Advertisement

Trauma-Narrative Analysis at the Level of Pragmalinguistic Schemata

  • Maria Grazia Guido
Chapter

Abstract

This chapter presents a series of case studies in the field of legal advice to trauma-affected migrants. The purpose is to enquire into the pragmalinguistic features of the asymmetric interactions through ELF from which non-Western migrants’ trauma narratives emerge as ‘deviations’ from the expected Western schematic knowledge of the discourse of law. Such schematic deviations are assumed to prompt the migrants’ activation of conversation moves that are perceived as ‘dispreferred’ from the perspective of the Western legal advisors, causing a ‘pragmalinguistic failure’ in intercultural communication. More specifically, the chapter explores, in the principled contexts of the case-study analysis, novel constructs which are here defined as ‘conflicting semantic, pragmatic, and specialized (legal) text schemata’, ‘diverging typological iconicity’ in the pragmalinguistic pattern of trauma events, and ‘formal, functional, and pragmatic markedness’ in misinterpreting schema-deviating reports of traumatic events in unequal situations of legal advice.

Keywords

Pragmalinguistic schemata Pragmalinguistic and sociopragmatic failure Semantic, pragmatic, and specialized-text schemata L1→ELF semantic, pragmatic, and specialized-discourse transfer Formal, functional, and pragmatic markedness 

References

  1. Bardovi-Harlig, K. 1987. Markedness and Salience in Second Language Acquisition. Language Learning 37: 385–407.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bomhard, A.R. 1984. Toward Proto-Nostratic: A New Approach to the Comparison of Proto-Indoeuropean and Proto-Afroasiatic. Amsterdam: Benjamins.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bybee, J.L. 1985. Morphology: A Study of the Relation Between Meaning and Form. Amsterdam: Benjamins.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bybee, J.L., and O. Dahl. 1989. The Creation of Tense and Aspect Systems in the Languages of the World. Studies in Language 13: 51–103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bybee, J.L., and W. Pagliuca. 1985. Cross-linguistic Comparison and the Development of Grammatical Meaning. In Historical Semantics and the Historical Word Formation, ed. J. Fisiak, 59–83. The Hague: Mouton.Google Scholar
  6. ———. 1983. Some Issues in the Role of Schemata, or Background Knowledge, in Second Language Comprehension. Reading in a Foreign Language 1: 81–92.Google Scholar
  7. Carrell, P.L., and J.C. Eisterhold. 1988. Schema Theory and ESL Reading Pedagogy. In Interactive Approaches to Second Language Reading, ed. P.L. Carrell, J. Devine, and D. Eskey, 73–92. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Coulthard, M., and D. Brazil. 1992. Exchange Structure. In Advances in Spoken Discourse Analysis, ed. R.M. Coulthard, 242–257. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  9. Coulthard, M., and M. Montgomery. 1981. Studies in Discourse Analysis. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.Google Scholar
  10. van Dijk, T.A. 1977. Text and Context: Explorations in the Semantics and Pragmatics of Discourse. London: Longman.Google Scholar
  11. Dixon, R.M.W. 1994. Ergativity. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Eckman, F. 1977. Markedness and the Contrastive Analysis Hypothesis. Language Learning 27: 315–330.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Edwards, D. 1997. Discourse and Cognition. London: Sage.Google Scholar
  14. Elugbe, B.O., and A.P. Omamor. 1991. Nigerian Pidgin: Background and Prospects. Ibadan: Heinemann.Google Scholar
  15. Ericsson, A.K., and H.A. Simon. 1984. Protocol Analysis: Verbal Reports as Data. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.Google Scholar
  16. European Communities. 2003. Joint Practical Guide of the European Parliament, the Council and the Commission for Persons Involved in the Drafting of Legislation within the Community Institutions. Luxembourg: Office for Official Publications of the European Communities.Google Scholar
  17. Faerch, C., and G. Kasper. 1987a. Perspectives on Language Transfer. Applied Linguistics 8: 111–136.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. ———, eds. 1987b. Introspection in Second Language Research. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.Google Scholar
  19. Faraclas, N.G. 1996. Nigerian Pidgin. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  20. Gass, S. 1979. Language Transfer and Universal Grammatical Relations. Language Learning 29: 327–344.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Gibbons, J., ed. 1994. Language and the Law. London: Longman.Google Scholar
  22. Givón, T. 1979. On Understanding Grammar. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  23. ———. 1985. Iconicity, Isomorphism, and Non-Arbitrary Coding. In Iconicity in Syntax, ed. J. Haiman, 187–219. Amsterdam: Benjamins.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. ———. 1989. Mind, Code and Context: Essays in Pragmatics. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  25. ———. 1990. Syntax: A Functional-Typological Introduction, Vol. 2. Amsterdam: Benjamins.Google Scholar
  26. ———. 2005. Investigating Specialized Discourse. Bern: Peter Lang.Google Scholar
  27. ———. 1973b. Some Universals of Grammar with Particular Reference to the Order of Meaningful Elements. In Universals of Language, ed. J.H. Greenberg, 73–113. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.Google Scholar
  28. Grice, H.P. 1975. Logic and Conversation. In Syntax and Semantics, Vol. 3: Speech Acts, ed. P. Cole and J.L. Morgan, 41–58. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  29. Guido, M.G. 1996. The Representation Model of Second Language Learning. Rome: Bulzoni.Google Scholar
  30. ———. 1999b. Register and Dialect in an Integrated Model of European English: A Language-Policy Project in ESL Intercultural Communication. Rome: Bulzoni.Google Scholar
  31. ———. 2004b. Mediating Cultures: A Cognitive Approach to English Discourse for the Social Sciences. Milan: LED.Google Scholar
  32. ———. 2007. The Discourse of Legal Advice in Cross-cultural Immigration Contexts. In Il Discorso Legale in Contesti Multiculturali: Studi Interlinguistici, ed. M.G. Guido and L. Zappulli, 17–46. Milan: Franco Angeli.Google Scholar
  33. ———. 2008. English as a Lingua Franca in Cross-cultural Immigration Domains. Bern: Peter Lang.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. ———. 2012. ELF Authentication and Accommodation Strategies in Cross Cultural Immigration Domains. Journal of English as a Lingua Franca 1 (2): 219–240. Berlin/Boston: de Gruyter Mouton.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Gumperz, J.J. 1982. Discourse Strategies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Gumperz, J.J., and D. Hymes. 1964. The Ethnography of Communication. Washington: American Anthropological Association.Google Scholar
  37. ———. 1978. Language as Social Semiotic: The Social Interpretation of Language and Meaning. London: Edward Arnold.Google Scholar
  38. ———. 1994. An Introduction to Functional Grammar. London: Edward Arnold.Google Scholar
  39. Halliday, M.A.K., and R. Hasan. 1980. Text and Context: Aspects of Language in a Social-semiotic Perspective. Sophia Linguistica 6: 4–91.Google Scholar
  40. Halliday, M.A.K., A. McIntosh, and Peter Strevens. 1964. The Linguistic Sciences and Language Teaching. London: Longman.Google Scholar
  41. Heine, B., and M. Reh. 1984. Grammaticalization and Reanalysis in African Languages. Hamburg: Helmut Buske.Google Scholar
  42. Heine, B., U. Claudi, and F. Hunnemeyer. 1991. Grammaticalization: A Conceptual Framework. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  43. Hopper, P.J., and E.C. Traugott. 1993. Grammaticalization. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  44. Jackendoff, R. 1983. Semantics and Cognition. Cambridge, MA: The MIT Press.Google Scholar
  45. Johnson, M. 1987. The Body in the Mind: The Bodily Basis of Meaning, Imagination, and Reason. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  46. Karttunen, L., and S. Peters. 1979. Conventional Implicature. In Syntax and Semantics II: Presupposition, ed. C.K. Oh and D.A. Dinnen, 1–56. New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  47. Kasper, G. 1992. Pragmatic Transfer. Second Language Research 8: 203–231.Google Scholar
  48. Keenan, E.L., and B. Comrie. 1977. Noun Phrase Accessibility and Universal Grammar. Linguistic Enquiry 8: 63–99.Google Scholar
  49. Kempson, R.M. 1975. Presupposition and the Delimitation of Semantics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  50. Kintsch, W. 1988. The Role of Knowledge in Discourse Comprehension. A Construction-Integration Model. Psychological Review 95: 163–182.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Lackstrom, J.E., L. Selinker, and L. Trimble. 1972. Technical Rhetorical Principles and Grammatical Choice. TESOL Quarterly 7: 127–132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Lakoff, G. 1987. Women, Fire, and Dangerous Things: What Categories Reveal About the Mind. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Langacker, R.W. 1977. Syntactic Reanalysis. In Mechanisms of Syntactic Change, ed. C.N. Li, 57–139. Austin: University of Texas Press.Google Scholar
  54. ———. 1991. Foundations of Cognitive Grammar. Volume II: Descriptive Application. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  55. Lehmann, C. 1985. Grammaticalization: Synchronic Variation and Diachronic Change. Lingua e Stile 20: 303–318.Google Scholar
  56. Mazurkewich, I. 1985. Syntactic Markedness and Language Acquisition. Studies in Second Language Acquisition. 7: 15–35.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Moerman, M. 1988. Talking Culture: Ethnography and Conversation Analysis. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Peirce, C.S. 1931. Collected Papers, Vol. 2. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  59. Provenzano, M. 2008a. Accessibility Issues in the Legal Discourse on Immigration and Political Asylum. PhD diss. (supervisor: Prof. M.G. Guido), University of Salento, Lecce, Italy.Google Scholar
  60. ———. 2008b. The EU Legal Discourse on Immigration: A Cross-cultural Cognitive Approach to Accessibility and Reformulation. Milan: Franco Angeli.Google Scholar
  61. Ringbom, H. 1992. On L2 Transfer in L2 Comprehension and L2 Production’. Language Learning 42: 85–112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Rutherford, W.E. 1982. Markedness in Second Language Acquisition. Language Learning 32: 85–108.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Sacks, H., E.A. Schegloff, and G. Jefferson. 1974. A Simplest Systematics for the Organisation of Turn-Taking in Conversation. Language 4: 696–735.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Sanford, A.J., and S.C. Garrod. 1981. Understanding Written Language. New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  65. Schank, R.C., and R.P. Abelson. 1977. Scripts, Plans, Goals, and Understanding. Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  66. Scotton, C.M. 1983. The Negotiation of Identities in Conversation: A Theory of Markedness and Code Choice. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 44: 116–136.Google Scholar
  67. Selinker, L. 1969. Language Transfer. General Linguistics 9: 67–92.Google Scholar
  68. ———. 1992. Rediscovering Interlanguage. London: Longman.Google Scholar
  69. Selinker, L., E. Tarone, and Victor Hanzeli, eds. 1981. English for Academic and Technical Purposes. Studies in Honor of Louis Trimble. Rowley, MA: Newbury House.Google Scholar
  70. Sinclair, J., and M. Coulthard. 1975. Towards an Analysis of Discourse. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  71. Stanovich, K.E. 1980. Toward an Interactive-Compensatory Model of Individual Difference in the Development of Reading Fluency. Reading Research Quarterly 16: 32–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Stubbs, M. 1983. Discourse Analysis. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  73. Swales, J. 1990. Genre Analysis: English in Academic and Research Settings. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  74. Tarone, E. 1980. Communication Strategies, Foreign Talk, and Repair in Interlanguage. Language Learning 30: 417–431.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Thomas, J.A. 1983. Cross-cultural Pragmatic Failure. Applied Linguistics 4: 91–112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Tsui, A.B. 1987. The Description of Utterances in Conversation. In Pragmatics at Issue: Selected Papers of the International Pragmatics Conference, ed. J. Verschueren, 229–248. Amsterdam: Benjamins.Google Scholar
  77. ———. 1989. Beyond the Adjacency Pair. Language in Society 18: 545–564.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. ———. 1983. Learning Purpose and Language Use. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  79. ———. 1988. Language Spread in Modes of Use. In Language Spread and Language Policy, ed. P.H. Lowenberg, 9–18. Georgetown: Georgetown University Press.Google Scholar
  80. ———. 1994. The Ownership of English. TESOL Quarterly 28: 377–389.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Wiseman, R.L., and J. Koester, eds. 1993. Intercultural Communication Competence. Newbury Park, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  82. Wyse, A. 1989. Krio of Sierra Leone. Madison: University of Wisconsin Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Maria Grazia Guido
    • 1
  1. 1.University of SalentoLecceItaly

Personalised recommendations