Advertisement

Return as Restoration and Restitution

  • Michela Baldo
Chapter

Abstract

This chapter discusses the findings of the textual analysis of code-switching, that is the switch from a language to another, in Ricci’s trilogy (1990, 1993, 1997), Paci’s Italian Shoes (2002) and Melfi’s Italy Revisited (2009), in the light of the social narratives of return which surround the Italian translations of these works (Ricci 2004; Paci 2007; Melfi 2009). The analysis confirms how the code-switched items categorised in this body of writing are also commonly found in other diasporic writing, and that code-switching involves linguistic areas which are also likely to be code-switched in oral conversation. Moreover, it confirms how code-switching, by focusing on elements such as origins and sense of guilt, contributes to the construction of narratives of return which are framed in terms of restoration of a sense of wholeness and restitution of loss as a result of the fractures opened up by emigration or as a result of the loss of memory about such emigration.

Bibliography

  1. Abbott, Porter. 2008. The Cambridge Introduction to Narrative, 2nd ed. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  2. Anselmi, William. 2016. “The Theme of Cultural Displacement in the Novel, Where She Has Gone”. In Nino Ricci: Essays on His Works, edited by Marino Tuzi, 49–66. Toronto: Guernica.Google Scholar
  3. Backus, Ad. 2001. “The Role of Semantic Specificity in Insertional Codeswitching: Evidence from Dutch-Turkish.” In Codeswitching Worldwide II, edited by Rodolfo Jacobson, 125–154. Berlin and New York: Mouton de Gruyter.Google Scholar
  4. Baker, Mona. 2006. Translation and Conflict: A Narrative Account. London and New York: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. ———. 2014. “Translation as Renarration.” In Translation: A Multidisciplinary Approach, edited by Juliane House, 158–177. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  6. Bal, Mieke. 1985. Narratology: Introduction to the Theory of Narrative. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.Google Scholar
  7. ———. 2007. “Translating Translation.” Journal of Visual Culture 6 (1): 109–124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Baldassar, Loretta. 2001. “Tornare al paese: territorio e identità nel processo migratorio.” AltreItalie 23: 9–36.Google Scholar
  9. Baldo, Michela. 2008. “Translation as Re-Narration in Italian-Canadian Writing: Codeswitching, Focalisation, Voice and Plot in Nino Ricci’s Trilogy and its Italian Translation.” Unpublished PhD thesis. University of Manchester.Google Scholar
  10. Bandia, Paul. 2008. Translation as Reparation: Writing and Translation in Postcolonial Africa. Manchester: St Jerome Publishing.Google Scholar
  11. Bassnett, Susan, and Peter Bush, eds. 2006. The Translator as Writer. New York and London: Continuum.Google Scholar
  12. Beneventi, Domenic. 2004. “Ethnic Heterotopias: The Construction of Place in Italian-Canadian Writing.” In Adjacencies, edited by Licia Canton, Lianne Moyes, and Domenic A. Beneventi, 216–234, Toronto: Guernica.Google Scholar
  13. Benjamin, Walter. 1923/2000. “The Task of the Translator: An Introduction to the Translation of Baudelaire’s Tableaux Parisiens.” Translated by Harry Zohn. In The Translation Studies Reader, edited by Lawrence Venuti, 15–25. New York and London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  14. Bottone, Angelo. 2011. “Translation and Justice in Paul Ricoeur.” In Translation and Philosphy, edited by Lisa Foran, 65–74. Bern: Peter Lang.Google Scholar
  15. Brah, Avtar. 1996. Cartographies of Diaspora. London and New York: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Burns, Jennifer. 2003. “Frontiere nel testo: Autori, collaborazioni e mediazioni nella scrittura italofona della migrazione”. In Borderlines Migrazioni e identità nel novecento, edited by Jennifer Burns and Loredana Polezzi, 203–223. Isernia: Cosmo Iannone Editore.Google Scholar
  17. ———. 2013. Migrant Imaginaries: Figures in Italian Migration Literature. Oxford, Bern, Berlin and New York: Peter Lang.Google Scholar
  18. Canton, Jeffrey. 1990. “Nino Ricci in an Interview with Jeffrey Canton.” Quill and Quire 56 (7): 53–56.Google Scholar
  19. ———. 1998. “Recreating Paradise.” In The Power to Bend Spoons: Interviews with Canadian Novelists, edited by Daurio Beverly, 132–140. Toronto: Mercury.Google Scholar
  20. Canton, Licia. 2002. “Translating Italian-Canadian Writers: Un’ intervista con Gabriella Iacobucci.” In The Dynamics of Cultural Exchange: Creative and Critical Works, edited by Licia Canton, 225–231. Montreal: Cusmano.Google Scholar
  21. Casagranda, Mirko. 2010. Traduzione e codeswitching come strategie discorsive del plurilinguismo canadese. Trento: Università degli studi di Trento.Google Scholar
  22. Cavagnoli, Franca. 2014. “Translation and Creation in a Postcolonial Context.” In Languages and Translation in Post-colonial Literatures, edited by Simona Bertacco, 165–179. New York and London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  23. Cavarero, Adriana. 2000. Relating Narratives: Storytelling and Selfhood. Translated by Paul Kottman. London and New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  24. Cincotta, Madeleine.1996. “Naturalising Linguistic Aliens: The Translation of Code-Switching.” Paper presented at a University of Western Sydney’s Conference on Interpreting and Translation.Google Scholar
  25. Colucci, Michele. 2008. Lavoro in movimento. L’emigrazione italiana in Europa, 1945–57. Roma: Donzelli.Google Scholar
  26. Currie, Mark. 2011 (second edition). Post-modern Narrative Theory. New York: St. Martin’s Press.Google Scholar
  27. De Clementi, Andreina. 2010. Il prezzo della ricostruzione. L’emigrazione italiana nel secondo dopoguerra. Roma, Bari: Laterza.Google Scholar
  28. Delabastita, Dirk, and Rainier Grutman. 2005. “Fictional Representations of Multilingualism and Translation.” Linguistica Antverpiensia New Series 4: 11–35.Google Scholar
  29. De Luca, Anna Pia. 2013. “Lo Specchio dell’Io: Ritornando da scrittrici.” In Oltreoceano. Donne al caleidoscopio. La riscrittura dell’identità femminile nei testi dell’emigrazione tra l’Italia, le Americhe e l’Australia, edited by Silvana Serafin, 45–55. Udine: Forum editrice.Google Scholar
  30. DeMaria Harney, Nicholas. 1998. Eh Paesan! Being Italian in Toronto. Toronto: University of Toronto Press.Google Scholar
  31. De Rooij, Vincent. 1996. Cohesion Through Contrast: Discourse Structure in Shaba Swahili/French Conversations. Amsterdam: IFOTT.Google Scholar
  32. Derrida, Jacques. 1985. “Des Tours de Babel.” In Difference in Translation, edited by Joseph F. Graham, 165–207. New York: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  33. ———. 1988. The Ear of the Other: Otobiography, Transference, Translation. Translated by Peggy Kamuf and Avital Ronell. Lincoln and London: University of Nebraska Press.Google Scholar
  34. ———. 2001. “What It a Relevant Translation.” Critical Inquiry 27 (2): 174–200.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Doughty, Howard. 2016. “The Novelist as Anthropologist: An Essay on the Fictional Work of Nino Ricci.” In Nino Ricci: Essays on His Works, edited by Marino Tuzi, 93–112. Toronto: Guernica.Google Scholar
  36. Dvorak, Marta. 1994. “Nino Ricci’s Lives of the Saints.” Commonwealth Essays and Studies 17 (1): 58–66.Google Scholar
  37. Emmerich, Karen. 2018. Literary Translation and the Making of Originals. New York and London: Bloomsbury.Google Scholar
  38. Fiore, Teresa. 2017. Pre-occupied Spaces: Remapping Italy’s Transnational Migrations and Colonial Legacies. New York: Fordham University Press.Google Scholar
  39. Foran, Lisa. 2015. “An Ethics of Discomfort: Supplementing Ricoeur on Translation.” Études Ricoeuriennes/Ricoeur Studies 6 (1): 25–45.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Franco Arcia, Ulises. 2012. “Translating Multilingual Texts: The Case of ‘Strictly Professional’ in Killing Me Softly. Morir Amando by Francisco Ibáñez-Carrasco.” Mutatis Mutandis 5 (1): 65–85.Google Scholar
  41. García Vizcaíno, María José. 2005. “Translating Code-Switching in Chicano Fiction.” Translation Studies in the New Millennium 3: 111–121. Google Scholar
  42. ———. 2008. “Cisneros’ Code-Mixed Narrative and its Implications for Translation.” Mutatis Mutandis 1 (2): 212–224.Google Scholar
  43. Grutman, Rainer. 1998. “Multilingualism and Translation.” In Routledge Encyclopedia of Translation Studies, edited by Mona Baker, 157–160. New York and London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  44. Guldin, Rainer. 2016. Translation as Metaphor, Kindle Edition. New York and London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  45. Iacobucci, Gabriella. 2004. “Quando l’autore è di origine italiana.” Unpublished paper presented at the Conference “Oltre la Storia” [“Beyond History”] at the University of Udine, May.Google Scholar
  46. ———. 2011. “Translating Otherness: From Italy to Canada and Return.” Unpublished paper presented at the Seminar Series Transnational Journeys: Canada and Europe. University of Bologna, 20 April.Google Scholar
  47. ———. 2017. “La lingua del ritorno. Molisani in Canada e storia di una traduzione.” In In-Between Spaces: percorsi interculturali e transdisciplinari della migrazione tra lingue, identità e memoria, edited by Nino Arrigo, Annalisa Bonomo and Karl Chircop, 31–40. Avellino: Edizioni Sinestesie.Google Scholar
  48. ———. 2018. “Interview.” In Italian-Canadian Narratives of Return. Analysing Cultural Translation in Diasporic Writing, by Michela Baldo. London: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  49. Iser, Wolfgang. 1993. Prospecting: From Reader Response to Literary Anthropology. Baltimore: Johns Hopkins University Press.Google Scholar
  50. Kruger, Jan-Louis. 2004. “Translating Traces: Deconstruction and the Practice of Translation.” Literator 25 (1): 47–71.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Lamberti, Elena. 2013. “Introduction.” In Writing Our Way Home, edited by Licia Canton and Caroline Morgan Di Giovanni, 11–18. Toronto: Guernica.Google Scholar
  52. Lombardi, Norberto. 2018. “Interview.” In Italian-Canadian Narratives of Return: Analysing Cultural Translation in Diasporic Writing, by Michela Baldo. London: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  53. Lorriggio, Francesco. 2004. “Italian Migration Outside Europe: Cultural, Historical and Literary Issues.” Neohelicon XXXI (1): 19–42.Google Scholar
  54. Madott, Darlene, and Gianna Patriarca. 2013. “Reverse Translation.” In Writing Our Way Home, edited by Licia Canton and Caroline Morgan Di Giovanni, 155–166. Toronto: Guernica.Google Scholar
  55. Mangione, Silvana. 2018. “Interview.” In Italian-Canadian Narratives of Return. Analysing Cultural Translation in Diasporic Writing, by Michela Baldo. London: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  56. Martin, Holly E. 2005. “Code-Switching in US Ethnic Literature: Multiple Perspectives Presented Through Multiple Languages.” Changing English 12 (3): 403–415.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. Maschler, Yael. 1994. “Metalanguaging and Discourse Markers in Bilingual Conversation.” Language in Society 23 (3): 325–366.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Melfi, Mary. 2009. Italy Revisited: Conversations with My Mother. Toronto: Guernica.Google Scholar
  59. ———. 2012. Ritorno in Italia: Conversazioni con mia madre. Isernia: Cosmo Iannone Editore.Google Scholar
  60. ———. 2018. “Interview.” In Italian-Canadian Narratives of Return: Analysing Cultural Translation in Diasporic Writing, by Michela Baldo. London: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  61. Mullen, Amanda. 2004. “Neither Here Nor There: Redirecting the Homeward Gaze in Nino Ricci’s Lives of the Saints, In a Glass House and Where She Has Gone.” Canadian Ethnic Studies XXXVI (2): 29–50.Google Scholar
  62. Munday, Jeremy. 2008. Style and Ideology in Translation. New York and London: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  63. O’Neill, Patrick. 1994. Fictions of Discourse: Reading Narrative Theory. Toronto and London: University of Toronto Press.Google Scholar
  64. Paci, Frank. 1993. Sex and Character. Ottawa: Oberon Press.Google Scholar
  65. ———. 2002. Italian Shoes. Toronto: Guernica.Google Scholar
  66. ——–. 2003. “Interview in Three Parts.” In F. G. Paci: Essays on His Works, edited by Joseph Pivato, 132–144. Toronto: Guernica.Google Scholar
  67. ———. 2007. Scarpe italiane. Translated by Silvana Mangione. Isernia: Cosmo Iannone Editore.Google Scholar
  68. ———. 2018. “Interview.” In Italian-Canadian Narratives of Return: Analysing Cultural Translation in Diasporic Writing, by Michela Baldo. London: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  69. Parati, Graziella, and Anthony Julian Tamburry, eds. 2011. “Thinking Anew: An Introduction.” In The Cultures of Italian Migration, by Graziella Parati and Anthony Julian Tamburri, 1–7. Madison-Teaneck: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press.Google Scholar
  70. Patriarca, Gianna. 1994. Italian Women and Other Tragedies. Toronto: Guernica.Google Scholar
  71. Pitto, Cesare. 2013. Oltre l’emigrazione. Antropologia del non ritorno delle genti di Calabria. Cosenza: Falco Editore.Google Scholar
  72. Pivato, Joseph. 1994. Echo: Essays on Other Literatures. Toronto: Guernica.Google Scholar
  73. Ricci, Nino. 1990. Lives of the Saints. Toronto: Cormorant Press.Google Scholar
  74. ———. 1993. In a Glass House. New York: Picador USA.Google Scholar
  75. ———. 1997. Where She Has Gone. Toronto: McClelland & Stewart.Google Scholar
  76. ———. 2000. Il fratello italiano [The Italian Brother]. Translated by Gabriella Iacobucci. Roma: Fazi Editore.Google Scholar
  77. ———. 2003. Roots and Frontiers/Radici e frontiere. Edited and translated by Carmen Concilio. Turin: Tirrenia Stampatori.Google Scholar
  78. ———. 2004. La terra del ritorno. Translated by Gabriella Iacobucci. Roma: Fazi Editore.Google Scholar
  79. ———. 2018. “Interview.” In Italian-Canadian Narratives of Return. Analysing Cultural Translation in Diasporic Writing, by Michela Baldo. London: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  80. Ricoeur, Paul. 2004. Sur la traduction. Paris: Bayard.Google Scholar
  81. ———. 2007. Reflections of the Just. Translated by D. Pellauer. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  82. Rimmer, Mary. 1993. “Nino Ricci: A Big Canvas. Interview by Mary Rimmer”. Studies in Canadian Literature 18 (2): 168–184.Google Scholar
  83. Rimmon-Kenan, Shlomith. 1983. Narrative Fiction: Contemporary Poetics. London: Methuen.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Somers, Margaret. 1997. “Deconstructing and Reconstructing Class Formation Theory: Narrativity, Relational Analysis, and Social Theory.” In Reworking Class, edited by John R. Hall, 73–105. Ithaca and London: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  85. Somers, Margaret R., and Gloria D. Gibson. 1994. “Reclaiming the Epistemological ‘Other’: Narrative and the Social Constitution of Identity”. In Social Theory and the Politics of Identity, edited by Craig Calhoun, 37–99. Oxford and Cambridge: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  86. Stella, Gian Antonio. 2003. Quando gli albanesi eravamo noi. Milano: Rizzoli.Google Scholar
  87. Taddeo, Raffaele. 2010. La ferita di Odisseo. Il ritorno nella letteratura italiana della migrazione. Lecce: Salento Books.Google Scholar
  88. Teti, Vito. 2011. Pietre di pane. Un’antropologia del restare. Macerata: Quodlibet Studio.Google Scholar
  89. ———. 2013. “Dalla parte di chi parte, dalla parte di chi resta. La ricerca di appaesamento nei viaggi e nei ritorni di Cesare Pitto.” In Preface to Oltre l’emigrazione. Antropologia del non ritorno delle genti di Calabria, V–XIV. Cosenza: Falco Editore.Google Scholar
  90. ———. 2017. Quel che resta. L’Italia dei paesi tra abbandoni e ritorni. Roma: Donzelli Editore.Google Scholar
  91. Tirabassi, Maddalena, ed. 2005. Itinera. Paradigmi delle migrazioni italiane. Turin: Edizione della Fondazione Giovanni Agnelli.Google Scholar
  92. ———. 2006. “Italian Identity and the Migratory Experience.” Unpublished paper presented at the Workshop on “Mobility and Identity Formation: The ‘Italian case’” at the University of Warwick, 15–16 June 2007, 1–10.Google Scholar
  93. ———. 2009. “I luoghi della memoria delle migrazioni.” In Annali, edited by Paola Corti and Matteo Sanfilippo, 709–723. Torino: Einaudi.Google Scholar
  94. ———. 2010. I motori della memoria. Le piemontesi in Argentina. Torino: Rosenberg and Sellier.Google Scholar
  95. ———. 2015. “The Development of Italian-American Studies and the Italian Diaspora”. In Transcending Borders, Bridging Gaps: Italian Americana, Diasporic Studies, and the University Curriculum, edited by Anthony Julian Tamburri and Fred Gardaphé, 103–113. New York: John D. Calandra Italian-American Institute.Google Scholar
  96. Tirabassi, Maddalena, and Alvise del Pra’, eds. 2014. La meglio Italia. Le mobilità italiane nel XXI secolo. Torino: Accademia University Press.Google Scholar
  97. ———. 2016. “The New Italian Mobility in Europe.” In From Internal to Transnational Mobilities, edited by Bruno Riccio, 11–136. Bologna: I libri di Emil.Google Scholar
  98. Venuti, Lawrence. 1995. The Translator’s Invisibility: A History of Translation. London and New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  99. ———. 1998. The Scandals of Translation: Towards an Ethics of Difference. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  100. Verdicchio, Pasquale. 1997a. Devils in Paradise: Writings on Post-Emigrant Cultures. Toronto: Guernica.Google Scholar
  101. ———. 1997b. Bound by Distance: Rethinking Nationalism Through the Italian Diaspora. Madison, NJ: Fairleigh Dickinson University Press.Google Scholar
  102. ———. 2000. The House is Past. Poems 1978–1998. Toronto: Guernica.Google Scholar
  103. Vizmuller-Zocco, Jana. 1995. “The Languages of Italian-Canadians.” Italica 72 (4): 512–529.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Zucchero, Jim. 2016. ‘Post-colonialism and Shifting Notions of Exile in Nino Ricci’s Fictional Trilogy.” In Nino Ricci: Essays on His Works, edited by Marino Tuzi, 67–92. Toronto: Guernica.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michela Baldo
    • 1
  1. 1.Modern Languages and CulturesUniversity of HullHullUK

Personalised recommendations