Advertisement

An Overview of Sociolinguistics in Wales

  • Mercedes Durham
  • Jonathan Morris
Chapter

Abstract

The aim of the first chapter is to give an overview of sociolinguistics in Wales and introduce the research which appears in the volume. First, we consider the current linguistic situation in Wales and summarise the history of contact between Welsh and English. Second, we present a review of previous sociolinguistic research in Wales. Third, the chapters in the volume are discussed and, to close, we highlight directions for future research.

Keywords

Language Policy Home Language Language Planning Main Language Stylistic Variation 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

References

  1. Abalain, Hervé. 1989. Destin des Langues Celtiques. Paris: Editions Ophrys.Google Scholar
  2. Aitchison, John W., and Harold Carter. 1994. A Geography of the Welsh Language 1961–1991. Cardiff: University of Wales Press.Google Scholar
  3. Anwyl, Edward. 1901. Report of the dialect section of the guild of graduates. In Transactions of the University of Wales guild of graduates, 33–52. Cardiff: University of Wales Press.Google Scholar
  4. Awbery, Gwenllian. 1986. Pembrokeshire Welsh: A phonological study. Llandysul: Gomer.Google Scholar
  5. ———. 1997. The English language in Wales. In The Celtic Englishes, ed. Hildegard L.C. Tristram, 86–99. Heidelberg: Winter.Google Scholar
  6. Ball, Martin J. (ed). 1988. The use of Welsh: A contribution to sociolinguistics. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.Google Scholar
  7. Ball, Martin J., and Glyn E. Jones (ed). 1984. Welsh phonology: selected readings. Cardiff: University of Wales Press.Google Scholar
  8. Ball, Martin J., and Nicole Müller. 1992. Mutation in Welsh. London: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Balsom, Denis. 1985. The three-Wales model. In The national question again: Welsh political identity in the 1980s, ed. John Osmond, 1–17. Llandysul: Gomer.Google Scholar
  10. Beverley Smith, Llinos. 1997. Yr iaith Gymraeg cyn 1536. In Y Gymraeg yn ei Disgleirdeb: yr Iaith Gymraeg cyn y Chwyldro Diwydiannol, ed. Geraint H. Jenkins, 15–43. Cardiff: University of Wales Press.Google Scholar
  11. Bourhis, Richard Y., Howard Giles, and Wallace E. Lambert. 1975. Social consequences of accommodating one’s style of speech: A cross-national investigation. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 6: 55–72.Google Scholar
  12. Carter, Diana, Margaret Deuchar, Peredur Davies, and María del Carmen Parafita Couto. 2011. A systematic comparison of factors affecting the choice of matrix language in three bilingual communities. Journal of Language Contact 4(2): 153–183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Collins, Beverley, and Inger M. Mees. 1990. The phonetics of Cardiff English. In English in Wales: Diversity, conflict, and change, ed. Nikolas Coupland, 87–103. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.Google Scholar
  14. Coupland, Nikolas. 1980. Style-shifting in a Cardiff work-setting. Language in Society 9(1): 1–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. ———. 1985. Sociolinguistic aspects of place–names. Ethnic affiliation and the pronunciation of Welsh in the Welsh capital. In Focus on: England and Wales (=Varieties of English around the World 4), ed. Beat Glauser, and Wolfgang Viereck, 29–44. John Benjamin’s: Amsterdam/Philadelphia.Google Scholar
  16. ———. 1988. Dialect in use: Sociolinguistic variation in Cardiff. Cardiff: University of Wales Press.Google Scholar
  17. ———. 2001a. Dialect stylization in radio talk. Language in Society 30: 345–375.Google Scholar
  18. ———. 2001b. Language, situation, and the relational self: Theorizing dialect style in sociolinguistics. In Style and sociolinguistic variation, ed. Penelope Eckert, and John R. Rickford, 185–210. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  19. ———. 2009. Dialect style, social class and metacultural performance: The pantomime dame. In The new sociolinguistics reader, ed. Nikolas Coupland, and Adam Jaworski, 311–325. Basingstoke/New York: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  20. Coupland, Nikolas, and Michelle Aldridge. 2009. Introduction: A critical approach to the revitalisation of Welsh. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 195: 5–13.Google Scholar
  21. Coupland, Nikolas, and Martin J. Ball. 1989. Welsh and English in contemporary Wales: Sociolinguistic issues. Contemporary Wales 1: 7–40.Google Scholar
  22. Coupland, Nikolas, and Alan R. Thomas (ed). 1990. English in Wales: Diversity, conflict, change. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.Google Scholar
  23. Coupland, Nikolas, Angie Williams, and Peter Garrett. 1994. The social meanings of Welsh English: Teachers’ stereotyped judgements. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development 15(6): 471–489. doi: 10.1080/01434632.1994.9994585.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. ———. 1999. ‘Welshness’ and ‘Englishness’ as attitudinal dimensions of English language varieties in Wales. In Handbook of perceptual dialectology, 1, ed. Dennis R. Preston, 333–343. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.Google Scholar
  25. Coupland, Nikolas, Hywel Bishop, Angie Williams, Betsy Evans, and Peter Garrett. 2005. Affiliation, engagement, language use, and vitality: Secondary school students’ subjective orientations to Welsh and Welshness. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism 8(1): 1–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Cunliffe, Daniel, Delyth Morris, and Cynog Prys. 2013. Young bilinguals’ language behaviour in social networking sites: The use of Welsh on Facebook. Journal of Computer-Mediated Communication 18(3): 339–361.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Darlington, Thomas. 1902. Some dialectal boundaries in mid Wales: With notes on the history of the palatalization of long a. The transactions of The Honourable Society of Cymmrodorion (1900–01): 13–39.Google Scholar
  28. Davies, J. J. Glanmor. 1934. Astudiaeth o Gymraeg Llafar Ardal y Ceinewydd: Ei Seineg gydag Ymchwiliadau Gwyddonol, ei Seinyddiaeth a’i Ffurfiant gyda Geirfa Lawn, a Chyfeiriad at ei Semanteg. Unpublished PhD Thesis, University of Wales, Aberystwyth.Google Scholar
  29. Davies, Cynog. 1973. Cymdeithas yr Iaith Gymraeg. In The Welsh language today, ed. Meic Stephens, 248–263. Llandysul: Gomer.Google Scholar
  30. Davies, John. 1990. Hanes Cymru. London: Penguin.Google Scholar
  31. Evans, Neil. 2015. Immigrants and minorities in Wales, 1840-1990: A comparative perspective. In A tolerant nation? Revisiting ethnic diversity in a devolved Wales, ed. Charlotte Williams, Neil Evans, and Paul O’Leary, 24–50. Cardiff: University of Wales Press.Google Scholar
  32. Ferguson, Gibson. 2006. Language planning in education. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.Google Scholar
  33. Filppula, Markku, Juhani Klemola, and Heli Paulasto. 2008. English and Celtic in contact. New York/London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  34. Fynes-Clinton, Osbert H. 1913. The Welsh vocabulary of the Bangor district. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  35. Garrett, Peter, Nikolas Coupland, and Angie Williams. 1995. ‘City Harsh’ and ‘the Welsh version of RP’: Some ways in which teachers view dialects of Welsh English. Language Awareness 4(2): 99–107.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. ———. 1999. Evaluating dialect in discourse: Teachers’ and teenagers’ responses to young English speakers in Wales. Language in Society 28: 321–354.Google Scholar
  37. Gathercole, Virginia (ed). 2007. Language transmission in bilingual families in Wales. Cardiff: Welsh Language Board.Google Scholar
  38. Giles, Howard. 1970. Evaluative reactions to accents. Educational Review 22: 211–227.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. ———. 1990. Social meanings of Welsh English. In English in Wales: Diversity, conflict, and change, ed. Nikolas Coupland, 258–282. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.Google Scholar
  40. Great Britain Historical GIS Project. 2004. Great Britain historical GIS. University of Portsmouth. Available at: http://www.visionofbritain.org.uk/footer/doc_text_for_title.jsp?topic=credits&seq=4. Accessed 24 May 2016.
  41. Hejná, Míša. 2015. Pre-aspiration in Welsh English: A case study of Aberystwyth. PhD thesis, University of Manchester.Google Scholar
  42. Hodges, Rhian. 2009. Welsh language use among young people in the Rhymney Valley. Contemporary Wales 22(1): 16–35.Google Scholar
  43. Holmes, Janet. 1992. An introduction to sociolinguistics. London/New York: Longman.Google Scholar
  44. Jones, Robert Owen. 1984. Change and variation in the Welsh of Gaiman, Chubut. In Welsh phonology: Selected readings, ed. Martin J. Ball, and Glyn E. Jones, 208–236. Cardiff: University of Wales Press.Google Scholar
  45. Jones, Christine M. 1987. Astudiaeth o Iaith Lafar Y Mot (Sir Benfro), Unpublished PhD thesis, University of Wales, Lampeter.Google Scholar
  46. ———. 1989. Cydberthynas Nodweddion Cymdeithasol ag Amrywiadau’r Gymraeg yn Y Mot, Sir Benfro. Bwletin y Bwrdd Gwybodau Celtaidd 36: 64–83.Google Scholar
  47. Jones, Robert Owen. 1993. The sociolinguistics of Welsh. In The Celtic languages, ed. Martin J. Ball, 536–605. London/New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  48. Jones, Barry. 1997a. Welsh politics and changing British and European contexts. In British regionalism and devolution: The challenges of state reform and European integration, Regional policy and development, vol 16, ed. Jonathan Bradbury, and John Mawson, 55–74. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  49. Jones, Robert Owen. 1997b. Hir Oes i’r Iaith: Agweddau ar Hanes y Gymraeg a’r Gymdeithas. Llandysul: Gomer.Google Scholar
  50. Jones, Mari C. 1998. Language obsolescence and revitalization: Linguistic change in two sociolinguistically contrasting Welsh communities. Oxford: Clarendon Press.Google Scholar
  51. Jones, Glyn E. 2000. Iaith Lafar Brycheiniog: Astudiaeth o’i ffonoleg a’i Morffoleg. Cardiff: University of Wales Press.Google Scholar
  52. Jones, Hywel M. 2008. The changing social context of Welsh: A review of statistical trends. International Journal of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism 11(5): 541–557.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. ———. 2012. A statistical overview of the Welsh language. Cardiff: Welsh Language Board. Available at: http://www.comisiynyddygymraeg.cymru/Cymraeg/Rhestr%20Cyhoeddiadau/Darlun%20ystadegol%20Cymraeg.pdf. Accessed 23 May 2016.
  54. ———. 2013. The intergenerational transmission of the Welsh Language. Available at: http://www.comisiynyddygymraeg.cymru/English/Publications%20List/20130814%20DG%20S%20Poster%20BSPS%20trosglwyddo.pdf. Accessed 24 May 2016.
  55. Jones, Kathryn, and Delyth Morris. 2009. Issues of gender and parents’ language values in the minority language socialisation of young children in Wales. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 195: 117–139.Google Scholar
  56. Lewis, Robyn. 1973. The Welsh language and the law. In The Welsh language today, ed. Meic Stephens, 195–210. Llandysul: Gomer.Google Scholar
  57. Löffler, Marion. 1997. Englisch und Kymrisch in Wales: Geschichte der Sprachsituation und Sprachpolitik. Hamburg: Dr. Kovačs.Google Scholar
  58. Markaki, Yvonni. 2016. Migration trends report: Migration flows and population trends in Wales. Available at: http://www.welshrefugeecouncil.org/sites/default/files/msiw/pdf/Trends%20Report-Migration%20Flows%20&%20Population%20Trends.pdf. Accessed 23 May 2016.
  59. Mathias, Roland. 1973. The Welsh language and the English language. In The Welsh language today, ed. Meic Stephens, 32–63. Llandysul: Gomer.Google Scholar
  60. Mayr, Robert, Jonathan Morris, Ineke Mennen and Daniel Williams. 2015. Disentangling the effects of long-term language contact and individual bilingualism: The case of monophthongs in Welsh and English. International Journal of Bilingualism. Published first online at: http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1367006915614921. Accessed 24 May 2016.Google Scholar
  61. McAllister, Fiona, Adam Blunt, Cynog Prys, Carys Evans, Eilir Jones and Iwan Evans. 2013. Exploring Welsh speakers’ language use in their daily lives. Beaufort Research.Google Scholar
  62. Mees, Inger M. 1983. The speech of Cardiff schoolchildren: A real time study. Unpublished PhD thesis, University of Leiden.Google Scholar
  63. ———. 1990. The phonetics of Cardiff English. In English in Wales: Diversity, conflict, and change, ed. Nikolas Coupland, 167–194. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.Google Scholar
  64. Mees, Inger M., and Beverley Collins. 1999. Cardiff: A real-time study of glottalisation. In Urban voices: Accent studies in the British Isles, ed. Paul Foulkes, and Gerard Docherty, 185–202. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  65. Mennen, Ineke, Robert Mayr, and Jonathan Morris. 2015. Influences of language contact and linguistic experience on the production of lexical stress in Welsh and Welsh English. In Proceedings of the 18th international congress of phonetic sciences, ed. The Scottish Consortium for ICPhS 2015. Glasgow: The University of Glasgow.Google Scholar
  66. Ministry of Education. 1949. Bilingualism in the secondary school in Wales. London: His Majesty’s Stationery Office.Google Scholar
  67. ———. 1953. The place of Welsh and English in the schools of Wales: Summary of the report of the central advisory council for education (Wales). London: Her Majesty’s Stationery Office.Google Scholar
  68. Morris, Delyth. 2010. Young people and their use of the Welsh language. In Welsh in the twenty-first century, ed. Delyth Morris, 80–98. Cardiff: University of Wales Press.Google Scholar
  69. Morris, Jonathan. 2013. Sociolinguistic variation and regional minority language bilingualism: An investigation of Welsh–English bilinguals in North Wales. Unpublished PhD thesis, University of Manchester.Google Scholar
  70. ———. 2014. The influence of social factors on minority language engagement amongst young people: An investigation of Welsh–English bilinguals in North Wales. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 230: 65–89.Google Scholar
  71. Musk, Nigel. 2006. Performing bilingualism in Wales with the spotlight on Welsh. A study of the language practices of young people in bilingual education, Studies in language and culture, vol 8. Linköping: Linköpings Universitet.Google Scholar
  72. Office for National Statistics. 2012. 2011 census: Key statistics for Wales, March 2011. Available at: http://www.ons.gov.uk/peoplepopulationandcommunity/populationandmigration/populationestimates/bulletins/2011censuskeystatisticsforwales/2012-12-11#household-language. Accessed 23 May 2016.
  73. Parry, David. 1977. The survey of Anglo-Welsh dialects. Volume 1: The South-East. Swansea: University College Swansea.Google Scholar
  74. ———. 1979. The survey of Anglo-Welsh dialects. Volume 2: The South-West. Swansea: University College Swansea.Google Scholar
  75. Paulasto, H. 2006. Welsh English syntax: Contact and variation, University of Joensuu Publications in the Humanities, vol 43. Joensuu: Joensuu University Press.Google Scholar
  76. Paulasto, Heli. 2013. English in Wales. In World Englishes, The British isles, vol I, ed. T. Hopkins, and J. McKenny, 241–262. London/New Delhi/New York/Sydney: Bloomsbury Academic.Google Scholar
  77. Penhallurick, Robert. 1991. The Anglo-Welsh dialects of North Wales: A survey of conservative rural spoken English in the counties of Gwynedd and Clwyd. Frankfurt am Main: Lang.Google Scholar
  78. ———. 1993. Welsh English: A national language? Dialectologia et Geolinguistica 1: 28–46.Google Scholar
  79. Penhallurick, Rob. 2004. Welsh English: Morphology and syntax. In A handbook of varieties of English, Morphology and syntax, ed. Bernd Kortmann, Kate Burridge, Rajend Mesthrie, Edgar Schneider, and Clive Upton, Vol. 2, 102–113. Berlin/New York: Mouton de Gruyter.Google Scholar
  80. ———. 2007. English in Wales. In Language in the British Isles, ed. David Britain, 152–170. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Podhovnik, Edith. 2008. The phonology of Neath English: A socio-dialectological survey. Unpublished PhD thesis, Swansea University.Google Scholar
  82. ———. 2010. Age and accent-changes in a Southern Welsh English accent. Research in Language 8: 1–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Prys, Myfyr. 2016. Style in the vernacular and on the radio: Code-switching and mutation as stylistic and social markers in Welsh. Unpublished PhD thesis, Bangor University.Google Scholar
  84. Rees, I. 2013. Astudiaeth o amrywiadau ffonolegol mewn dwy ardal yng nghanolbarth Cymru. Unpublished PhD thesis, Aberystwyth University.Google Scholar
  85. Robert, Elen. 2009. Accommodating “new” speakers? An attitudinal investigation of L2 speakers of Welsh in south-east Wales. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 195: 93–115.Google Scholar
  86. Roberts, Anna E. 1973. Geirfa a Ffurfiau Cymraeg Llafar Cylch Pwllheli. Unpublished MA thesis, University of Wales.Google Scholar
  87. ———. 1988. Age-related variation in the Welsh dialect of Pwllheli. In The use of Welsh, ed. Martin J. Ball, 104–123. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.Google Scholar
  88. Roller, Katja. 2016. On the relation between frequency and salience in morphosyntax: The case of Welsh English. Unpublished PhD thesis, Freiburg University.Google Scholar
  89. Selleck, Charlotte. 2013. Inclusive policy and exclusionary practice in secondary education in Wales. International Journal of Bilingualism and Bilingual Education 16: 1–20.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. ———. 2015. Re-negotiating ideologies of bilingualism on the margins of education. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development 2015: 1–13.Google Scholar
  91. Sommerfelt, Alf. 1925. Studies in Cyfeiliog Welsh. Oslo: Jacob Dybwad.Google Scholar
  92. StatsWales. 2012. Welsh speakers by local authority, gender and detailed age groups, 2011 Census. Available at: https://statscymru.cymru.gov.uk/Catalogue/Welsh-Language/WelshSpeakers-by-LocalAuthority-Gender-DetailedAgeGroups-2011Census. Accessed 24 May 2016.
  93. Thomas, Alan R. 1973. The linguistic geography of Wales: A contribution to Welsh dialectology. Cardiff: University of Wales Press.Google Scholar
  94. Thomas, Peter Wynn. 1984. Variation in South Glamorgan consonant mutation. In Welsh phonology: Selected readings, ed. Martin J. Ball, and Glyn E. Jones, 208–236. Cardiff: University of Wales Press.Google Scholar
  95. Thomas, Beth. 1988. A study of calediad in the Upper Swansea Valley. In The use of Welsh, ed. Martin J. Ball, 85–96. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.Google Scholar
  96. ———. 1989. Differences of sex and sects: Linguistic variation and social networks in a Welsh mining village. In Women in their speech communities, ed. Jennifer Coates, and Deborah Cameron, 51–60. London/New York: Longman.Google Scholar
  97. Thomas, Alan R. 1994. English in Wales. In The Cambridge history of the English language. Volume V – English in Britain and overseas: Origins and development, ed. R. Burchfield, 94–147. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  98. ———. 2000. The Welsh dialect survey. Cardiff: University of Wales Press.Google Scholar
  99. Thomas, Beth, and Peter Wynn Thomas. 1989. Cymraeg, Cymrâg, Cymrêg: Cyflwyno’r Tafodieithoedd. Cardiff: Gwasg Tâf.Google Scholar
  100. Toorians, L. 2000. Flemish in Wales. In Languages in Britain and Ireland, ed. Glanville Price, 184–196. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  101. Walters, J. Roderick. 1999. A study of the segmental and suprasegmental phonology of Rhondda Valley’s English. Unpublished Ph.D. thesis, University of Glamorgan.Google Scholar
  102. ———. 2003. On the intonation of a South Wales ‘Valleys accent’of English. Journal of the International Phonetic Association 33(2): 211–238.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. Welsh Government and Welsh Language Commissioner. 2015. Welsh language use in Wales 2013–15. Cardiff: Welsh Government. Available at: http://llyw.cymru/statistics-and-research/Welsh-language-use-survey/?skip=1&lang=en. Accessed 27 Nov 2015.
  104. Welsh Government. 2012. A living language: A language for living. Available at: http://gov.wales/docs/dcells/publications/122902wls201217en.pdf. Accessed 24 May 2016.
  105. Welsh Language (Wales) Measure. 2011. Available at: http://www.legislation.gov.uk/mwa/2011/1/pdfs/mwa_20110001_en.pdf. Accessed 24 May 2016.
  106. Wells, John. 1982. Accents of English 2: The British Isles. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. Williams, Jac L. 1973. The Welsh language in education. In The Welsh language today, ed. Meic Stephens, 91–109. Llandysul: Gomer.Google Scholar
  108. Williams, I.W. 2003. Y Gymraeg mewn addysg: Ddoe a heddiw. In Addysg Gymraeg, addysg Gymreig, ed. Gareth Roberts, and Cen Williams, 6–23. Bangor: University of Bangor Department of Education.Google Scholar
  109. Williams, Colin H. 2008. Linguistic minorities in democratic context. Basingstoke: Palgrave MacMillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. ———. 2009. Commentary: The primacy of renewal. International Journal of the Sociology of Language 195: 201–217.Google Scholar
  111. Williams, Angie, Peter Garrett, and Nikolas Coupland. 1996. Perceptual dialectology, folklinguistics, and regional stereotypes: Teachers’ perceptions of variation in Welsh English. Multilingua 15(2): 171–200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Willis, David. Forthcoming. Investigating geospatial models of the diffusion of morphosyntactic innovations: The Welsh strong second-person singular pronoun chdi. Journal of Linguistic Geography. Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Mercedes Durham
    • 1
  • Jonathan Morris
    • 1
  1. 1.Cardiff UniversityCardiffUK

Personalised recommendations