Advertisement

Contesting Entrapment: Women Asylum Seekers in Hong Kong

  • Alison Gerard
Chapter
Part of the Transnational Crime, Crime Control and Security book series (TCCCS)

Abstract

This chapter draws on qualitative research with a diverse sample of female asylum seekers in Hong Kong to reveal the gendered consequences of entrapment and the politico-legal forces that influence women’s asylum seeking. The chapter outlines how women perceive their own legal categorization and how they manage the precarious livelihoods that ensue from ‘doing time’ in this global city. Complex structural economic, social and political factors influence the arrival of women asylum seekers in Hong Kong. These factors give rise to both dynamic and blurred legal categories that the government’s recently established ‘unified screening mechanism’ for all humanitarian protection claimants has sought to disentangle. Processes aimed at sorting women into palatable legal categories permeate the daily lives of asylum seekers and govern their interactions with government and non-government organizations alike. The chapter extends the analysis of entrapment to actors beyond police and state agencies by examining the role of non-government organizations, companionship and employment as dimensions in which entrapment and its resistance occurs, elucidating the varied contradictions that women’s resistance to entrapment may produce.

References

  1. AMC. (2004). Economic contributions of FDWs in Hong Kong. Hong Kong: Asian Migrant Centre.Google Scholar
  2. Brown, M., & Schept, J. (2016). New abolition, criminology and critical carceral studies. Punishment & Society, 00, 1462474516666281.Google Scholar
  3. Chiu, J. (2012). Marchers call for fairer treatment of refugees in Hong Kong. South China Morning Post, Viewed 13 Jan 2015. http://www.scmp.com/news/hong-kong/article/1073434/marchers-call-fairer-treatment-refugees-hong-kong?page=all
  4. Constable, N. (2014). Born out of place. Berkeley: University of California Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Constable, N. (2015). Temporary shelter in the shadows: Migrant mothers and torture claims in Hong Kong. In S. Friedman & P. Mahdavi (Eds.), Migrant encounters: Intimate labour, the state, and mobility across Asia. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.Google Scholar
  6. Gerard, A. (2014). The securitisation of migration and refugee women. Abingdon: Routledge.Google Scholar
  7. Hage, G. (2009). Waiting out the crises: On stuckedness and governmentality. In G. Hage (Ed.), Waiting. Melbourne: Melbourne University Press.Google Scholar
  8. HKJC. (2016). Coming clean: The prevalence of forced labour and human trafficking for the purpose of forced labour amongst migrant domestic workers in Hong Kong. Hong Kong: Hong Kong Justice Centre.Google Scholar
  9. HKSAR. (2016). Statistics on non-refoulement claims. Immigration Department, Hong Kong Special Administrative Region: Hong Kong.Google Scholar
  10. Labman, S., & Dauvergne, C. (2014). Evaluating Canada’s approach to gender-related persecution: Revisiting and re-embracing “refugee women and the imperative of categories”. In E. Arbel, C. Dauvergne, & J. Millbank (Eds.), Gender in refugee law: From the margins to the centre. Abingdon: Routledge.Google Scholar
  11. LegCo. (2016). Fact sheet: Handling of non-refoulement claims in selected places. Hong Kong: Research Office, Legislative Council Secretariat.Google Scholar
  12. Luibheid, E. (2013). Pregnant on arrival: Making the illegal immigrant. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Macklin, A. (1995). Refugee women and the imperative of categories. Human Rights Quarterly, 172, 213–277.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Madokoro, L. (2012). Borders transformed: Sovereign concerns, population movements and the making of territorial frontiers in Hong Kong, 1949–1967. Journal of Refugee Studies, 253, 407–427.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Malkki, L. (1995). Refugees and exile: From “refugee studies” to the national order of things. Annual Review of Anthropology, 24, 495–523.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Massey, D. S., Durand, J., & Malone, N. (2002). Beyond smoke and mirrors: Mexican immigration in an era of economic integration. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.Google Scholar
  17. Mathews, G. (2014). Asylum seekers in Hong Kong: The paradoxes of lives lived on hold. In J. Zhang & H. Duncan (Eds.), Migration in China and Asia. New York: Springer.Google Scholar
  18. Mathews, G., & Yang, Y. (2012). How Africans pursue low-end globalization in Hong Kong and mainland China. Journal of Current Chinese Affairs, 412, 95–120.Google Scholar
  19. Mathews, G., Lin, D. A. N., & Yang, Y. (2014). How to evade states and slip past borders: Lessons from traders, overstayers, and asylum seekers in Hong Kong and China. City & Society, 262, 217–238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Mohanty, C. T. (2003). Feminism without borders. Durham: Duke University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Núñez, G. G., & Heyman, J. M. (2007). Entrapment processes and immigrant communities in a time of heightened border vigilance. Human Organization, 664, 354–365.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Pickering, S., & Cochrane, B. (2012). Irregular border-crossing deaths and gender: Where, how and why women die crossing borders. Theoretical Criminology, 17(1), 27–48.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Ramsden, M., & Marsh, L. (2014). Refugees in Hong Kong: Developing the legal framework for socio-economic rights protection. Human Rights Law Review, 142, 267–299.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Robinson, W. C. (2004). The comprehensive plan of action for Indochinese refugees, 1989–1997: Sharing the burden and passing the buck. Journal of Refugee Studies, 17(3), 319–333.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Troeung, Y. D. (2015). Buried history and transpacific pedagogy: Teaching the Vietnamese boat people’s Hong Kong passage. ARIEL, 46(1), 239–255.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Vecchio, F. (2013). The economy of seeking asylum in the global city. International Migration, 54, 19–31.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Vecchio, F. (2015). Asylum seeking and the global city. Abingdon: Routledge.Google Scholar
  28. Vecchio, F., & Beatson, C. (2014). Asylum seekers’ occupy movement in Hong Kong. Race & Class, 562, 96–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Weber, L., & Pickering, S. (2011). Globalization and borders: Death at the global frontier. London: Palgrave.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Wong, W. C. W., Cheng, S., Holroyd, E., Chen, J., Loper, K. A., Tran, L., & Miu, H. Y. H. (2016). A lost tribe in the city: Health status and needs of African asylum seekers and refugees in Hong Kong. International Journal for Equity in Health, 15(1), 158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alison Gerard
    • 1
  1. 1.Centre for Law and JusticeCharles Sturt UniversityBathurstAustralia

Personalised recommendations