Assured Destruction

  • Lawrence FreedmanEmail author
  • Jeffrey Michaels


During 1963 McNamara moved abruptly away from avoiding cities to threatening their certain destruction. Damage limitation was confusing the deterrence message and it made more sense to reinforce deterrence than prepare for deterrence failing. Instead of seeking alternatives to targeting cities now it seemed to be suggested that no other targets were worth considering.

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of War StudiesKing’s College LondonLondonUK
  2. 2.Department of Defence StudiesKing’s College LondonLondonUK

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