The Digital Golden Dawn: Emergence of a Nationalist-Racist Digital Mainstream

  • Eugenia Siapera
  • Mariangela Veikou


Eugenia Siapera and Mariangela Veikou examine the rising fascist and racist political online networks in Greece. They demonstrate that the kind of online presence that the Golden Dawn and its affiliates have acquired is the result of a mutual accommodation and adjustment amongst the Golden Dawn, digital corporations, the Greek state and civil society. Far from having been excluded or marginalised, Golden Dawn rhetorics, practices and discourses have adjusted to and infiltrated the digital mainstream.


Social Media Social Media Platform Hate Speech Twitter Account Online Presence 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Atton, C. (2006). Far-right media on the Internet: Culture, discourse and power. New Media and Society, 8(4), 573–587.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bosco, A., & Verney, S. (2012). Electoral epidemic: The political cost of economic crisis in Southern Europe, 2010–11. South European Society and Politics, 17(2), 129–154.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Burris, V., Smith, E., & Strahm, A. (2000). White supremacist networks on the Internet. Sociological Focus, 33(2), 215–235.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Caiani, M., Della Porta, D., & Wagemann, C. (2012). Mobilizing on the extreme right: Germany, Italy, and the United States. Oxford: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Caiani, M., & Parenti, L. (2009). The dark side of the web: Italian right-wing extremist groups and the Internet. South European Society and Politics, 14(3), 273–294.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Caiani, M., & Wagemann, C. (2009). Online networks of the Italian and German extreme right: An explorative study with social network analysis. Information, Communication and Society, 12(1), 66–109.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Cammaerts, B. (2009). Radical pluralism and free speech in online public spaces: The case of North Belgian extreme right discourses. International journal of cultural studies, 12(6), 555–575.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cartes P. (2015). Head of global trust & safety outreach, public policy at Twitter. Interview at Twitter Headquarters, Dublin.Google Scholar
  9. Castells, M. (1997). The information age: Economy, society and culture. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  10. (2012). Suspend the official Greek Nazi party blogs on Blogger. Retrieved May 26, 2015, from
  11. Coleman, G. (2014, November 14). Book launch of hacker, hoaxer, whistle-blower, spy: The many faces of anonymous. London: Verso. Retrieved May 26, 2015, from
  12. Conway, M. (2006). Terrorism and the internet: New media—New threat? Parliamentary Affairs, 59(2), 283–298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Daniels, J. (2009). Cloaked websites: Propaganda, cyber-racism and epistemology in the digital era. New Media & Society, 11(5), 659–683.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Daniels, J., & Lalone, N. (2012). Racism in video gaming: Connecting extremist and mainstream expressions of white supremacy. In D. Embrick & A. Lukacs (Eds.), Social exclusion, power and video game play (pp. 83–97). Lanham, MD: Lexington Press.Google Scholar
  15. De Koster, W., & Houtman, D. (2008). Stormfront is like a second home to me: On virtual community formation by right-wing extremists. Information, Communication & Society, 11(8), 1155–1176.Google Scholar
  16. DeLanda, M. (2006). A new philosophy of society: Assemblage theory and social complexity. London: Bloomsbury Academic.Google Scholar
  17. Diani, M. (2003). Networks and social movements: A research programme. In M. Diani & D. McAdam (Eds.), Social movements and networks: Relational approaches to collective action (pp. 299–319). Oxford and New York: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Dinas, E., Georgiadou, V., Konstantinidis, I., & Rori, L. (2013). From dusk to dawn: Local party organization and party success of right-wing extremism. Party Politics, 1–13.Google Scholar
  19. Ekathimerini (2012). Wordpress suspends Chrysi Avgi’s blog, May 10. Retrieved May 26, 2015, from
  20. Georgiadou V. (2013). Right-wing populism and extremism: The rapid rise of “Golden Dawn” in crisis-ridden greece. In R. Melzer & S. Serafi (Eds.), Right-wing extremism in Europe: Country analyses, counter-strategies and labor-market oriented exit strategies. Berlin: Friedrich Ebert Foundation, Forum Berlin/Politischer Dialog. Retrieved May 26, 2015, from Scholar
  21. Georgiadou, V., Kafe, A., & Nezi, R. (2012). The radical right parties under the economic crisis: The Greek case. Political Studies Association Annual International Conference (62nd), April 3–5, 2012, Belfast, UK.Google Scholar
  22. Glaser, J., Dixit, J., & Green, D. P. (2002). Studying hate crime with the internet: What makes racists advocate racial violence? Journal of Social Issues, 58(1), 177–193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Golden Dawn New York [Χρυσή Αυγή Νέας Υόρκης] (2014). Golden Dawn main site back to normal and analysis of latest attempt to silence nationalists, January 5. Retrieved May 26, 2015, from
  24. Golden Dawn New York [Χρυσή Αυγή Νέας Υόρκης] (2015). System lackeys waste their money trying to hack Golden Dawn website, January 10. Retrieved May 26, 2015, from
  25. Hatzopoulos, P., & Kambouri, N. (2014). The cult of the fascist amateur. Retrieved May 26, 2015, from
  26. Hoffman, D. S. (1996). The web of hate: Extremists exploit the internet. New York: Anti-Defamation League.Google Scholar
  27. Interview (2014a). Administrator of Anti-Racist Facebook Page Leme Ochi sti Chrysi Avgi.Google Scholar
  28. Interview (2014b). YouTube Policy Officer, Google.Google Scholar
  29. Kasidiaris, I. (2012). Interview to Star TV, November 12. Retrieved May 26, 2015, from
  30. Kompatsiaris, P., & Mylonas, Y. (2015). The rise of Nazism and the web: Social media as platforms of racist discourses in the context of the greek economic crisis. In C. Fuchs & D. Trottier (Eds.), Social media, politics and the state: Protests, revolutions, riots, crime, and policing in the age of Facebook, Twitter and YouTube (pp. 109–130). New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  31. Langlois, G. (2011). Meaning, semiotechnologies and participatory media. Culture Machine, 12, 1–27.Google Scholar
  32. Latour, B. (1990). Technology is society made durable. The Sociological Review, 38(1), 103–131.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Monitor (2015). Social media monitoring. Retrieved May 27, 2015, from
  34. Nakamura, L. (2002). Cybertypes: Race, ethnicity, and identity on the internet. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  35. Nakamura, L. (2008). Digitizing race: Visual cultures of the internet. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press.Google Scholar
  36. Psarras, D. (2010). Το κρυφό χέρι του Καρατζαφέρη: Η τηλεοπτική αναγέννηση της Ελληνικής ακροδεξιάς [Karatzaferi’s hidden hand: The TV renaissance of the Greek far right]. Athens: Alexandria.Google Scholar
  37. Rajagopal, I., & Boijn, N. (2002). Digital representation: Racism on the world wide web. First Monday, 7(10). Retrieved May 27, 2015, from
  38. Sharma, S. (2013). Black Twitter?: Racial hashtags, networks and contagion. New Formations, 78(1), 46–64.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Shirky, C. (2011). The political power of social media: Technology, the public sphere, and political change. Foreign Affairs, 90, 28–41.Google Scholar
  40. Titley, G. (2013). They called a war, and someone came: The communicative politics of Breivik’s ideoscape. Nordic Journal of Migration Research, 3(4), 216–224.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Titley, G. (2014). No apologies for cross-posting: European trans-media space and the digital circuitries of racism. Crossings: Journal of Migration & Culture, 5(1), 41–55.Google Scholar
  42. van den Boomen, M. (Ed.) (2009). Digital material: Tracing new media in everyday life and technology (Vol. 2). Amsterdam: Amsterdam University Press.Google Scholar
  43. Williams, D., Martins, N., Consalvo, M., & Ivory, J. D. (2009). The virtual census: Representations of gender, race and age in video games. New Media & Society, 11(5), 815–834.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. Zhou, Y., Reid, E., Qin, J., Chen, H., & Lai, G. (2005). US domestic extremist groups on the web: Link and content analysis. Intelligent systems. IEEE, 20(5), 44–51.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Eugenia Siapera
    • 1
  • Mariangela Veikou
    • 2
  1. 1.Dublin City UniversityDublinIreland
  2. 2.University of the PeloponneseCorinthGreece

Personalised recommendations