Advertisement

Trauma-Narrative Analysis at the Level of Sociopragmatic Schemata

  • Maria Grazia Guido
Chapter

Abstract

This chapter enquires into the role of Western experts’ and non-Western migrants’ respective sociopragmatic schemata which, by coming into contact in the course of unequal encounters within different specialized contexts, can induce, on the one hand, experts to misinterpret migrants’ trauma narratives, and, on the other, migrants to find experts’ specialized discourses inaccessible and unacceptable, thus causing communication failure despite the fact that both groups use English as a ‘lingua franca’. Case-study data show that each sociopragmatic schema refers to each participant’s linguacultural conditions of discourse production and interpretation, which engage indexically with the respective participant’s socio-cultural and psychological reality that may not be experientially accessible to the other participants in the interaction. Miscommunication is evident from the case-study analysis dealing with the participants’ conflicting sociopragmatic schemata regarding the ‘maternity’ construct in trauma-induced medical contexts; factual versus counterfactual religious constructs in ‘first-assistance’ encounters of the Catholic clergy with trauma-affected African migrants; and Utopian versus Dystopian schemata that determine the framing and the (mis)interpreting of migrants’ trauma narratives in the context of Responsible Tourism. The chapter concludes with the illustration of a cultural project in Responsible Tourism involving both tourists and migrants in ethnopoetic embodiments of ancient and modern sea voyage trauma narratives so as to discover the common archetypal roots as sea voyagers.

Keywords

Sociopragmatic schemata Schema-biased presupposition Conflicting ‘maternity’ schemata Counterfactual logic in Western religious discourse Utopian versus Dystopian schemata Responsible Tourism Ethnopoetic embodiment of sea voyage trauma narratives 

References

  1. Bakhtin, M. 1981. The Dialogic Imagination. Austin: University of Texas Press.Google Scholar
  2. Bhatia, V. 1994. Cognitive Structuring in Legislative Provisions. London: Longman.Google Scholar
  3. Billig, M. 1996. Arguing and Thinking. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  4. De Jong, I. 2001. A Narratological Commentary on the Odyssey. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Dippold, D. 2008. Reframing Ones Experience: Face, Identity, and Roles in L2 Argumentative Discourse. In Developing Contrastive Pragmatics. Interlanguage and Crosscultural Perspectives, ed. M. Putz and J.A. Neff-van, 131–154. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.Google Scholar
  6. Ericsson, A.K., and H.A. Simon. 1984. Protocol Analysis: Verbal Reports as Data. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.Google Scholar
  7. Fish, S. 1980. Is There a Text in this Class?: The Authority of Interpretative Communities. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  8. Frye, N. 1976. The Secular Scripture: A Study of the Structure of Romance. Harvard: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  9. Garcia, O., and Li Wei. 2014. Translanguaging: Language, Bilingualism and Education. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. ———. 2005. The Imaging Reader: Visualization and Embodiment of Metaphysical Discourse. New York: Legas.Google Scholar
  11. ———. 2008. English as a Lingua Franca in Cross-cultural Immigration Domains. Bern: Peter Lang.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. ———. 2012. ELF Authentication and Accommodation Strategies in Cross Cultural Immigration Domains. Journal of English as a Lingua Franca 1 (2): 219–240. Berlin/Boston: de Gruyter Mouton.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. ———. 2014. New-Evangelization Discourse in ELF Immigration Encounters: A Case Study. Lingue e Linguaggi 12: 111–126.Google Scholar
  14. ———. 2015a. Mediating Linguacultural Asymmetries through ELF in Unequal Immigration Encounters. Lingue Linguaggi 15: 155–175.Google Scholar
  15. ———. 2015b. Variazioni e negoziazioni di significato attraverso l’inglese ‘lingua franca’ in contesti migratori. In Mediazione Linguistica Interculturale in Materia d’Immigrazione e Asilo, ed. M.G. Guido. Special issue of Lingue Linguaggi 16, 47–79.Google Scholar
  16. ———. 2016a. Unequal Encounters in ELF Immigration Contexts: Failure and Success in Social, Political and Religious Negotiation. In ELF: Pedagogical and Interdisciplinary Perspectives, ed. N. Tsantila, J. Mandalios, and M. Ilkos, 156–177. Athens: American College of Greece Publications.Google Scholar
  17. ———. 2016b. ELF in Responsible Tourism: Power Relationships in Unequal Migration Encounters. In English as a Lingua Franca: Perspectives and Prospects. Contributions in honor of Barbara Seidlhofer, ed. M.L. Pitzl and R. Osimk-Teasdale, 49–56. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton.Google Scholar
  18. ———. 2016c. Is the Word of God in ELF?—New-Evangelization in Italian Immigration Contexts. In Intercultural Communication: New Perspectives from ELF, ed. L. Lopriore and E. Grazzi, 213–231. Rome: Roma Tre Press.Google Scholar
  19. Guido, M.G., L. Errico, P.L. Iaia, and C. Amatulli. 2016. ELF Narratives of Ancient and Modern ‘Odysseys’ Across the Mediterranean Sea: An Experiential-Linguistic Approach to the marketing of Responsible Tourism. Cultus: The Journal of Intercultural Mediation and Communication. Special Issue: Tourism across Cultures: Accessibility in Tourist Communication 1 (9): 90–116.Google Scholar
  20. Guido, M.G., P.L. Iaia, and L. Errico. 2017a. A Multimodal Ethnopoetic Analysis of Sea Voyages in Migrants’ ELF Reports and in Ancient Narratives Translated into ELF: Experiential-Linguistic Strategies in Responsible Tourism. In English in Italy: Linguistic, Educational and Professional Challenges, ed. C. Boggio and A. Molino, 203–222. Milan: FrancoAngeli.Google Scholar
  21. Guido, M.G., L. Errico, P.L. Iaia, and C. Amatulli. 2017b. Modern and Ancient Migrants’ Narratives through ELF: An Experiential-Linguistic Project in Responsible Tourism. In English as a Lingua Franca: Expanding Scenarios and Growing Dilemmas, ed. M. Morbiducci. Special issue of Lingue Linguaggi 24, 87–124.Google Scholar
  22. Gumperz, J.J. 1982. Discourse Strategies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Halliday, M.A.K. 1970. Language Structure and Language Function. In New Horizons in Linguistics, ed. J. Lyons, 140–165. Harmondsworth: Penguin.Google Scholar
  24. ———. 1994. An Introduction to Functional Grammar. London: Edward Arnold.Google Scholar
  25. Heine, B., and D. Nurse. 2000. African Languages: An Introduction. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  26. Hosany, S., and G. Prayag. 2011. Patterns of Tourists’ Emotional Responses, Satisfaction, and Intention to Recommend. Journal of Business Research 66 (6): 730–737.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. ———. 2003. Now I Know Only So Far: Essays in Ethnopoetics. Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press.Google Scholar
  28. Iaia, P.L. 2015. The Dubbing Translation of Humorous Audiovisual Texts. Newcastle upon Tyne: Cambridge Scholars Publishing.Google Scholar
  29. Kasper, G., and K.R. Rose. 2001. Pragmatics in Language Teaching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Kress, G., and T. van Leeuwen. 2006. Reading Images: The Grammar of Visual Design. London: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Kurzon, D. 1986. It is Hereby Performed…: Explorations in Legal Speech Acts. Amsterdam: Benjamins.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. ———. 1996. Moral Politics. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  33. ———. 1991. Foundations of Cognitive Grammar. Volume II: Descriptive Application. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  34. Lau, J. 1995. Pietroski on Possible Worlds Semantics for Believe Sentences. Analysis 55: 295–298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Laurence, S., and C. MacDonald, eds. 1998. Contemporary Readings in the Foundations of Metaphysics. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  36. Lewis, D.K. 1973. Counterfactuals. Harvard: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  37. Lindenlauf, A. 2003. The Sea as a Place of No Return in Ancient Greece. World Archaelogy 35 (3): 416–433.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. MacGabhann, S. 2008. The New Evangelization of Catholics: In a New Language. Victoria: Trafford Publishing.Google Scholar
  39. McNamara, T., and C. Roever. 2006. Language Testing: The Social Dimension. Malden, MA: Blackwell Publishing.Google Scholar
  40. Moerman, M. 1988. Talking Culture: Ethnography and Conversation Analysis. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Pope Benedict XVI. 2012. ‘Migration and the new Evangelization.’ Message of His Holiness Pope Benedict XVI for the World Day of Migrants and Refugees. 21 September 2011. Vatican City: Libreria Editrice Vaticana.Google Scholar
  42. Prayag, G., S. Hosany, and K. Odeh. 2013. ‘The Role of Tourists’ Emotional Experiences and Satisfaction in Understanding Behavioural Intentions. Journal of Destination Marketing & Management 2: 118–127.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Schiffer, S. 1996. Belief Ascription. Journal of Philosophy 92: 102–107.Google Scholar
  44. Schumann, J. 1978. The Acculturation Model for Second Language Acquisition. In Second Language Acquisition and Foreign Language Teaching, ed. R. Gingras, 27–50. Arlington, VA: Center for Applied Linguistics.Google Scholar
  45. ———. 2011. Understanding English as a Lingua Franca. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  46. Silverstein, M. 1998. Contemporary Transformations of Local Linguistic Communities. Annual Review of Anthropology 27: 401–426.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Sperti, S. 2014. Phonopragmatic Dimensions of ELF in Specialized Immigration Contexts. PhD diss. (supervisor: Prof. M.G. Guido), University of Salento, Lecce, Italy.Google Scholar
  48. ———. 2017. Phonopragmatic Dimensions of ELF in Specialized Immigration Contexts. Working Papers del Centro di Ricerca sulle Lingue Franche nella Comunicazione Interculturale e Multimediale. Lecce: ESE Publications University of Salento.Google Scholar
  49. ———. 1987. Semantics for Belief. Philosophical Topics 15: 177–199.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Stalnaker, R. 2001. On Considering a Possible World as Actual. Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society 65: 141–156.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Swales, J. 1990. Genre Analysis: English in Academic and Research Settings. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  52. Synod of Bishops. 2012. XIII Ordinary General Assembly. The New Evangelization for the Transmission of the Christian Faith. Instrumentum Laboris. Vatican City: Libreria Editrice Vaticana.Google Scholar
  53. ———. 1988. Force Dynamics in Language and Cognition. Cognitive Science 2: 49–100.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. ———. 1991. Types of Equivalence. In Triangle 10. The Role of Translation in Foreign Language Teaching, 153–165. Paris: Diffusion Didier Erudition.Google Scholar
  55. ———. 1994. The Ownership of English. TESOL Quarterly 28: 377–389.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Wuerl, D.W. 2013. New Evangelization: Passing the Catholic Faith Today. Huntington: Our Sunday Visitor.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Maria Grazia Guido
    • 1
  1. 1.University of SalentoLecceItaly

Personalised recommendations