Advertisement

Harmonised Voices: Advocacy Practice in the Context of Virtue and Spirituality

  • Geoff Morgan
Chapter

Abstract

In this chapter the author synthesises voices from practice (identified in the previous Chaps. 4 and 5) with those from literature, theology and philosophy, which were heard in other chapters. In particular, attention is given to underpinning key question 3 (Q3), philosophical and theological models (e.g. virtue ethics) which can elucidate understanding and responses to Qs1–2. He shows what advocates think about professionalisation and how advocacy practice is explained by those using its skills, including spiritual carers. Here Practical Theology comes into its own since it encompasses mental health nursing, the movements of citizen advocacy and self-advocacy, and literature covering mental health and spirituality. Then the author relates this to the more recent statutory expression of advocacy in the English and Welsh IMCA and IMHA services.

Keywords

Social Care Virtue Ethic Spiritual Care Spiritual Assessment Spirituality Advocate 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Action-for-Advocacy. (2011). The involvement of independent mental capacity advocates (IMCAs) in serious medical treatment decisions best practice guidance for healthcare professionals and IMCAs [Electronic Version], 1–74. Retrieved March 25, 2011, from http://static.actionforadvocacy.org.uk/opendocs/A4A_SMT_best_practice_guidance%282%29.pdf
  2. Anandarajah, G., & Hight, E. (2001). Spirituality and medical practice: Using the HOPE questions as a practical tool for spiritual assessment. American family physician, 63(1), 81–89.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Anonymous. (2011). Health and well-being boards are given new scrutiny role [Electronic Version]. Health Service Journal. Retrieved December, 17, 2011, from http://www.hsj.co.uk/news/policy/health-and-wellbeing-boards-are-given-new-scrutiny-role/5023350.article
  4. Anscombe, G. E. M. (1981). The collected philosophical papers of G.E.M. Anscombe. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  5. Aristotle, Thomson, J. A. K., & Tredennick, H. (1976). The ethics of Aristotle: The nicomachean ethics. Harmondsworth/New York: Penguin.Google Scholar
  6. Athanassoulis, N. (2006). Virtue [Electronic Version]. The internet encyclopedia of philosophy. Retrieved February 9, 2008, from http://www.iep.utm.edu/virtue/
  7. Barrett, C. K. (1971). A commentary on the first epistle to the corinthians. London: A. & C. Black.Google Scholar
  8. Batty, D. (2008, March 10). A scandal waiting to happen. guardian.co.uk Google Scholar
  9. BBC-News. (2009, April 8). Church should fund NHS chaplains Retrieved April 23, 2009, from http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/health/7988476.stm
  10. Bhaskar, R. (2002b). The philosophy of meta-reality, part II: Agency, perfectability, novelty. interview by Mervyn Hartwig. Jounal of Critical Realism (Alethia), 1(1), 21–34.Google Scholar
  11. Boyle, L. E. (1982). The setting of the Summa theologiae of Saint Thomas. Toronto, Ont., Canada: Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies.Google Scholar
  12. Bradshaw, A. (1994). Lighting the lamp: The spiritual dimension of nursing care. Harrow: Scutari Press.Google Scholar
  13. Bradshaw, A. (2009). Measuring nursing care and compassion: The McDonaldised nurse? Journal of medical ethics., 35, 465–468.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  14. Brandon, D. (2007). A friend to alleged lunatics. Mental Health Today, 37(9), 37–39.Google Scholar
  15. Bretherton, L. (2006). Hospitality as holiness: Christian witness amid moral diversity. Aldershot: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  16. Brown, R. E. (1971). Anchor ible. Vol.29, The Gospel according to John, I-XII. London: G. Chapman.Google Scholar
  17. Bruce, F. F. (1964). The Epistle to the ebrews: The nglish text with introduction, exposition, and notes. Grand Rapids: Wm. B. Eerdmans Pub. Co..Google Scholar
  18. Chappell, T. (2013). Virtue ethics in the twentieth century. In D. Russell (Ed.), The Cambridge companion to virtue ethics (pp. 149–171). Cambridge/New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Cobb, M. (2004). The location and identity of chaplains: A contextual model. Scottish Journal of Healthcare Chaplaincy, 7(2), 10–14.Google Scholar
  20. Darwall, S. L. (2002). Virtue ethics. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  21. DoH. (2008b). Mental capacity act 2005 deprivation of liberty safeguards in England. London: Department of Health.Google Scholar
  22. Duncan, P. (2002). Local authorities and the ‘Power of Well-Being’. Centre for public policy research, King’s College London.Google Scholar
  23. Dunn, M. C., Clare, I. C. H., Holland, A. J., & Gunn, M. J. (2007). Constructing and reconstructing ‘Best Interests’: An interpretative examination of substitute decision-making under the mental capacity act 2005. Journal of Social Welfare and Family Law, 29(2), 117–133.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Eagger, S. (2005a). A short guide to the assessment of spiritual concerns in mental healthcare [Electronic Version]. Retrieved March 27, 2011, from http://www.rcpsych.ac.uk/PDF/DrSEaggeGuide.pdf
  25. Eagger, S. (2005b). Spirituality and the practice of healthcare: Robinson, S., Kendrick, K., Brown A. Basingstoke: Palgrave. Psychiatr Bull, 29(3), 118-a.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Eraut, M. (1994). Developing professional knowledge and competence. London/Washington, D.C.: Falmer Press.Google Scholar
  27. Eraut, M. (2004). Informal learning in the workplace. Studies in Continuing Education, 26(2), 247–273.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Fielding, M. (1996). Empowerment: Emancipation or enervation? Journal of Education Policy, 11(3), 399–417.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Foskett, J., Marriott, J., & Wilson-Rudd, F. (2004a). Mental health, religion and spirituality: Attitudes, experience and expertise among mental health professionals and religious leaders in somerset. Mental Health, Religion & Culture, 7(1), 5–22.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Gammack, G. (2011a). Advocacy and exodus- from moses to the mental health act. London: Spiderwize.Google Scholar
  31. Gammell, C. (2009, February 7). Nurse Caroline Petrie: I will continue praying for patients. The Daily Telegraph. Retrieved April 23, 2009, from http://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/newstopics/religion/4537452/Nurse-Caroline-Petrie-I-will-continue-praying-for-patients.html
  32. Gaventa, W. C., & Coulter, D. L. (2001). The theological voice of wolf wolfensberger. New York: Haworth Pastoral Press.Google Scholar
  33. Geach, P. (1977). The virtues: The stanton lectures 1973–4. Cambridge: University Press.Google Scholar
  34. Gilbert, P. (Ed.). (2011). Spirituality and mental health: A handbook for service users, carers and staff wishing to bring a spiritual dimension to mental health services. Brighton: Pavilion.Google Scholar
  35. Gilbert, P., & Nicholls, V. (2003). Inspiring hope: Recognising the importance of spirituality in a whole person approach to mental health. Leeds: NIMHE.Google Scholar
  36. Gill, R. (2001). The Cambridge companion to Christian ethics. Cambridge, U.K./New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  37. Graham, E. (2010). The ‘virtuous circle’. Religion and the practices of happiness. In I. Steedman (Ed.), The practices of happiness (pp. 224–234). London: Taylor and Francis.Google Scholar
  38. Griffin, A. P. (1983). A philosophical analysis of caring in nursing. Journal of advanced nursing, 8(4), 289–295.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Harlow, R. (2010). Developing a spirituality strategy – Why, how, and so what? Mental Health, Religion and Culture, 13(6), 615–624.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Harrison, G. (2011). The spiritual and pastoral care of service users, Standard Operating Procedure (SOP). West London Mental Health NHS Trust.Google Scholar
  41. Hauerwas, S. (1993). Naming the silences: God, medicine, and the problem of suffering. Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark.Google Scholar
  42. Hauerwas, S., & Berkman, J. (2005). The Hauerwas reader. Durham [u.a.]: Duke Univ. Press.Google Scholar
  43. Johnson, S., & Harlow, R. (2011). The role of the Spiritual Advocate: Emerging ideas, A paper prepared by Stuart Johnson, with additional material by Richard Harlow: Sussex Partnership NHS Trust.Google Scholar
  44. Jordan, M. D. (1986). Ordering wisdom: The hierarchy of philosophical discourses in Aquinas. Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press.Google Scholar
  45. Kerr, F. (2002). After aquinas: Versions of thomism. Malden: Blackwell Publishers.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Kevin, W. (2008, January 14). Interviewer: G.Morgan, Advocacy interviews, Ivs-KW. London.Google Scholar
  47. Knight, K. (Ed.). (1998). The macintyre reader. Oxford: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  48. Koehn, D. (1994). The ground of professional ethics. London/New York: Routlege.Google Scholar
  49. Koenig, H., & Larson, D. (2001). Religion and mental health: Evidence for an association. International Review of Psychiatry, 13(2), 67–78.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Layard, R. (2007). The teaching of values. Paper presented at the The 2007 Ashby Lecture.Google Scholar
  51. Layard, R. (2009, September 14). This is the greatest good. We have only one true yardstick with which to measure society’s progress: Happiness. The Guardian, 32.Google Scholar
  52. Lewis, P. W. (1998). A pneumatolgical approach to virtue ethics. Asian Journal of Pentecostal Studies, 1(1).Google Scholar
  53. MacIntyre, A. C. (1985). After virtue: A study in moral theory. London: Duckworth.Google Scholar
  54. MacIntyre, A. C. (1988). Whose justice? Which rationality? Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press.Google Scholar
  55. MacIntyre, A. C. (1990). Three rival versions of moral enquiry: Encyclopaedia, genealogy, and tradition: Being Gifford lectures delivered in the University of Edinburgh in 1988. Notre Dame: University of Notre Dame Press.Google Scholar
  56. MacIntyre, A. C. (1999). Dependent rational animals: Why human beings need the virtues. London: Duckworth.Google Scholar
  57. McSherry, W., & Jamieson, S. (2011). An online survey of nurses’ perceptions of spirituality and spiritual care. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 20(11–12), 1757–1767.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  58. McSherry, W., & Ross, L. (Eds.). (2010). Spiritual assessment in healthcare practice. Keswick: M & K.Google Scholar
  59. McSherry, W., Gretton, M., Draper, P., & Watson, R. (2008). The ethical basis of teaching spirituality and spiritual care: A survey of student nurses perceptions. Nurse Educ. Today Nurse Education Today, 28(8), 1003–1009.Google Scholar
  60. Metropolitan-Anthony-Bloom. (2012). On the cross of our lord. Retrieved October 9, 2012, from, http://www.stmaryorthodoxchurch.org/orthodoxy/quotes.php
  61. Morgan, G. (2010). Meeting notes. Retrieved June 5, 2012, from http://mhspirituality.org.uk/meetingnotes.html
  62. Morgan, G. (2011a). Independent advocacy, neuro-disability and spirituality? A history of advocacy with a case study from the independent mental capacity advocate (IMCA) service. Social Care and Neurodisability, 2(4), 208–217.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Morgan, G. (2011b). Spiritual advocacy in England? The overlapping roles of chaplains and advocates. In K. Chappell & F. Davis (Eds.), Catholic social conscience: Reflection and action on catholic social teaching (pp. 199–219). Leominster: Gracewing.Google Scholar
  64. Morgan, G. (2014). Spirit of Advocacy. Theory and practice in independent advocacy:an historical and qualitative analysis using Practical Theology. Unpublished PhD, King’s College London, London.Google Scholar
  65. Naughtie, J. (Writer) (2008). Interview with Lenny Harper, former Deputy Chief Officer, Jersey Police on enquiry at Haut de la Garenne children’s home, Jersey [Radio], Today Programme. UK: BBC.Google Scholar
  66. Norah, A., & Bella, B. (2009, December 14). Interviewer: G.Morgan, Advocacy interviews Ivs-NA & BB. London.Google Scholar
  67. Norman, A., & Colin, B. (2008, September 11). Interviewer: G.Morgan, Advocacy interviews, Ivs-NA/CB. London.Google Scholar
  68. Northcott, M. S. (2003). Do dolphins carry the cross biological moral realism and theological ethics. New Blackfriars, 84(994), 540–553.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Nussbaum, M. C. (1986). The fragility of goodness: Luck and ethics in Greek tragedy and philosophy. Cambridge/New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  70. Office-for-National-Statistics. (2012). Measuring National Wellbeing. Retrieved October 6, 2012, from http://www.ons.gov.uk/ons/guide-method/user-guidance/well-being/index.html
  71. Olive, P. (2007, November 7). Interviewer: G.Morgan, Advocacy interviews, Ivs-OP. London.Google Scholar
  72. Pattison, S. (Ed.). (1994). Pastoral care and liberation theology. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  73. Pattison, S. (2000). A critique of pastoral care. London: SCM Press.Google Scholar
  74. Porter, J. (2001). Virtue ethics. In R. Gill (Ed.), The Cambridge companion to christian ethics (pp. 87–102). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  75. Pritchard, J. (2009). Good practice in the law and safeguarding adults: Criminal justice and adult protection. London/Philadelphia: Jessica Kingsley Publishers.Google Scholar
  76. Raffay, J. (2011). Assessing spiritual strengths and needs [Electronic Version]. The Journal of Healthcare Chaplaincy, 11, 50–64 from http://www.healthcarechaplains.org/information/documents/journal_spring_2011.pdf.
  77. Rawls, J. (1971). A theory of justice. Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  78. Rawls, J. (1999). The law of peoples; With, the idea of public reason revisited. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  79. Russell, D. C. (2013). The Cambridge companion to virtue ethics. Cambridge/New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  80. Sam, U. (2008, February 13). Interviewer: G.Morgan, Advocacy interviews, Ivs-SU. London.Google Scholar
  81. Scottish-Independent-Advocacy-Alliance. (2010). Independent advocacy: A guide for commissioners. Edinburgh: Scottish Independent Advocacy Alliance.Google Scholar
  82. Singh, I., Roberts, N., Irving, R., & Singh, N. (2013). Compassion, care, dignity and respect: The NHS needs a culture change. British Journal of Hospital Medicine, 74(3), 124–125.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  83. Slote, M. (1997). Virtue ethics. In M. Baron, P. Pettit, & M. Slote (Eds.), Three methods of ethics: A debate (pp. 175–194). Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  84. Sokol, D. (2009). The value of hospital chaplains. Retrieved April 23, 2009, from http://news.bbc.co.uk/1/hi/health/7990099.stm
  85. Stephenson, J. (2012). Wellbeing measure ‘will boost health investment’ [Electronic Version]. Health Service Journal, from http://www.hsj.co.uk/news/wellbeing-measure-will-boost-health-investment/5047492.article
  86. Swift, C., Chaplaincy-Leaders-Forum, & National Equality and Health Inequalities Team, N.-E. (2015). NHS Chaplaincy guidelines 2015, promoting excellence in pastoral, spiritual and religious care. London: NHS England.Google Scholar
  87. Traustadóttir, R. (2006). Learning about self-advocacy from life history: A case study from the United States. British Journal of Learning Disabilities, 34(3), 175–180.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Vanier, J. (2008). Jean Vanier: Essential writings. New York: Orbis Books.Google Scholar
  89. Wilkinson, R. G., & Pickett, K. (2010). The spirit level: Why equality is better for everyone. London/New York: Penguin Books.Google Scholar
  90. Williams, B. (1985). Ethics and the limits of philosophy. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  91. Winston, B. E., & Tucker, P. A. (2011). The beatitudes as leadership virtues. The Journal of Virtues and Leadership, 2(1), 15–29.Google Scholar
  92. Wolfensberger, W. (2001a). The good life for mentally retarded persons. Journal of Religion, Disability & Health, 4(2-3), 103–109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  93. Wolfensberger, W. (2001b). The normative lack of Christian communality in local congregations as the central obstacle to a proper relationship with needy members. Journal of Religion, Disability & Health, 4(2-3), 111–126.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. Wright, N. T. (1992). The new testament and the people of God. Minneapolis: Fortress Press.Google Scholar
  95. Yin, R. K. (2006). Case study research: Design and methods. Thousand Oaks: Sage.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Geoff Morgan
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.North Middlesex University Hospital NHS TrustLondonUK
  2. 2.Oxford University Hospitals NHS Foundation TrustOxfordUK

Personalised recommendations