Advertisement

Framing the Teaching of Pronunciation

  • Martha C. Pennington
  • Pamela Rogerson-Revell
Chapter
Part of the Research and Practice in Applied Linguistics book series (RPAL)

Abstract

Pronunciation teaching is framed within the wider context and historical development of language theory and pedagogy, in relation to contexts and understandings about language, language learning, and language pedagogy, and to the decision-making criteria that teachers need to consider in designing instruction. In their curricular planning, teachers make decisions about pronunciation models, curricular goals, and priorities, always in relation to their particular students and the types of interactions they need English for, whether communicating with other L2 speakers or with L1 English speakers. The proposal of a “Lingua Franca Core” to ensure minimal intelligibility in English as an International Language (EIL) contexts is reviewed, and two case studies illustrate how student needs and context of language use can determine teaching practices as a form of applied research.

References

  1. Allwright, R. L. (1984). Why don’t learners learn what teachers teach? The interaction hypothesis. In D. M. Singleton & D. G. Little (Eds.), Language learning in formal and informal contexts (pp. 3–18). Dublin: IRAAL.Google Scholar
  2. Altenberg, E. P., & Vago, R. M. (1983). Theoretical implications of an error analysis of second language phonology production. Language Learning, 33(4), 427–448.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-1770.1983.tb00943.x
  3. Beinhoff, B. (2013). Perceiving identity through accent: Attitudes towards non-native speakers and their accents in English. Oxford and Bern: Peter Lang.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Block, D. (2003). The social turn in second language acquisition. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.Google Scholar
  5. Bradac, J. J. (1990). Language attitudes and impression formation. In H. Giles & W. P. Robinson (Eds.), Handbook of language and social psychology (pp. 387–412). Chichester, UK: Wiley.Google Scholar
  6. Brown, A. (1991). Pronunciation models. Singapore: Singapore University Press.Google Scholar
  7. Brumfit, C. J., & Johnson, K. (1979). The communicative approach to language teaching. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  8. Cargile, A. C., Giles, H., Ryan, E. B., & Bradac, J. J. (1994). Language attitudes as a social process: A conceptual model and new directions. Language & Communication, 14(3), 211–236.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0271-5309(94)90001-9
  9. Carrie, E. (2017). British is professional, American is urban: Attitudes towards English reference accents in Spain. International Journal of Applied Linguistics, 27(2), 427–447.  https://doi.org/10.1111/ijal.12139CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Catford, J. C. (1987). Phonetics and the teaching of pronunciation: A systematic description of English phonology. In J. Morley (Ed.), Current trends in pronunciation: Practices anchored in theory (pp. 87–100). Washington, DC: TESOL.Google Scholar
  11. Chomsky, N. (1965). Aspects of the theory of syntax. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
  12. Chun, D. (2007). Technological advances in researching and teaching phonology. In M. C. Pennington (Ed.), Phonology in context (pp. 274–229). Basingstoke, UK and New York: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Collins, B., & Mees, I. M. (2013). Practical phonetics and phonology: A resource book for students (3rd ed.). Abingdon, UK and New York: Routledge.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Coste, D., Moore, D., & Zarate, G. (2009/1997). Plurilingual and pluricultural competence. Strasbourg: Council of Europe, Language Policy Division. Studies towards a Common European Framework of Reference for language learning and teaching. Revised from original version that appeared in French, 1997. Retrieved January 3, 2017, from https://www.coe.int/t/dg4/linguistic/Source/SourcePublications/CompetencePlurilingue09web_en.pdf
  15. Council of Europe. (2001). Common European framework of reference for languages: Learning, teaching, assessment. Strasbourg: Council of Europe, Language Policy Division. Retrieved January 3, 2017, from http://www.coe.int/lang. Also published in its English language version under the same title by Cambridge University Press.
  16. Cruttenden, A. (2008). Gimson’s pronunciation of English (7th ed.). London: Hodder Education.Google Scholar
  17. Cruttenden, A. (2014). Gimson’s pronunciation of English (8th ed.). London: Hodder Education.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Dalton, C., & Seidlhofer, B. (1994). Pronunciation. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  19. Dalton-Puffer, C. (2007). Discourse in content and language integrated learning (CLIL) classrooms. Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Dauer, R. M. (2005). The Lingua Franca Core: A new model for pronunciation instruction? TESOL Quarterly, 39(3), 543–550.  https://doi.org/10.2307/3588494
  21. Derwing, T. M., & Munro, M. J. (2015). Pronunciation fundamentals: Evidence-based perspectives for L2 teaching and research. Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Derwing, T. M., & Rossiter, M. J. (2002). ESL learners’ perceptions of their pronunciation needs and strategies. System, 30(2), 155–166.  https://doi.org/10.1016/S0346-251X(02)00012-X
  23. Dudley-Evans, T., & St. John, M. J. (1998). Developments in English for specific purposes: A multi-disciplinary approach. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  24. Eckert, P. (2000). Linguistic variation as social practice. Oxford: Blackwell.Google Scholar
  25. Eckert, P., & Rickford, J. R. (2001). Style and sociolinguistic variation. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  26. Edwards, J. (1994). Multilingualism. London: Penguin Books.Google Scholar
  27. Ellis, N. C. (1994). Implicit and explicit processes in language acquisition: An introduction. In N. C. Ellis (Ed.), Implicit and explicit learning of languages (pp. 1–32). London: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  28. Ellis, R. (2003). Task-based language teaching and learning. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  29. English Language Services. (1964). English 900. New York: Collier Macmillan.Google Scholar
  30. Esling, J. H. (1987). Methodology for voice setting awareness in language classes. Revue de Phonétique Appliquée, 85, 449–473.Google Scholar
  31. Flege, J. E., Munro, M., & MacKay, I. R. A. (1995). Factors affecting strength of perceived foreign accent in a second language. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 97(5), 3125–3134.  https://doi.org/10.1121/1.413041
  32. Fought, C. (2006). Language and ethnicity: Key topics in sociolinguistics. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. García, O. (2009). Bilingual education in the 21st century: A global perspective. Oxford: Wiley Blackwell.Google Scholar
  34. Genesee, F. (1987). Learning through two languages: Studies of immersion and bilingual education. Cambridge, MA: Newbury House.Google Scholar
  35. Gilbert, J. B. (2012). Clear speech: Pronunciation and listening comprehension in North American English (4th ed.). New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Giles, H. (1970). Evaluative reactions to accents. Educational Review, 22(3), 211–227.  https://doi.org/10.1080/0013191700220301
  37. Giles, H., Bourhis, R. Y., & Taylor, D. M. (1977). Towards a theory of language in ethnic group relations. In H. Giles (Ed.), Language, ethnicity and intergroup relations (pp. 307–348). London: Academic Press.Google Scholar
  38. Giles, H., & Sassoon, C. (1983). The effect of speaker’s accent, social class background and message style on British listeners’ social judgments. Language and Communication, 3(3), 305–313.  https://doi.org/10.1016/0271-5309(83)90006-X
  39. Gluszek, A., & Dovidio, J. F. (2010). The way they speak: A social psychological perspective on the stigma of nonnative accents in communication. Personality and Social Psychology Review, 14(2), 214–237.  https://doi.org/10.1177/1088868309359288CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Graddol, D. (2006). English next: Why global English may mean the end of “English as a Foreign Language”. The British Council. Retrieved September 11, 2017, from https://englishagenda.britishcouncil.org/continuing-professional-development/cpd-researchers/english-next
  41. Halliday, M. A. K. (1970). Language structure and language function. In J. Lyons (Ed.), New horizons in linguistics (pp. 140–165). Harmondsworth, UK: Penguin.Google Scholar
  42. Halliday, M. A. K. (1973). Explorations in the functions of language. London: Edward Arnold.Google Scholar
  43. Hammerly, H. (1982). Synthesis in second language teaching: An introduction to languistics[sic]. Blaine, WA: Second Language Publications.Google Scholar
  44. Harris, Z. (1951). Methods in structural linguistics. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  45. Hecht, B. F., & Mulford, R. (1987/1980). The acquisition of a second language phonology: Interaction of transfer and developmental factors. In G. Ioup & S. Weinberger (Eds.), Interlanguage phonology: The acquisition of a second language sound system (pp. 213–228). New York: Harper & Row. Originally published 1980 in Papers and Reports in Child Language Development, 18, 61–74.Google Scholar
  46. Hockett, C. (1958). A course in modern linguistics. New York: Macmillan.Google Scholar
  47. Hoenigswald, H. (1960). Language change and linguistic reconstruction. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  48. Honey, J. (1989). Does accent matter? The Pygmalion factor. London: Faber and Faber.Google Scholar
  49. Hornby, A. S. (1950). The situational approach to language teaching: A series of three articles in English. Language Teaching, 4, 98–104, 121–128, 150–156.Google Scholar
  50. Hymes, D. (1972). On communicative competence. In J. B. Pride & J. Holmes (Eds.), Sociolinguistics (pp. 269–293). Harmondsworth, UK: Penguin.Google Scholar
  51. Isaacs, T., & Trofimovich, P. (2012). Deconstructing comprehensibility. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 34(4), 475–505.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0272263112000150
  52. Jenkins, J. (2000). The phonology of English as an international language. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  53. Jenkins, J. (2002). A sociolinguistically based, empirically researched pronunciation syllabus for English as an international language. Applied Linguistics, 23(1), 83–103.  https://doi.org/10.1093/applin/23.1.83
  54. Jenkins, J. (2005). Implementing an international approach to English pronunciation: The role of teacher attitudes and identity. TESOL Quarterly, 39(3), 535–543.  https://doi.org/10.2307/3588493CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. Jenkins, J. (2012). English as a lingua franca from the classroom to the classroom. English Language Teaching Journal, 66(4), 486–494.  https://doi.org/10.1093/elt/ccs040CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. Jenner, B. (1989). Teaching pronunciation: The common core. Speak Out! 4, 2–4. Kent, UK: IATEFL Pronunciation Special Interest Group.Google Scholar
  57. Johnstone, B. (2009). Stance, style and the linguistic individual. In A. Jaffe (Ed.), Sociolinguistic perspectives on stance (pp. 29–52). New York: Oxford University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. Kachru, B. B. (1985). Standards, codification and sociolinguistic realism: The English language in the outer circle. In R. Quirk & H. Widdowson (Eds.), English in the world: Teaching and learning the language and literatures (pp. 11–30). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  59. Kang, O., & Moran, M. (2014). Functional loads of pronunciation features in nonnative speakers’ oral assessment. TESOL Quarterly, 48(1), 176–187.  https://doi.org/10.1002/tesq.152CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. Kenworthy, J. (1989). Teaching English pronunciation. London: Longman.Google Scholar
  61. Kibishi, H., Hirabayashi, K., & Nakagawa, S. (2014). A statistical method of evaluating the pronunciation proficiency/intelligibility of English presentations by Japanese speakers. ReCALL, 27(1), 58–83.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0958344014000251CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. Krashen, S. (1982). Principles and practice in second language acquisition. Oxford: Pergamon Press.Google Scholar
  63. Krashen, S. (1985). The input hypothesis: Issue and implications. New York: Longman.Google Scholar
  64. Krashen, S., & Terrell, T. (1983). The natural approach: Language acquisition in the classroom. Oxford: Pergamon.Google Scholar
  65. Kuo, I.-C. (2006). Addressing the issue of teaching English as a lingua franca. ELT Journal, 60(3), 213–221.  https://doi.org/10.1093/elt/ccl001CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. Labov, J., & Hanau, C. (2011). Pronunciation as life and death: Improving the communication skills of non-native English speaking pathologists. In B. J. Hoekje & S. M. Tipton (Eds.), English language and the medical profession: Instructing and assessing the communication skills of international physicians (pp. 261–285). Bingley, UK; Leiden and Boston: Emerald; Brill.Google Scholar
  67. Labov, W. (1966). The social stratification of English in New York City. Washington, DC: Center for Applied Linguistics.Google Scholar
  68. Labov, W. (1972). Sociolinguistic patterns. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press.Google Scholar
  69. Lado, R. (1964). Language teaching: A scientific approach. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  70. Levis, J. M. (2005). Changing contexts and shifting paradigms. TESOL Quarterly, 39(3), 369–377.  https://doi.org/10.2307/3588485CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. Levis, J. M. (2016). The interaction of research and pedagogy (Editorial). Journal of Second Language Pronunciation, 2(1), 1–7.  https://doi.org/10.1075/jslp.2.1.001levCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. Levis, J. M., & Barriuso, T. A. (2012). Nonnative speakers’ pronunciation errors in spoken and read English. In. J. Levis & K. LeVelle (Eds.), Proceedings of the 3rd pronunciation in second language learning and teaching conference, September 2011 (pp. 187–194). Ames, IA: Iowa State University.Google Scholar
  73. Levis, J. M., & Grant, L. (2003). Integrating pronunciation into ESL/EFL classrooms. TESOL Journal, 12(2), 13–19.  https://doi.org/10.1002/j.1949-3533.2003.tb00125.x
  74. Li Wei. (2011). Moment analysis and translanguaging space. Journal of Pragmatics, 43(5), 1222–1235.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.pragma.2010.Z07.035
  75. Logan, J. S., Lively, S. E., & Pisoni, D. B. (1991). Training Japanese listeners to identify English /ɹ/ and /l/: A first report. Journal of the Acoustical Society of America, 89(2), 874–886.  https://doi.org/10.1121/1.1894649
  76. Long, M. (2015). Second language acquisition and task-based language teaching. Malden, MA and Oxford, UK: Wiley Blackwell.Google Scholar
  77. Low, E. L. (2006). A cross-varietal comparison of deaccenting and given information: Implications for international intelligibility and pronunciation teaching. TESOL Quarterly, 40(4), 739–761.  https://doi.org/10.2307/40264306CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Major, R. C. (2008). Transfer in second language phonology: An overview. In J. G. Hansen Edwards & M. L. Zampini (Eds.), Phonology and second language acquisition (pp. 63–94). Amsterdam and Philadelphia: John Benjamins.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Mey, J. (1981). Right or wrong, my native speaker. In F. Coulmas (Ed.), A festschrift for native speaker (pp. 69–84). The Hague: Mouton.Google Scholar
  80. Mompean, J. A. (2004). Options and criteria for the choice of an English pronunciation model in Spain. In J. Anderson, J. M. Oro Cabanas, & J. Varela Zapata (Eds.), Linguistic perspectives from the classroom: Language teaching in a multicultural Europe (pp. 1043–1059). Santiago de Compostela, Spain: Servizo de Publicacións e Intercambio Científico da Universidade de Santiago de Compostela Retrieved April 12, 2018, from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/259820691
  81. Mompean, J. A. (2008). Consumers’ preferences and the choice of English pronunciation models. In R. Monroy & A. Sánchez (Eds.), 25 years of applied linguistics in Spain: Milestones and challenges (pp. 959–964). Murcia, Spain: Editum.Google Scholar
  82. Moussu, L., & Llurda, E. (2008). Non-native English-speaking English language teachers: History and research. Language Teaching, 41(3), 315–348.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0261444808005028CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. Munro, M. J. (2003). A primer on accent discrimination in the Canadian context. TESL Canada Journal, 20(2), 38–51.  https://doi.org/10.18806/tesl.v20i2.947CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. Munro, M. J., & Derwing, T. M. (1995). Foreign accent, comprehensibility, and intelligibility in the speech of second language learners. Language Learning, 45(1), 73–97.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-1770.1995.tb00963.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  85. Munro, M. J., & Derwing, T. M. (2006). The functional load principle in ESL pronunciation instruction: An exploratory study. System, 34(4), 520–531.  https://doi.org/10.1016/j.system.2006.09.004CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. Munro, M. J., & Derwing, T. M. (2008). Segmental acquisition in adult ESL learners: A longitudinal study of vowel production. Language Learning, 58(3), 479–503.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9922.2008.00448.xCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. Munro, M. J., Derwing, T. M., & Morton, S. L. (2006). The mutual intelligibility of L2 speech. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 28(1), 111–131.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0272263106060049CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. Odlin, T. (1989). Language transfer: Cross-language influence in language learning. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. Orion, G. F. (1999). Pronouncing American English: Sounds, stress, and intonation. Boston: Heinle & Heinle.Google Scholar
  90. Ortega, L. (2013). SLA for the 21st century: Disciplinary progress, transdisciplinary relevance, and the bi/multilingual turn. Language Learning, 63(1), 1–24.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-9922.2012.00735.x
  91. Otsuji, E., & Pennycook, A. (2010). Metrolingualism: Fixity, fluidity and language in flux. International Journal of Multilingualism, 7(3), 240–254.  https://doi.org/10.1080/14790710903414331CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. Pennington, M. C. (1989). Applications of computers in the development of speaking and listening proficiency. In M. C. Pennington (Ed.), Teaching languages with computers: The state of the art (pp. 97–121). La Jolla, CA: Athelstan.Google Scholar
  93. Pennington, M. C. (1996). Phonology in English language teaching: An international approach. London and New York: Longman.Google Scholar
  94. Pennington, M. C. (2015a). Research, theory, and practice in second language phonology: A review and directions for the future. In J. A. Mompean & J. Fouz-González (Eds.), Investigating English pronunciation: Trends and directions (pp. 149–173). Basingstoke, UK and New York: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  95. Pennington, M. C. (2015b). From L2 phonology to pluriphonology: A new perspective on pronunciation theory, research, and practice. Presentation at the American Association for Applied Linguistics conference, Toronto, March 2015.Google Scholar
  96. Pennington, M. C. (2018). Identity in language learning. In J. C. Richards & A. Burns (Eds.), Cambridge guide on second language learning (pp. 91–98). New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  97. Pennington, M. C., & Esling, J. H. (1996). Computer-assisted development of spoken language kills. In M. C. Pennington (Ed.), The power of CALL (pp. 153–189). Houston: Athelstan.Google Scholar
  98. Pennington, M. C., & Richards, J. C. (2016). Teacher identity in language teaching: Integrating personal, contextual, and professional factors. RELC Journal, 47(1), 1–19.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. Pica, T. (1984). Pronunciation activities with an accent on communication. English Teaching Forum, 22(3), 2–6. Retrieved from https://babel.hathitrust.org/cgi/pt?id=nnc1.cu14472120
  100. Porter, D., & Garvin, S. (1989). Attitudes to pronunciation in EFL. Speak Out!, 5, 8–15. Kent, UK: IATEFL Pronunciation Special Interest Group.Google Scholar
  101. Rampton, B. (1995). Crossing: Language and ethnicity among adolescents. London: Longman.Google Scholar
  102. Ramsey, P. J. (2012). The bilingual school in the United States: A documentary history. Charlotte, NC: New Age Publishing.Google Scholar
  103. Richards, J. C. (1971). A non-contrastive approach to error analysis. English Language Teaching, 25(3), 204–219.  https://doi.org/10.1093/elt/XXV.3.204CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. Richards, J. C., & Rodgers, T. S. (2014). Approaches and methods in language teaching (3rd ed.). New York: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  105. Rogerson, P., & Gilbert, J. B. (1990). Speaking clearly. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  106. Rogerson-Revell, P. (2011). English phonology and pronunciation teaching. London: Bloomsbury.Google Scholar
  107. Rogerson-Revell, P. (2014). Pronunciation matters: Using English for international business communication. In R. van den Doel & L. Rupp (Eds.), Pronunciation matters (pp. 137–156). Amsterdam: VU Uitgeverij.Google Scholar
  108. Savignon, S. (1983). Communicative competence; theory and classroom practice. Reading, MA: Addison-Wesley.Google Scholar
  109. Scales, J., Wennerstrom, A., Richards, D., & Wu, S. (2006). Language learners’ perceptions of accent. TESOL Quarterly, 40(4), 715–738.  https://doi.org/10.2307/40264305CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  110. Seidlhofer, B. (2011). Understanding English as a lingua franca. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  111. Sewell, A. (2009). World Englishes, English as a lingua franca, and the case of Hong Kong English. English Today, 25(1), 37–43.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0266078409000066CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. Sewell, A. (2013). English as a lingua franca: Ontology and ideology. ELT Journal, 67(1), 3–10.  https://doi.org/10.1093/elt/ccs061CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. Shaw, P. (2008). Spelling, accent and identity in computer-mediated communication. English Today, 24(2), 42–49.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S0266078408000199CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  114. Skinner, B. F. (1957). Verbal behavior. New York: Appleton-Century-Crofts.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. Smith, L., & Nelson, C. (1985). International intelligibility of English: Directions and resources. World Englishes, 4(3), 333–342.  https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-971X.1985.tb00423.x
  116. Sung, C. C. M. (2013). English as a lingua franca and English language teaching: A way forward. ELT Journal, 67(3), 350–353.  https://doi.org/10.1093/elt/cct015CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  117. Tarone, E. E. (1978). The phonology of interlanguage. In J. C. Richards (Ed.), Understanding second and foreign language learning (pp. 15–33). Rowley, MA: Newbury House.Google Scholar
  118. Terrell, T. D. (1977). A natural approach to second language acquisition and learning. Modern Language Journal, 61(7), 325–336.  https://doi.org/10.2307/324551
  119. Terrell, T. D. (1982). The natural approach to language teaching: An update. Modern Language Journal, 66(2), 121–132.  https://doi.org/10.2307/326380
  120. Timmis, I. (2002). Native speaker norms and international English: A classroom view. ELT Journal, 56(3), 240–249.  https://doi.org/10.1093/elt/56.3.240
  121. Trudgill, P. (1974). The social differentiation of English in Norwich. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  122. Ur, P. (2012). English as an international language: Implications for classroom teaching and teaching materials. Lecture at Bar-Ilan University. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=yTidAm0dRR0
  123. Walker, R. (2011). Teaching the pronunciation of English as a lingua franca. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  124. Wells, J. C. (1982a). Accents of English 2: The British Isles. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  125. Wells, J. C. (1982b). Accents of English 3: Beyond the British Isles. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  126. Wells, J. C. (1997). Whatever happened to received pronunciation? In C. Medina Casado & C. Soto Palomo (Eds.), II Jornadas de Estudios Ingleses (pp. 19–28). Spain: Universidad de Jaén. Retrieved February 26, 2018, from http://www.phon.ucl.ac.uk/home/wells/pubs.htm
  127. Widdowson, H. G. (1978). Teaching language as communication. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  128. Widdowson, H. G. (1994). The ownership of English. TESOL Quarterly, 28(2), 377–389.  https://doi.org/10.2307/3587438CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. Wode, H. (1977). The L2 acquisition of /r/. Phonetica, 34(3), 200–217.  https://doi.org/10.1159/000259877
  130. Zuengler, J. (1988). Identity markers and L2 pronunciation. Studies in Second Language Acquisition, 10(1), 33–49.  https://doi.org/10.1017/S027226310000694X

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Martha C. Pennington
    • 1
  • Pamela Rogerson-Revell
    • 2
  1. 1.SOAS and Birkbeck CollegeUniversity of LondonLondonUK
  2. 2.EnglishUniversity of LeicesterLeicesterUK

Personalised recommendations