- González, Ivet. 2013. A Changing of the Guard in Cuba. Inter Press Service News Agency, February 26. http://www.ipsnews.net/2013/02/a-changing-of-the-guard-in-cuba/. Accessed 29 June 2016.
- Hernández, Rafael. 2016. Demografía política e institucionalidad. Apuntes sociológicos sobre las estructuras políticas en Cuba, April 15. http://temas.cult.cu/demografia-politica-institucionalidad-pcc. Accessed 27 June 2016.
- Inter-Parliamentary Union. 2018. Women in National Parliaments, May 1. http://archive.ipu.org/wmn-e/classif.htm. Accessed 7 June 2018.
- Klouzal, Linda. 2008. Women and Rebel Communities in the Cuban Insurgent Movement, 1952–1959. Amherst, NY: Cambria Press.Google Scholar
- Kumar, R. Arun. 2016. 7th Congress of the Communist Party of Cuba Concludes Successfully. Peoples Democracy XL (27). http://peoplesdemocracy.in/2016/0501_pd/7th-congress-communist-party-cuba-concludes-successfully. Accessed 15 June 2016.
- Lopez Torregrosa, Luisita. 2012. Cuba May Be the Most Feminist Country in Latin America. The New York Times, May 1.Google Scholar
- Luciak, Ilja A. 2005. Party and State in Cuba: Gender Equality in Political Decision Making. Politics & Gender 1 (02): 241–263.Google Scholar
- Luciak, Ilja A. 2007. Gender and Democracy in Cuba. Gainesville: University Press of Florida.Google Scholar
- New Central Committee Elected. Granma http://en.granma.cu/cuba/2016-04-21/new-central-committee-elected. Accessed 29 May 2016.
- Oxfam. 2011. 50 Years Later: Women and Social Change in Cuba. https://www.oxfam.ca/sites/default/files/imce/women-social-change-cuba.pdf. Accessed 14 June 2016.
- Randall, Margaret. 1981. Women in Cuba: Twenty Years Later. Brooklyn, NY: Smyrna Press.Google Scholar
- Smith, Bonnie. 2008. The Oxford Encyclopedia of Women in World History: 4 Volume Set. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
- Sylvester, Christine. 2002. Feminist International Relations: An Unfinished Journey. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
- Tanden, Ajay, Christopher J.L. Murray, Jeremy A. Lauer, and David B. Evans. 2000. Measuring Overall Health System Performance for 191 Countries. GPE Discussion Paper Series No. 30, World Health Organization. http://www.who.int/healthinfo/paper30.pdf. Accessed 8 June 2018.
- Thomas, Hugh. 1971. Cuba: The Pursuit of Freedom. New York: Harper and Row.Google Scholar
- World Bank. 2016. World Development Indicator. https://datacatalog.worldbank.org/dataset/gdp-ranking. Accessed 8 June 2018.