Advertisement

“The Friends of Our Friends Are Our Friends”: Determinants of Hosts’ Contact with International Migrants in Post-Apartheid South Africa

  • Steven Lawrence Gordon
Chapter
Part of the Global Diversities book series (GLODIV)

Abstract

Quality contact between host and international migrant communities can create opportunities for migrants to integrate into host communities. While contact should not be seen as synonymous with integration, for migrants, social networks with hosts can open up access to information as well as social and economic opportunities within host communities. This chapter seeks to better understand the determinants of social ties between hosts and international migrants using public opinion data. The aim is to quantitatively examine hosts’ contact with migrants, differentiating the quality of contact by looking separately at acquaintanceship (casual) and friendship (intimate). South Africa is used as a case study. I investigate whether political and social alienation, as well as fear of crime, are associated with hosts’ level of contact with foreigners.

References

  1. Afrobarometer Data, Round 5. 2010–2012. http://www.afrobarometer.org
  2. Allport, G.W. 1954. The Nature of Prejudice. Boston: Beacon Press.Google Scholar
  3. Binder, J., et al. 2009. Does Contact Reduce Prejudice or Does Prejudice Reduce Contact? A Longitudinal Test of the Contact Hypothesis Among Majority and Minority Groups in Three European Countries. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 96 (4): 843–856.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bratton, M. 2012. Citizen Perceptions of Local Government Responsiveness in Sub-Saharan Africa. World Development 40 (3): 516–527.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Briggs, X.D.S. 2007. “Some of My Best Friends Are”: Interracial Friendships, Class, and Segregation in America. City & Community 6 (4): 263–290.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Crush, J., S. Ramachandran, and W. Pendleton. 2013. Soft Targets: Xenophobia, Public Violence and Changing Attitudes to Migrants in South Africa After May 2008. Cape Town: Southern African Migration Project.Google Scholar
  7. Farrall, S.D., J. Jackson, and E. Gray. 2009. Social Order and the Fear of Crime in Contemporary Times. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Feld, S. 1981. The Focused Organization of Social Ties. American Journal of Sociology 86 (5): 1015–1035.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Fong, E., and W. Isajiw. 2000. Determinants of Friendship Choices in Multiethnic Society. Sociological Forum 15 (2): 249–271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Geyer, H.S., Jr., and H.S. Geyer Sr. 2015. Disaggregated Population Migration Trends in South Africa Between 1996 and 2011: A Differential Urbanisation Approach. Urban Forum 26 (1): 1–13.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Gordon, S.L. 2016. Xenophobia Across the Class Divide: South African Attitudes Towards Foreigners 2003–2012. Journal of Contemporary African Studies 33 (4): 494–509.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Herbst, J. 2014. States and Power in Africa: Comparative Lessons in Authority and Control. 2nd ed. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  13. Kuper, L. 1971. Political Change in Plural Societies: Problems in Racial Pluralism. International Social Science Journal 23 (4): 594–607.Google Scholar
  14. Landau, L.B. 2014. Conviviality, Rights, and Conflict in Africa’s Urban Estuaries. Politics & Society 42 (3): 359–380.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Landau, L.B., and M. Duponchel. 2011. Laws, Policies, or Social Position? Capabilities and the Determinants of Effective Protection in Four African Cities. Journal of Refugee Studies 24 (1): 1–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Landau, L.B., and I. Freemantle. 2010. Tactical Cosmopolitanism and Idioms of Belonging: Insertion and Self-Exclusion in Johannesburg. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 36 (3): 375–390.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Landau, L.B.L., A. Segatti, and J.P.J. Misago. 2011. Mobility and Municipalities: Local Authorities, Local Impacts, and the Challenges of Movement. In Contemporary Migration to South Africa: A Regional Development Issue, ed. A.W.K. Segatti and L.B. Landau, 81–105. Pretoria: World Bank Publications.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Liska, A.E., A. Sanchirico, and M.D. Reed. 1988. Fear of Crime and Constrained Behavior Specifying and Estimating a Reciprocal Effects Model. Social Forces 66 (3): 827–837.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Madhavan, S., and L.B. Landau. 2011. Bridges to Nowhere: Hosts, Migrants, and the Chimera of Social Capital in Three African Cities. Population and Development Review 37 (3): 473–497.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Martinović, B. 2013. The Inter-Ethnic Contacts of Immigrants and Natives in the Netherlands: A Two-Sided Perspective. Journal of Ethnic and Migration Studies 39 (1): 69–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. McPherson, M., L. Smith-Lovin, and J.M. Cook. 2001. Birds of a Feather: Homophily in Social Networks. Annual Review of Sociology 27 (1): 415–444.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Peberdy, S. 2009. Selecting Immigrants: National Identity and South Africa’s Immigration Policies, 1910–2008. Johannesburg: Witwatersrand University Press.Google Scholar
  23. Petermann, S. 2014. Neighbourhoods and Municipalities as Contextual Opportunities for Interethnic Contact. Urban Studies 51 (6): 1214–1235.Google Scholar
  24. Pettigrew, T.F. 1998. Intergroup Contact Theory. Annual Review of Psychology 49 (1): 65–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Putnam, R.D. 2000. Bowling Alone: The Collapse and Revival of American Community. New York: Simon & Schuster.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Realo, A., J. Allik, and B. Greenfield. 2008. Radius of Trust: Social Capital in Relation to Familism and Institutional Collectivism. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology 39 (4): 447–462.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Statistics South Africa (Stats SA). 2012. National Census 2011. Pretoria: Statistics South Africa.​Google Scholar
  28. Szreter, S. 2002. The State of Social Capital: Bringing Back in Power, Politics, and History. Theory and Society 31 (5): 573–621.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Wagner, U., O. Christ, and T.F. Pettigrew. 2008. Prejudice and Group-Related Behavior in Germany. Journal of Social Issues 64 (2): 403–416.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Woolcock, M. 2001. The Place of Social Capital in Understanding Social and Economic Outcomes. Canadian Journal of Policy Research 2 (1): 11–17.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2018

Authors and Affiliations

  • Steven Lawrence Gordon
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Democracy, Governance and Service DeliveryHuman Sciences Research CouncilDurbanSouth Africa

Personalised recommendations