Diagnostic Considerations

  • Debra H. Benveniste


Diagnoses can be a useful organizing concept with which to begin treatment. However, the USA is currently experiencing a transition from sole use of the DSM-5 to the tenth editions of the ICD as a diagnostic reference. These manuals differ substantively in their respective treatments of antisocial personality disorder (ASPD) and the continuum of substance abuse disorders. There appears to be much similarity and lack of clarity between the criteria lists of these two diagnoses. Additionally, neither diagnostic manual addresses dynamic differences between ASPD and psychopathy. Treatability of these disorders is addressed. Diagnostic impressions of the respondent group are presented including additional factors of post traumatic stress disorder, major mental illness, physiological illnesses, and sociocultural factors affecting diagnosis.


American Psychiatric Association Personality Disorder Post Traumatic Stress Disorder Criminal Behavior Post Traumatic Stress Disorder 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Altman, N. (2005). Psychoanalysis and the urban poor. In L. Aron & A. Harris (Eds.), Relational psychoanalysis: Volume 2 innovation and expansion. Hillsdale, NJ: Analytic Press.Google Scholar
  2. American Psychiatric Association. (2013). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (5th ed.). Washington, DC/London: Author.Google Scholar
  3. Benveniste, D. (2012). Relational quandaries in the treatment of forensic clients. Clinical Social Work Journal, 40, 326–336.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Briere, J., Scott, C., & Weathers, F. (2005). Peritraumatic and persistent dissociation in the presumed etiology of PTSD. American Journal of Psychiatry, 162, 2295–2301.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Bromberg, P. M. (1998). Standing in the spaces: Essays on clinical process, trauma, & dissociation. Hillsdale, NJ/London: Analytic Press.Google Scholar
  6. Brown, P. J., Stout, R. L., & Gannon-Rowley, J. (1998). Substance use disorder-PTSD comorbidity: Patients’ perception of symptom interplay and treatment issues. Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 15, 445–448.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Dumaine, M. L. (2003). Meta-analysis of interventions with co-occurring disorders of severe mental illness and substance: Implications for social work practice. Research on Social Work Practice, 13, 142–165.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Fletcher, K., Nutton, J., & Brend, D. (2015). Attachment, a matter of substance: The potential of attachment theory in the treatment of addictions. Clinical Social Work Journal, 43, 109–117.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Flores, P. J. (2004). Addiction as an attachment disorder. Lanham, MD: Jason Aronson.Google Scholar
  10. Foa, E. B., Keane, T. M., & Friedman, M. J. (Eds.). (2009). Effective treatments for PTSD: Practice guidelines from the International Society for Traumatic Stress Studies (2nd ed.). New York: The Guilford Press.Google Scholar
  11. Hare, R. (1996). Psychopathy and antisocial personality disorder: A case of diagnostic confusion. Psychiatric Times, 13, 1–8.Google Scholar
  12. Hubbard, R. L., Craddock, S. G., & Anderson, J. (2003). Overview of 5-year followup outcomes in the drug abuse treatment outcome studies (DATOS). Journal of Substance Abuse Treatment, 25, 125–134.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Meloy, J. R. (1988). The psychopathic mind: Origins, dynamics, and treatment. Northvale, NJ: Jason Aronson.Google Scholar
  14. Padgett, D. K., & Henwood, B. F. (2012). Qualitative research for and in practice: Findings from studies with homeless adults who have serious mental illness and co-occurring substance abuse. Clinical Social Work Journal, 40, 187–193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Pemmet, J. (2013). Psychopathy versus sociopathy: Why the distinction has become crucial. Aggression and Violent Behavior, 18, 458–461.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Walsh, A., & Wu, H. (2008). Differentiating antisocial personality disorder, psychopathy, and sociopathy: Evolutionary, genetic, neurological, and sociological considerations. Criminal Justice Studies, 21, 135–152.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Wilson, H. A. (2014). Can antisocial personality disorder be treated? A meta-analysis examining the effectiveness of treatment in reducing recidivism for individuals diagnosed with ASPD. International Journal of Forensic Mental Health, 13, 36–46.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Windsor, L. C., Jemal, A., & Alessi, E. J. (2015). Cognitive behavioral therapy: A meta-analysis of race and substance abuse outcomes. Cultural Diversity and Ethnic Minority Psychology, 21, 300–313.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  19. World Health Organization. (1992). The ICD-10 classification of mental and behavioural disorders. Geneva: Author.Google Scholar
  20. World Health Organization. (1993). The ICD-10 classification of mental and behavioural disorders: Diagnostic criteria for research. Geneva: Author.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Editor(s) (if applicable) and The Author(s) 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Debra H. Benveniste
    • 1
  1. 1.DayvilleUSA

Personalised recommendations