Advertisement

Reconfiguring Species for Immunitary Hybridity

  • Nik Brown
Chapter

Abstract

Like blood, transplantation is a singularly defining expression of the contemporary biopolitics of immunity. This chapter focuses on the contentious clinical and research domain of transpecies transplantation, or xenotransplantation. Where the previous chapter was primarily concerned with the biopolitics of immunitary circuits between humans, this discussion turns towards our changing biotechnological relationship to other species, other immunitary animals. Whilst the approach may well offer a therapeutically life-saving solution for transplant patients, it potentially provides a means of transferring contagious diseases across species barriers. The chapter explores, with reference to Derrida and Sloterdijk, the tendency of immunitary purification and protection to recoil back upon their original designs. The chapter asks what might it mean to place trust in, or have confidence in, biosecurity measures that make the realisation of a threat (pandemics, xenozoonotic disease outbreaks, etc) more possible, not less so.

Bibliography

  1. Agamben, G. (1998). Homo Sacer: Sovereign power and bare life. Stanford: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  2. Bailey, L. L., Nehlsen-Cannarella, S. L., Concepcion, W., & Jolley, W. B. (1985). Baboon-to-human cardiac xenotransplantation in a neonate. Journal of the American Medical Association, 254(23), 3321–3329.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Barnard, C. N., Wolpowitz, A., & Losman, J. G. (1977). Heterotopic cardiac transplantation with a xenograft for assistance of the left heart in cardiogenic shock after cardiopulmonary bypass. South African Medical Journal, 52, 1035–1039.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Bewell, A. (2003). Romanticism and colonial disease. Baltimore: John Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
  5. Beynon-Jones, S. M., & Brown, N. (2011). Time, timing and narrative at the interface between UK technoscience and policy. Science and Public Policy, 38(8), 639–648.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Brown, N. (1999a). Xenotransplantation: Normalizing disgust. Science as Culture, 8(3), 327–355.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Brown, N. (1999b). Debates in xenotransplantation: On the consequences of contradiction. New Genetics and Society, 18(2–3), 181–196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Brown, N. (2000). Organising/disorganising the breakthrough motif: Dolly the cloned ewe meets Astrid the hybrid pig. In N. Brown, B. Rappert, & A. Webster (Eds.), Contested futures: A sociology of prospective techno-science (pp. 87–108). Aldershot: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  9. Brown, N. (2009). Beasting the embryo: The metrics of humanness in the transpecies embryo debate. Biosocieties, 4(2–3), 147–163.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Brown, N. (2011). Beasting biology: The politics of hybridity at the margins of the human. In S. Tamminen, N. Vermeulen, & A. Webster (Eds.), Bio-objects: Life in the 21st Century (pp. 71–84). Ashgate.Google Scholar
  11. Brown, N., & Beynon-Jones, S. M. (2012). ‘Reflex regulation’: An anatomy of promissory science governance. Health, Risk & Society, 14(3), 223–240.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Brown, N., & Michael, M. (2001). Switching between science and culture in transpecies transplantation. Science, Technology, & Human Values, 26(1), 3–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Brown, N., Faulkner, A., Kent, J., & Michael, M. (2006). Regulating hybrids: ‘Making a mess’ and ‘cleaning up’ in tissue engineering and transpecies transplantation. Social Theory & Health, 4(1), 1–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Brown, N., Beynon-Jones, S., Allansdottir, A., Brierley, M., Einsiedel, E. F., Griessler, E., Hansson, K., Jones, M., Lehner, D., Lundin, S., Pichelstorfer, A., & Szyma, A. (2010). Overview on XTP policies and related TA/PTA procedures. EU funded deliverable. www.cit-part.at/Deliverable3_final.pdf. Accessed Jan 2018.
  15. Butler, D. (1999). FDA warns on primate xenotransplants. Nature, 398, 549.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Collignon, P. J. (1998). Xenotransplantation: Do the risks outweigh the benefits? The Medical Journal of Australia, 168(10), 516–519.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. Cook, P. S. (2013). The social aspects of xenotransplantation. Sociology Compass, 7(3), 237–254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Cook, P. S., Kendall, G., Michael, M., & Brown, N. (2011). The textures of globalization: Biopolitics and the closure of xenotourism. New Genetics and Society, 30(1), 101–114.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Cooper, D. K. (2001). Christiaan Barnard and his contributions to heart transplantation. The Journal of Heart and Lung Transplantation, 20(6), 599–610.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Cooper, D. K., & Lanza, R. P. (2000). Xeno: The promise of transplanting animal organs into humans. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  21. Davies, G. (2012). What is a humanized mouse? Remaking the species and spaces of translational medicine. Body & Society, 18(3–4), 126–155.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Dillon, M., & Lobo-Guerrero, L. (2009). The biopolitical imaginary of species-being. Theory, Culture & Society, 26(1), 1–23.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Douglas, M. (1966). Purity and danger: An analysis of concepts of pollution and taboo. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.Google Scholar
  24. Esposito, R. (2008a). The philosophy of Bios. Bios: Biopolitics and philosophy (T. Campbell, Trans.). Minneapolis/London: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  25. Esposito, R. (2008b). Immunization and Violence (T. Campbell, Trans., from public lecture).Google Scholar
  26. Esposito, R. (2011). Immunitas: The protection and negation of life. Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  27. Esposito, R. (2012). Terms of the political: Community, immunity, biopolitics: Community, immunity, biopolitics. New York: Fordham University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Federal Drug Administration. (2001). PHS guideline on infectious disease issues in Xenotransplantation. No. 0910-0456Google Scholar
  29. Fox, R. C., & Swazey, J. P. (1992). Spare parts: Organ replacement in human society. London: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  30. Franklin, S. (1997). Dolly: A new form of transgenic breedwealth. Environmental Values, 6(4), 427–437.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Franklin, S. (2001). Culturing biology: Cell lines for the second millennium. Health, 5(3), 335–354.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Gieryn, T. F. (1983). Boundary work and the demarcation of science from non-science: Strains and interests in professional ideologies of scientists. American Sociological Review, 48, 781–795.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Gould, S. J. (1988). The heart of terminology. Natural History, 2(8), 24–31.Google Scholar
  34. Gunnarson, M., & Lundin, S. (2015). The complexities of victimhood: Insights from the organ trade. Somatechnics, 5(1), 32–51.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Haraway, D. J. (1989). Primate visions: Gender, race, and nature in the world of modern science. Hove: Psychology Press.Google Scholar
  36. Holmberg, T. (2005). Questioning ‘the number of the beast’: Constructions of humanness in a Human Genome Project (HGP) narrative. Science as Culture, 14(1), 23–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Hopkins, J. (1999). Study gives reassurance on safety of xenotransplantation. British Medical Journal, 319, 533.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Imma, Z. É. (2011). ‘Just ask the scientists’: Troubling the ‘hottentot’ and scientific racism. Bessie Head’s Maru and Ama Ata Aidoo’s our Sister Killjoy. In N. Gordon-Chipembere (Ed.), Representation and black womanhood: The legacy of Sarah Baartman (pp. 137–145). London: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Jonasson, O., & Hardy, M. A. (1985). The case of baby Fae. Journal of the American Medical Association, 254(23), 3358–3359.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Kierans, C. (2015). Biopolitics and capital: Poverty, mobility and the body-in-transplantation in Mexico. Body & Society, 21(3), 42–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Koretzky, M. O. (2017). ‘A change of heart’: Racial politics, scientific metaphor and coverage of 1968 interracial heart transplants in the African American Press. Social History of Medicine, 30(2), 408–428.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  42. Latour, B. (1993). We have never been modern. London: Harvester Wheatsheaf.Google Scholar
  43. Latour, B. (2004). Why has critique run out of steam? From matters of fact to matters of concern. Critical Inquiry, 30(2), 225–248.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Malan, M. (1968). Heart transplant: The story of Barnard and the ultimate in cardiac surgery. Johannesburg: Voortrekkerpers.Google Scholar
  45. Marks, J. (2003). What it means to be 98% chimpanzee: Apes, people, and their genes. Oakland: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  46. Martin, E. (1994). Flexible bodies: Tracking immunity in American culture from the days of polio to the age of AIDS. Chicago: Beacon Press.Google Scholar
  47. Michael, M. (2001). Technoscientific bespoking: Animals, publics and the new genetics. New Genetics and Society, 20(3), 205–224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Michael, M., & Brown, N. (2004). The meat of the matter: Grasping and judging xenotransplantation. Public Understanding of Science, 13(4), 379–397.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Michael, M., & Brown, N. (2005). Scientific citizenships: Self-representations of xenotransplantation’s publics. Science as Culture, 14(1), 39–57.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Nancy, J.-L. (1997). The sense of the world. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  51. Nancy, J.-L. (2008). The intruder. In J.-L. Nancy (Ed.), Corpus (pp. 161–170). New York: Fordham University Press.Google Scholar
  52. Niewijk, A. (1999). Tough priorities: Organ triage and the legacy of apartheid. Hastings Center Report, 29(6), 42–50.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Nuffield Council on Bioethics. (1996). The bioethics of xenotransplantation. London: Nuffield Council on Bioethics (UK).Google Scholar
  54. Opondo, S. O. (2015). Biocolonial and racial entanglements: Immunity, community, and superfluity in the name of humanity. Alternatives, 40(2), 115–132.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Paradis, K., Langford, G., Long, Z., Heneine, W., Sandstrom, P., Switzer, W., & Otto, E. (1999). Search for cross-species transmission of porcine endogenous retrovirus in patients treated with living pig tissue. Science, 285(5431), 1236–1241.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Patience, C., Takeuchi, Y., & Weiss, R. A. (1997). Infection of human cells by an endogenous retrovirus of pigs. Nature Medicine, 3(3), 282–286.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Persson, A., & Welin, S. (2008). Contested technologies: Xenotransplantation and human embryonic stem cells. Lund: Nordic Academic Press.Google Scholar
  58. Rottenberg, E. (2006). The legacy of autoimmunity. Mosaic: A Journal for the Interdisciplinary Study of Literature, 39(3), 1–14.Google Scholar
  59. Scheper-Hughes, N. (1998). The new cannibalism. New Internationalist, 300, 14–17.Google Scholar
  60. Scheper-Hughes, N. (2002). The ends of the body – Commodity fetishism and the global traffic in organs. Sais Review, 22(1), 61–80.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Scheper-Hughes, N. (2007). The tyranny of the gift: Sacrificial violence in living donor transplants. American Journal of Transplantation, 7(3), 507–511.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Schubert, G. A., & Masters, R. D. (Eds.). (1991). Primate politics. Carbondale: Southern Illinois University Press.Google Scholar
  63. Sharp, L. A. (2011). Imagining transpecies kinship in xenotransplantation. Sites: A Journal of Social Anthropology and Cultural Studies, 8(1), 12–39.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Shildrick, M. (2015). V5W chimerism and immunitas. In S. E. Wilmer & A. Žukauskaitė (Eds.), Resisting biopolitics: Philosophical, political, and performative strategies. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  65. Sontag, S. (2001). Illness as a metaphor and AIDS and its metaphors. New York: Picador.Google Scholar
  66. Starzl, T. E., Fung, J., Tzakis, A., Todo, S., Demetris, A. J., Marino, I. R., & Rudert, W. A. (1993). Baboon-to-human liver transplantation. The Lancet, 341(8837), 65–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. Stoller, K. P. (1990). Baby fae: The unlearned lesson. Perspectives on Medical Research, 2, 58–59.Google Scholar
  68. Strum, S. S., & Latour, B. (1987). Redefining the social link: From baboons to humans. Information. International Social Science Council, 26(4), 783–802.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Sykes, M., d’Apice, A., Sandrin, M., & XA Ethics Committee. (2004). Position paper of the ethics committee of the International Xenotransplantation Association. Transplantation, 78(8), 1101–1107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. Tauber, A. I. (1998). Conceptual shifts in immunology: Comments on the ‘two-way paradigm’. Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics, 19(5), 457–473.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Tierney, T. F. (2016). Roberto Esposito’s ‘Affirmative biopolitics’ and the gift. Theory, Culture & Society, 33(2), 53–76.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. van der Schyff, K. (2011). Staging the body of the (M) other: The ‘Hottentot Venus’ and the ‘Wild Dancing Bushman’. In N. Gordon-Chipembere (Ed.), Representation and Black womanhood: The legacy of Sarah Baartman (pp. 147–163). London: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Weiss, R. A. (1999). Xenografts and retroviruses. Science, 285(5431), 1221–1222.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. Weiss, R. A., Magre, S., & Takeuchi, Y. (2000). Infection hazards of xenotransplantation. Journal of Infection, 40(1), 21–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Wilson, C. A., Wong, S., Muller, J., Davidson, C. E., Rose, T. M., & Burd, P. (1998). Type C retrovirus released from porcine primary peripheral blood mononuclear cells infects human cells. Journal of Virology, 72(4), 3082–3087.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nik Brown
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of SociologyUniversity of YorkYorkUK

Personalised recommendations