Advertisement

Hakwon Education as a Worldwide Curriculum Question

  • Young Chun Kim
Chapter
Part of the Curriculum Studies Worldwide book series (CSWW)

Abstract

In previous chapters, we researched the various types of hakwons and the life of students in elementary hakwons to high school hakwons. Moreover, we reviewed the positive and negative aspects in hakwon education. In this chapter, I would like to present the possible theme dealing with hakwon education as a promising upcoming realm of curriculum studies worldwide based on experiences in Korea. There are several possible research topics for curriculum studies in hakwon education that could be studied more in depth. I propose six research topics on hakwon/shadow education for curriculum studies: (1) hakwon/shadow education and ecology of education; (2) hakwon/shadow education on child development; (3) individualization; (4) students’ lived experience at hakwons; (5) hakwon educators; and (6) curriculum and teaching strategies of hakwons.

References

  1. Aspinall, R., & Roesgaard, M. H. (2008). Japanese education and the cram school business: Functions, challenges and perspectives of the Juku. The Journal of Japanese Studies, 34(1), 121–125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Barrow, D. D., & Lochan, S. (2010). Education in a hidden marketplace: Monitoring of private tuition; Private supplementary tutoring in Central Asia: New opportunities and burdens; Confronting the shadow education system: What government policies for what private tutoring? Compare: A Journal of Comparative and International Education, 41(1), 153–155.Google Scholar
  3. Bergman, R. (2004). Caring for the ethical ideal: Nel Noddings on moral education. Journal of Moral Education, 33(2), 149–162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Bray, M. (2013). Benefits and tensions of shadow education: Comparative perspectives on the roles and impact of private supplementary tutoring in the lives of Hong Kong students. Journal of International and Comparative Education, 2(1), 18–30.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bray, M., & Kobakhidze, M. N. (2015). Evolving ecosystems in education: The nature and implications of private supplementary tutoring in Hong Kong. PROSPECTS, 45(4), 465–481.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Bray, M., & Kwo, O. (2014). Regulating private tutoring for public good: Policy options for supplementary education in Asia. Bangkok: UNESCO.Google Scholar
  7. Bray, M., & Lykins, C. (2012). Shadow education private supplementary tutoring and its implications for policy makers in Asia. Mandaluyong: Asian Development Bank.Google Scholar
  8. Britzman, D. P. (1989). Who has the floor?: Curriculum, teaching, and student teacher’s struggles for voice. Curriculum Inquiry, 19(summer), 143–162.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Bronfenbrenner, U. (1976). The experimental ecology of education. Educational Researcher, 5(9), 5–15.Google Scholar
  10. Bullough, R., Jr. (1989). First year teacher: A case study. New York: Teachers College Press.Google Scholar
  11. Bullough, R., Jr., & Knowles, J. G. (1990). Becoming a teacher: Struggles of a second career beginning teacher. Qualitative Studies in Education, 3(2), 101–112.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Cho, J. S. (2015). Where are Korean bright students at school studying?: Qualitative case study on currere of an Einstein hakwon for smart students. Master’s Dissertation, Jinju National University of Education.Google Scholar
  13. Dang, H. A. (2008). Private tutoring in Vietnam: An investigation of its causes and impacts with policy implications. Saarbrücken: VDM Verlag Dr. Muller.Google Scholar
  14. Dean, A. V., & Kolitch, E. (1997). Unmaking good-girlism: Re-inventing ourselves through mathematics and writing. Journal of Curriculum Theorizing, 13(4), 13–19.Google Scholar
  15. Doll Jr., W. E. (2012). Pragmatism, post-modernism, and complexity theory: The ‘fascinating imaginative realm’ of William E. Doll, Jr. (D. Trueit, ed.). New York: Routlege.Google Scholar
  16. Goodson, I. F. (1992). Studying teachers’ lives: An emergent field of inquiry. In I. F. Goodson (Ed.), Studying teachers’ lives (pp. 1–17). London: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Gough, N. (2003). Thinking globally in environment education: Implications for internationalizing curriculum inquiry. In W. Pinar (Ed.), International handbook of curriculum research (pp. 53–72). Mahwah: Erlbaum.Google Scholar
  18. Grumet, M. (1988). Bitter milk: Women and teaching. Amberst: University of Massachusetts Press.Google Scholar
  19. Huang, H. M. (2004). Effects of cram schools on children’s mathematics learning. In L. Fan, N. Y. Wong, J. Cai, & S. Li (Eds.), How Chinese learn mathematics: Perspectives from insiders (pp. 282–304). Singapore: World Scientific Publishing.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hynevych, et al. (2006). Education in a hidden marketplace: Monitoring of private tutoring. Budapest: Education Support Program (ESP) of the Open Society Institute.Google Scholar
  21. James, C. E. (2002). Achieving desire: Narrative of a black male teacher. International Journal of Qualitative Studies in Education, 15(2), 171–186.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Jung, C. G. (1983). The essential Jung. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  23. Jung, J. H. (2015). The concept of care in curriculum studies: Juxtaposing currere and hakbeolism. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  24. Kalikova, S., & Rakhimzhanova, Z. (2009). Private tutoring in Kazakhstan. In I. Silova (Ed.), Private supplementary tutoring in Central Asia: New opportunities and burdens (pp. 93–118). Paris: UNESCO International Institute for Educational Planning (IIEP).Google Scholar
  25. Kim, Y. C. (2008). Rather let students study in ‘Hakwons’. Seoul: Briends.Google Scholar
  26. Kim, Y. C., & Kim, P. S. (2012). Hakwon does not die; fathers die: Secrets of Korean education that Obama did not know. Paju: Academy Press.Google Scholar
  27. Kim, Y. C., & Kim, P. S. (2015). The best hakwons top 7. Paju: Academy Press.Google Scholar
  28. Kim, Y. C., Jung, J. H., & Lee, Y. M. (2003). Ugly duckling: First year elementary school teachers’ lives. Seoul: Mooneunsa.Google Scholar
  29. Kincheloe, J. (1991). Teachers as researchers: Qualitative inquiry as a path to empowerment. London: The Falmer Press.Google Scholar
  30. Kobakhidze, M. N. (2014). Corruption risks of private tutoring: Case of Georgia. Asia Pacific Journal of Education, 34(4), 455–475.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Kuan, P. Y. (2011). Effects of cram schooling on mathematics performance: Evidence from junior high students in Taiwan. Comparative Education Review, 55(3), 342–368.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Kwok, P. L. Y. (2010). Demand intensity, market parameters and policy responses towards demand and supply of private supplementary tutoring in China. Asia Pacific Education Review, 11(1), 49–58.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Lao, R. (2014). Analyzing the Thai state policy on private tutoring: the prevalence of the market discourse. Asia Pacific Journal of Education, 34(4), 476–491.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Lee, C. Y. (2010). Case study about hakwon teachers’ educational culture (Doctoral dissertation). Retrieved from Korea University.Google Scholar
  35. Miller, J. L. (1990). Creating spaces and finding voices: Teachers collaborating for empowerment. Albany: State University of New York Press.Google Scholar
  36. Neumann, A. (1998). On experience, memory knowing: A post Holocaust (auto)biography. Curriculum Inquiry, 28(4), 425–442.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Noddings, N. (2002). Educating moral people: A caring alternative to character education. New York: Teachers College Press.Google Scholar
  38. Park, C. M., Min, S. E., & Kim, Y. C. (2015). Elementary students’ educational experiences and meaning toward hakwon education. Journal for Qualitative Inquiry, 1(1), 85–126.Google Scholar
  39. Pinar, W. (1974). Curere: Toward reconceptualization. In J. Jelinek (Ed.), Basic problems in modern education (pp. 147–171). Tempe: Arizona State University, College of Education.Google Scholar
  40. Pinar, W. (Ed.). (1975). Curriculum theorizing: The reconceptualists. Berkeley: McCutchan.Google Scholar
  41. Pinar, W. F. (1994). Autobiography, politics, and sexuality: Essays in curriculum theory 1972–1992. New York: Peter Lang.Google Scholar
  42. Pinar, W. F. (2011). The character of curriculum studies: Bildung, currere, and the recurring question of the subject. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Pinar, W. F. (2015a). Educational experience as lived: Knowledge, history, alterity. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  44. Pinar, W. P. (Ed.). (2015b). Curriculum studies in India: Intellectual histories, present circumstances. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  45. Pinar, W. F., Reynolds, W. M., Slattery, P., & Taubman, P. M. (1995). Understanding curriculum: An introduction to the study of historical and contemporary curriculum discourses. New York: Peter Lang.Google Scholar
  46. Pinar, W., & Grumet, M. (1976). Toward a poor curriculum. Dubuque: Kendall/Hunt.Google Scholar
  47. Schubert, W., & Ayers, W. (Eds.). (1992). Teacher lore: Learning from our own experience. New York: Longman.Google Scholar
  48. Sriprakash, A., Proctor, H., Hu, B. (2015). Visible pedagogic work: Parenting, private tutoring and educational advantage in Australia. Discourse: Studies in the Cultural Politics of Education, (August) 37(3), 1–16.Google Scholar
  49. Statistics Korea. (2014). Survey on expenses for sagyoyook. Seoul: Statistics Korea.Google Scholar
  50. Statistics Korea. (2016). The survey of private education expenses for elementary school to high school. Seoul: National Statistics Korea.Google Scholar
  51. Taubman, P. M. (2009). Teaching by numbers. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  52. Trent, J. (2015, August). Constructing professional identities in shadow education: Perspectives of private supplementary educators in Hong Kong. Educational Research for Policy and Practice, 15(2), 1–16.Google Scholar
  53. Zhang, W. (2014). The demand for shadow education in China: Mainstream teachers and power relations. Asia Pacific Journal of Education, 34(4), 436–454.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. Zhou, M., & Kim, S. S. (2006). Community forces, social capital, and educational achievement: The case of supplementary education in the Chinese and Korean immigrant communities. Harvard Educational Review, 76(1), 1–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Young Chun Kim
    • 1
  1. 1.Chinju National University of EducationJinju CityRepublic of Korea

Personalised recommendations