• Abbas MirakhorEmail author
  • Hossein Askari
Part of the Political Economy of Islam book series (PEoI)


While some attribute the first theory of justice to Zarathustra and the Golden Rule, others cite the Code of Hammurabi, containing a long list of grievous acts and appropriate punishment with punishment among equals different than between those unequal. From the Babylonian system of justice to the time of the Greek philosophers, the preoccupation of justice was with revenge and balanced versus unbalanced reciprocity as conveyed in the Homeric epic The Iliad. For Plato, and in ancient times, the objective of justice was to protect the weak and the vulnerable, not to bring about social equality. Unlike philosophers, prophets were given the divine law containing the scriptures with the rules and the criteria to achieve balance.

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.La JuntaUSA
  2. 2.LeesburgUSA

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