Hakwon Education as a Worldwide Curriculum Question

  • Young Chun Kim
Part of the Curriculum Studies Worldwide book series (CSWW)


In previous chapters, we researched the various types of hakwons and the life of students in elementary hakwons to high school hakwons. Moreover, we reviewed the positive and negative aspects in hakwon education. In this chapter, I would like to present the possible theme dealing with hakwon education as a promising upcoming realm of curriculum studies worldwide based on experiences in Korea. There are several possible research topics for curriculum studies in hakwon education that could be studied more in depth. I propose six research topics on hakwon/shadow education for curriculum studies: (1) hakwon/shadow education and ecology of education; (2) hakwon/shadow education on child development; (3) individualization; (4) students’ lived experience at hakwons; (5) hakwon educators; and (6) curriculum and teaching strategies of hakwons.


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Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Young Chun Kim
    • 1
  1. 1.Chinju National University of EducationJinju CityRepublic of Korea

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