Teacher Cognition about the Use of Technology



Given the significance of technology in language learning, this chapter explores the functions and roles that a technological tool or application can potentially perform in language learning and discusses teachers’ understanding, conception and utilisation of the technology in their practical work. In particular, this chapter discusses the roles and functions of technology and how these are interpreted by teachers in addressing pedagogical goals, professional learning needs and performing administrative tasks.


Language teacher cognition Technology roles Benefits 


  1. Arndt, H. L., & Woore, R. (2018). Vocabulary learning from watching YouTube videos and reading blog posts. Language Learning & Technology, 22(1), 124–142. Scholar
  2. Baek, Y., Jung, J., & Kim, B. (2008). What makes teachers use technology in the classroom? Exploring the factors affecting facilitation of technology with a Korean sample. Computers and Education, 50(1), 224–234.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Bauerlein, M. (2009). The dumbest generation: How the digital age stupefies young Americans and jeopardizes our future (or, don’t trust anyone under 30). New York: Tarcher/Penguin.Google Scholar
  4. Becker, H. J. (2000). Findings from the teaching, learning and computing survey: Is Larry Cuban right? Education Policy Analysis Archives, 8(51). Retrieved October 5, 2016, from Scholar
  5. Belz, J. A., & Kinginger, C. (2003). Discourse options and the development of pragmatic competence by classroom learners of German: The case of address forms. Language Learning, 53(4), 591–647.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Benson, P. (2006). Learner autonomy 8: Insider perspectives on autonomy in language teaching and learning. Dublin, Ireland: Authentik.Google Scholar
  7. Bitner, N., & Bitner, J. (2002). Integrating technology into the classroom: Eight keys to success. Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 10(1), 95–100.Google Scholar
  8. Blake, R. (2000). Computer mediated communication: A window on L2 Spanish interlanguage. Language Learning and Technology, 40(1), 120–136.Google Scholar
  9. Braine, G. (2004). Teaching second and foreign language writing on LANs. In S. Fotos & C. Browne (Eds.), New perspectives on CALL for second language classrooms (pp. 93–107). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  10. Brazil, D. (1997). The communicative value of intonation in English. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  11. Cabanatan, P. (2003, June 18–20). Integrating pedagogy and technology: The SEAMEO INNOTECH experience. Presentation to Experts Meeting on Teachers/Facilitators Training in Technology-Pedagogy Integration, Bangkok, Thailand.Google Scholar
  12. Carr, N. G. (2010). The shallows: What the Internet is doing to our brains. New York: W. W. Norton.Google Scholar
  13. Chapelle, C. (2000). Computer application in second language acquisition. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  14. Chapelle, C. A. (1998). Multimedia CALL: Lessons to be learned from research on instructed SLA. Language Learning and Technology, 2, 22–34.Google Scholar
  15. Chapelle, C. A. (2003). English language learning and technology: Lectures on applied linguistics in the age of information and communication technology. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Chik, A. (2014). Digital gaming and language learning: Autonomy and community. Language Learning & Technology, 18(2), 85–100.Google Scholar
  17. Chik, A. (2018). Learning a language for free: Space and autonomy in adult foreign language learning. In G. Murray & T. Lamb (Eds.), Space, place, and autonomy in language learning (pp. 56–72). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  18. Chun, D., Kern, R., & Smith, B. (2016). Technology in language use, language teaching, and language learning. The Modern Language Journal, 100, 64–80. Scholar
  19. Chun, D. M. (2016). The role of technology in SLA research. Language Learning & Technology, 20(2), 98–115. Scholar
  20. Coniam, D. (2004). Using language engineering programs to raise awareness of future CALL potential. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 17, 149–175.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Coyle, Y., & Reverte, M. J. (2017). Children’s interaction and lexical acquisition in text-based online chat. Language Learning & Technology, 21(2), 179–199. Scholar
  22. Dede, C. (2006). Online professional development for teachers: Emerging models and methods. Cambridge, MA: Harvard Education Press.Google Scholar
  23. Doherty, K. M., & Orlofsky, G. F. (2001). Student survey says: Schools are probably not using educational technology as wisely or effectively as they could. Educational Week, 20(35), 45–48.Google Scholar
  24. Ellis, R. (1990). Instructed second language acquisition. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  25. Ellis, R. (1999). Theoretical perspectives on interaction and language learning. In R. Ellis (Ed.), Learning a second language through interaction (pp. 3–31). Amsterdam: John Benjamins.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Fagan, D. S. (2012). ‘Dealing with’ unexpected learner contributions in whole-group activities: An examination of novice language teacher discursive practices. Classroom Discourse, 3, 107–128.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Godwin-Jones, R. (2019). Riding the digital wilds: Learner autonomy and informal language learning. Language Learning and Technology, 23(1), 8–25.Google Scholar
  28. Grgurović, M., & Hegelheimer, V. (2007). Help options and multimedia listening: Students’ use of subtitles and the transcript. Language Learning & Technology, 11(1), 45–66.Google Scholar
  29. Haas, C. (1996). Writing technology: Studies on the materiality of literacy. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.Google Scholar
  30. Hegelheimer, V., & Chapelle, C. A. (2000). Methodological issues in research on learner-computer interactions in CALL. Language Learning and Technology, 4, 41–59.Google Scholar
  31. Heift, T. (2002). Learner control and error correction in ICALL: Browsers, peekers, and adamants. CALICO Journal, 19(2), 295–313.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Hellermann, J. (2003). The interactive work of prosody in the IRF exchange: Teacher repetition in feedback moves. Language in Society, 32(1), 79–104.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Hsu, H.-C., & Lo, Y.-F. (2018). Using wiki-mediated collaboration to foster L2 writing performance. Language Learning & Technology, 22(3), 103–123. Scholar
  34. Isbell, D. R. (2018). Online informal language learning: Insights from a Korean learning community. Language Learning & Technology, 22(3), 82–102. Scholar
  35. Judson, E. (2006). How teachers integrate technology and their beliefs about learning: Is there a connection? Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 14(3), 581–597.Google Scholar
  36. Kelly, P., Hohmann, U., Pratt, N., & Dorf, H. (2013). Teachers as mediators: An exploration of situated English teaching. British Educational Research Journal, 39(4), 609–634.Google Scholar
  37. Kitade, K. (2000). L2 learners’ discourse and SLA theories in CMC: Collaborative interaction in Internet chat. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 13(2), 143–166.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Kramsch, C., A’Ness, F., & Lam, E. (2000). Authenticity and authorship in the computer mediated acquisition of L2 literacy. Language Learning and Technology, 4(2), 78–104.Google Scholar
  39. Lai, C. (2017). Autonomous language learning with technology: Beyond the classroom. London: Bloomsbury.Google Scholar
  40. Lantolf, J. P. (2000a). Second language learning as a mediated process. Language Teaching, 33, 79–86.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Lantolf, J. P. (2000b). Introducing sociocultural theory. In J. P. Lantolf (Ed.), Sociocultural theory and second language learning (pp. 1–26). Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  42. Lantolf, J. P., & Thorne, L. (2006). Sociocultural theory and the genesis of second language development. Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  43. Lee, J. S. (2006). Exploring the relationship between electronic literacy and heritage language maintenance. Language Learning & Technology, 10(2), 93–113.Google Scholar
  44. Lee, L. (2010). Exploring wiki-mediated collaborative writing: A case study in an elementary Spanish course. CALICO Journal, 27(2), 260–276.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Li, G., & Ni, X. (2011). Primary EFL teachers’ technology use in China: Patterns and perceptions. RELC Journal, 42(1), 69–85.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Li, L. (2008). EFL teachers’ beliefs about ICT integration in Chinese secondary schools. Unpublished doctoral thesis, Queen’s University, Belfast.Google Scholar
  47. Li, L. (2014). Understanding language teachers’ practice with educational technology: A case from China. System, 46, 105–119.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Li, L. (2015b). What’s the use of technology? Insights from EFL classrooms in Chinese secondary schools. In C. Jenks & P. Seedhouse (Eds.), International perspectives on classroom interaction (pp. 168–187). Houndmills: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Li, L. (2017a). Social interaction and teacher cognition. Edinburgh University Press.Google Scholar
  50. Li, L. (2017b). New technologies and language learning. Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  51. Li, L., & Walsh, S. (2011). Technology uptake in Chinese EFL classes. Language Teaching Research, 15(1), 99–125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Lim, K., & Shen, H. (2006). Integration of computers into an EFL reading classroom. ReCALL, 18(2), 212–229.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. Lin, C.-H., Warschauer, M., & Blake, R. (2016). Language learning through social networks: Perceptions and reality. Language Learning & Technology, 20(1), 124–147. Scholar
  54. Liu, M., Moore, Z., Graham, L., & Lee, S. (2002). A look at the research on computer-based technology use in second language learning: A review of the literature from 1990–2000. Journal of Research on Technology in Education, 34, 250–273.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Macaro, E., Handley, Z., & Walter, C. (2012). A systematic review of CALL in English as a second language: Focus on primary and secondary education. Language Teaching, 45(1), 1–43.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Mak, B., & Coniam, D. (2008). Using Wikis to enhance and develop writing skills among secondary school students in Hong Kong. System, 36(3), 437–455.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Markee, N. (1995). Teachers’ answers to learners’ questions: Problematizing the issue of making meaning. Issues in Applied Linguistics, 6, 63–92.Google Scholar
  58. Markee, N. (2004). Zones of interactional transition in ESL classes. The Modern Language Journal, 88, 583–596.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Meskill, C., Anthony, N., Hilliker-Vanstrander, S., Tseng, C., & You, J. (2006). CALL: A survey of K-12 ESOL teacher uses and preferences. TESOL Quarterly, 40(2), 439–451.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Mills, N. A. (2011). Situated learning through social networking communities: The development of joint enterprise, mutual engagement, and a shared repertoire. CALICO Journal, 28(2), 345–368.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. Müller-Hartmann, A. (2000). The role of tasks in promoting intercultural learning in electronic learning networks. Language Learning & Technology, 4(2), 129–147.Google Scholar
  62. Murray, M., Mereoiu, M., & Handyside, L. (2013). Building bridges in teacher education: Creating partnerships with parents. Teacher Educator, 48(3), 218–233.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. Nagata, N. (1993). Intelligent computer feedback for second language instruction. The Modern Language Journal, 77(3), 330–339.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. Nagata, N. (1997). An experimental comparison of deductive and inductive feedback generated by a simple parse. System, 25(4), 515–534.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. Nagata, N. (2002). BANZAI: An application of natural language processing to Webbased language learning. CALICO Journal, 19, 583–599.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Nunan, D. (1989). Designing tasks for the communicative classroom. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  67. O’Dowd, R. (2006). Telecollaboration and the development of intercultural communicative competence. Munich, Germany: Langenscheidt-Longman.Google Scholar
  68. O’Hara, S., & Pritchard, R. (2008). Hypermedia authoring as a vehicle for vocabulary development in middle school English as a second language classrooms. Clearing House: A Journal of Educational Strategies, Issues and Ideas, 82(2), 60–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Omaggio, A. C. (1986). Teaching language in context: Proficiency-oriented instruction. Boston, MA: Heinle & Heinle.Google Scholar
  70. Ottenbreit-Leftwich, A. T., Glazewski, K. D., Newby, T. J., & Ertmer, P. A. (2010). Teacher value beliefs associated with using technology: Addressing professional and student needs. Computers & Education, 55(3), 1321–1335.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Pelgrum, W. (2001). Obstacles to the integration of ICT in education: Results from a worldwide educational assessment. Computers and Education, 37, 163–178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Pellettieri, J. (2000). Negotiation in cyberspace: The role of chatting in the development of grammatical competence. In M. Warschauer & R. Kern (Eds.), Network-based language teaching: Concepts and practice (pp. 59–86). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. Reinders, H., & White, C. (2016). 20 years of autonomy and technology: How far have we come and where to next? Language Learning & Technology, 20(2), 143–154.Google Scholar
  74. Ruthven, K., Hennessy, S., & Deaney, R. (2005). Incorporating internet resources into classroom practice: Pedagogical perspectives and strategies of secondary-school subject teachers. Computers & Education, 44(2), 1–34.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. Ryshina-Pankova, M. (2018). Discourse moves and intercultural communicative competence in telecollaborative chats. Language Learning & Technology, 22(1), 218–239. Scholar
  76. Sahin, I., & Thompson, A. (2007). Understanding faculty use of technology with the learning/adoption trajectory model. Journal of Technology and Teacher Education, 15(2), 167–190.Google Scholar
  77. Schmidt, R. (1990). The role of consciousness in second language learning. Applied Linguistics, 11(2), 129–158.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Schmidt, R. W. (2001). Attention. In P. Robinson (Ed.), Cognition and second language instruction (pp. 3–32). New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Schwienhorst, K. (2007). Learner autonomy and CALL environments. Oxon: Routledge.Google Scholar
  80. Sert, O., & Li, L. (2017). A qualitative study on CALL knowledge and materials design: Insights from pre-service EFL teachers. International Journal of Computer-Assisted Language Learning and Teaching, 7(3), 73–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. Shekary, M., & Tahririan, M. H. (2006). Negotiation of meaning and noticing in text-based online chat. The Modern Language Journal, 90(4), 557–573.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Silverman, R., & Hines, S. (2009). The effects of multimedia enhanced instruction on the vocabulary of English-language learners and non-English-language learners in pre-kindergarten through second grade. Journal of Educational Psychology, 101(2), 305–314.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Skehan, P. (1998). A cognitive approach to language learning. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  84. Smith, B. (2004). Computer-mediated negotiated interaction and lexical acquisition. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 26, 365–398.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Stockwell, G. (2007). A review of technology choice for teaching language skills and areas in the CALL literature. ReCALL Journal, 19(2), 105–120.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Stockwell, G. (2013). Technology and motivation in English-language teaching and learning. In E. Ushioda (Ed.), International perspectives on motivation: Language learning and professional challenges (pp. 156–175). Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Sydorenko, T. (2010). Modality of input and vocabulary acquisition. Language Learning & Technology, 14(2), 50–73.Google Scholar
  88. Thorne, S. L., Black, R. W., & Sykes, J. M. (2009). Second language use, socialization, and learning in Internet interest communities and online gaming. The Modern Language Journal, 93, 802–821. Scholar
  89. Timucin, M. (2006). Implementing CALL in the EFL context. ELT Journal, 60(3), 262–271.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  90. Tondeur, J., Hermans, R., van Braak, J., & Valcke, M. (2008). Exploring the link between teachers’ educational belief profiles and different types of computer use in the classroom. Computers in Human Behavior, 24(6), 2541–2553.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. Tsutsui, M. (2004). Multimedia as a means to enhance feedback. Computer Assisted Language Learning, 17(3–4), 377–402. Scholar
  92. van Lier, L. (2002). An ecological-semiotic perspective on language and linguistics. In C. Kramsch (Ed.), Language acquisition and language socialization: Ecological perspectives (pp. 140–164). London: Continuum.Google Scholar
  93. Vygotsky, L. S. (1981). The genesis of higher mental functions. In J. V. Wertsch (Ed.), The concept of activity in soviet psychology (pp. 144–188). Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe.Google Scholar
  94. Wang, L., & Coleman, J. A. (2009). A survey of internet-mediated intercultural foreign language education in China. ReCALL, 21(1), 113–129.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Warner, C. N. (2004). It’s just a game, right? Types of play in foreign language CMC. Language Learning & Technology, 8(2), 69–87.Google Scholar
  96. Warschauer, M. (2000). The death of cyberspace and the rebirth of CALL. English Teachers’ Journal, 53, 61–67.Google Scholar
  97. Yang, S. C., & Huang, Y. (2008). A study of high school English teachers’ behavior, concerns and beliefs in integrating information technology into English instruction. Computers in Human Behavior, 24(3), 1085–1103.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  98. Yanguas, ĺ. (2010). Oral computer-mediated interaction between L2 learners: It’s about time. Language Learning & Technology, 14(3), 72–93.Google Scholar
  99. Zhao, Y. (2003). Recent development in technology and language: A literature review and meta-analysis. CALICO Journal, 21(1), 7–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. Zhong, Y. X., & Shen, H. Z. (2002). Where is the technology-induced pedagogy? Snapshots from two multimedia EFL classrooms. British Journal of Educational Technology, 33(1), 39–52.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Graduate School of EducationUniversity of ExeterExeterUK

Personalised recommendations