Proliferation: The Middle East and the Pacific

  • Lawrence FreedmanEmail author
  • Jeffrey Michaels


American responses to nuclear proliferation varied considerably—tolerating a friendly country’s actual capability so long as it was not over-advertised (Israel), persuading a country with an undeveloped programme to abandon it in return for removing sanctions (Libya), negotiating with an antagonistic country with an advanced programme to curtail its ambitions, without quite resolving the issue (Iran), and coming to terms with an antagonistic opponent with an actual capability by exploring the possibility of improved political relations but with the nuclear question still left unresolved (North Korea).

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© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of War StudiesKing’s College LondonLondonUK
  2. 2.Department of Defence StudiesKing’s College LondonLondonUK

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