Dionysus Versus Apollo: An Uncertain Search for Identity Through Dark Tourism—Palestine as a Case Study
According to Nietzsche, European civilization has entered a phase of nihilism. The catastrophes of the twentieth century confirm this image. Adorno’s moral dictum that art and thinking become impossible after the Holocaust refers to this image (Isaac and Platenkamp, 2015; Tiedemann, 2003). Western morality has ended in a form of relativism that rejects any substantial value in the everyday life of the Western world (Mann 1948). This pessimistic line of thought leads to a devastating and completely relativized concept of identity. Identities are floating around without any point of anchorage. Nietzsche compares this situation to a state of passive nihilism in which no criterion can deliver the foundation of any identity. As an alternative to this nihilism, Nietzsche also talks about human tragedy. Nietzsche sees the origin of ancient Greek tragedy in the relation between Dionysus and Apollo—the birth of the tragedy in the first book by Nietzsche published in 1872. Nietzsche was at that time classics professor at Basle. He presents himself immediately as the great philosopher who is not confined to specialist considerations, but is searching for the bigger picture. The Birth of Tragedy is an early work, all the themes Nietzsche would elaborate upon in later works, including the will to power, moral criticism, the amor fati, and the eternal return.
- Abu Nahleh, L. (2006). Six families: Survival and mobility in times of crises. In L. Taraki (Ed.), Living Palestine: Family survival, resistance, and mobility under occupation. New York: Syracuse University Press.Google Scholar
- Abu-Lughod, L., & Sa’di, A. (2007). Introduction. In A. H. Sa’di & L. Abu-Lughod (Eds.), Nakba: Palestine, 1948 and the claims of memory. New York: Colombia University Press.Google Scholar
- Andoni, G. (1993). Non-violence tax resistance in Beitsahour. Beitsahour: Palestinian Centre for Rapprochement between People.Google Scholar
- Ashworth, G. J., & Hartmann, R. (2005). Horror and human tragedy revisited: The management of sites of atrocities for tourism. New York: Cognizant.Google Scholar
- Biran, A., & Poria, Y. (2012). Reconceptualising dark tourism. In R. Sharpley & P. R. Stone (Eds.), Contemporary tourist experience: Concepts and consequences (pp. 59–70). Abingdon: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Dale, C., & Robinson, N. (2011). Dark tourism. In P. Robinson, S. Heitemann, & P. Dieke (Eds.), Research themes for tourism (pp. 205–218). Wallingford: CABI.Google Scholar
- Dunkley, R. A., Morgan, N., & Westwood, S. (2007). A shot in the dark? Developing a new conceptual framework for thanatourism. Asian Journal of Tourism and Hospitality, 1(1), 54–63.Google Scholar
- Finley, C. (2004). Authenticating dungeons, whitewashing castles: The former sites of the slave trade on the Ghanaian coast. In D. M. Lasansky & B. McLaren (Eds.), Architecture and tourism. Oxford: Berg.Google Scholar
- Hartmann, R. (2013). Dark tourism, thanatourism, and dissonance in heritage tourism management: New directions in contemporary tourism research. Journal of Heritage Tourism. https://doi.org/10.1080/1743873X.2013.807266.
- Hass, A. (2003). Reporting Ramallah. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.Google Scholar
- Isaac, R. K. (2009). Can the segregation wall in Bethlehem be a tourist attraction? Tourism and Hospitality: Planning & Development, 6(3), 247–254.Google Scholar
- Isaac, R. K. (2013). Palestine: Tourism under occupation. In D. Butler & S. Wantanee (Eds.), Tourism and war (pp. 143–158). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Isaac, R. K. (2014). A wail of horror: An empathic ‘atrocity’ tourism in Palestine. In H. Andrews (Ed.), Tourism and violence (pp. 125–144). London: Sage.Google Scholar
- Isaac, R. K., & Platenkamp, V. (2015). Concrete U(dys)topia in Bethlehem: A city of two tales. Journal of Tourism and Cultural Change. https://doi.org/10.1080/14766825.2015.1040413.
- Jamal, T., & Lelo, L. (2011). Exploring the conceptual and analytical framing of dark tourism: From darkness to intentionality. In R. Sharpley & P. R. Stone (Eds.), Tourist experience: Contemporary perspectives (pp. 29–42). Abingdon: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Kairos. (2010). Come and see: A call from the Palestinian Christians. Beitsahour: Kairos.Google Scholar
- Lennon, J. J., & Foley, M. (2000). Dark tourism. London: Continuum.Google Scholar
- Mann, T. (1948a). Nietzsches Philosophie in Lichte Unserer Erfahrung. Berlin: Schwabe Verlag Basel.Google Scholar
- Mann, T. (1948b). Nietzsches Philosophie in Lichte unserer Erfahrung. Berlin: Suhrkamp vorm S. Fischer.Google Scholar
- Nietzsche, F. (1980). Die Geburt der Tragödie :Uit Werke I. Frankfurt: J.B. Metzler.Google Scholar
- Pappé, I. (2006). The ethnic cleansing of Palestine. Oxford: Oneworld.Google Scholar
- Said, E. (2003). Culture and resistance. Cambridge, MA: South End Press.Google Scholar
- Selwyn, T. (2014). Tourism, sight prevention and cultural shutdown: Symbolic violence in fragmented landscapes. In H. Andrews (Ed.), Tourism and violence. Surrey: Ashgate.Google Scholar
- Sharpley, R. (2009). Shedding light on dark tourism: An introduction. In R. Sharpley & P. R. Stone (Eds.), Tourist experience (pp. 3–22). London: Routledge.Google Scholar
- Stone, P. R. (2006). A dark tourism spectrum: Towards a typology of death and macabre related tourist sites, attractions and exhibitions. An Interdisciplinary International Journal, 54(2), 145–160.Google Scholar
- Thurnel-Read, T. (2009). Engaging Auschwitz: An analysis of young travelers’ experience of Holocaust tourism. Journal of Tourism Consumption and Practice, 1(1), 26–52.Google Scholar
- Tiedemann, R. (Ed.). (2003). Theodor W. Adorno. Can one live after Auschwitz. Stanford: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
- Zochrot. (2015). Zochrot tours report. http://www.zochrot.org/en/tour/53548. Accessed 3 Mar 2015.