Britain’s ‘Independent’ Nuclear Deterrent

  • Lawrence FreedmanEmail author
  • Jeffrey Michaels


One of the most important challenges to McNamara’s determination to control the course of any future war, and in particular the moment when there was any possibility of nuclear use, was the fact that when he came to office the United Kingdom already had its own nuclear force and France was on its way to developing one. Although the possibility of multiple nuclear forces had been spoken of as a theoretical possibility for some time this was the point at which it started to come into view.

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of War StudiesKing’s College LondonLondonUK
  2. 2.Department of Defence StudiesKing’s College LondonLondonUK

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