International Norms in the New Common Spaces: A New Challenge in the Twenty-First Century

  • Alexey Fenenko


This chapter discusses the issues relating to the international governance of “common spaces”. At present, it is possible to talk about five such spaces (ocean space, subarctic space, sky space, outer space, and information space). These spaces cannot be used as territorial areas, but they definitely can be used for communication. People do not live in these spaces, but they use them for different activities. Most of these spaces are either internationally governed or regulated by international laws. However, the twenty-first century marked the beginning of struggle among the super states for the repartition of these spaces, which eventually could lead to new crises or a new order.


Arctic Ocean Outer Space Common Space Lomonosov Ridge Arctic Council 
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Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Alexey Fenenko
    • 1
  1. 1.Moscow State University (Lomonosov University)MoscowRussia

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