The Context of Indian Ocean Spatiality

  • Samadia SadouniEmail author
Part of the Migration, Diasporas and Citizenship book series (MDC)


The village of Johannesburg was founded in 1886 and its growth and development into a city need to be understood in terms of its location at the crossroads of the Indian Ocean region, an area shaped by the colonial state, the religious and merchant networks, the rise of European capitalist interests and, of course, by the flows of European and non-European migrations. Regarding the latter, the chapter draws attention to the groups of Cape Malays and Indians in Cape Town and Johannesburg. The context of the new gold city during the political period after the Anglo-Boer War (1899–1902) is analysed through conflicts between the white bourgeoisie and non-white migrants, and specifically through Gujarati Indians’ mobilisation in Johannesburg and in the transcolonial space.


  1. Abbas, H. (2013, December 15). Mandela and His Source of Inspiration, Sheikh Yusuf. The Jakarta Post. Retrieved from
  2. Adda, J. (1996). Braudel, Wallerstein et le système de l’économie-monde. Alternatives Economiques, no. 143.Google Scholar
  3. Argun, S. (2000). The Life and Contribution of the Osmanli Scholar Abu Bakr Effendi, Towards Islamic Thought and Culture in South Africa. MA dissertation in Islamic Studies, University of Johannesburg.Google Scholar
  4. Ashman, S., Fine, B., & Newman, S. (Eds.). (2011). The Crisis in South Africa: Neoliberalism, Financialisation and Uneven and Combined Development. Social Register, 47, 174–195.Google Scholar
  5. Baderoon, G. (2014). Regarding Muslims from Slavery to Post-apartheid. Johannesburg: Wits University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Balandier, G. (2001). La situation coloniale: approche théorique. Cahiers internationaux de sociologie, 110(1), 9–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Beavon, K. (2004). Johannesburg: The Making and Shaping of the City. Pretoria: University of South Africa Press.Google Scholar
  8. Bhana, S. (1997). Gandhi’s Legacy: The Natal Indian Congress, 1894–1994. Pietermaritzburg: University of Natal Press.Google Scholar
  9. Bhana, S., & Pachai, B. (1984). A Documentary History of Indian South Africans, 1860–1982. Stanford: Hoover Institution Press.Google Scholar
  10. Bickford-Smith, V. (1995). Black Ethnicities, Communities and Political Expression in Late Victorian Cape Town. Journal of African History, 36, 443–465. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Bose, S. (2005). A Hundred Horizons: The Indian Ocean in an Age of Global Imperialism. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.Google Scholar
  12. Brown, J. (2011). Introduction. In J. Brown & A. Parel (Eds.), The Cambridge Companion to Gandhi (pp. 1–8). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Buchet, C. (2013). The British Navy: Economy and Society in the Seven Years’ War. Woodbridge: Boydell & Brewer. Google Scholar
  14. Butler, A. (2009). Contemporary South Africa. London: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  15. Campbell, G. (Ed.). (2004). The Structure of Slavery in Indian Ocean Africa and Asia. London: Frank Cass.Google Scholar
  16. Chatterjee, P. (1993). The Nation and Its Fragments: Colonial and Postcolonial Histories. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  17. Cooper, F. (2005). Colonialism in Question: Theory, Knowledge, History. Berkeley: University of California Press. Google Scholar
  18. Da Costa, Y., & Davids, A. (Eds.). (1994). Pages from Cape Muslim History. Pietermaritzburg: Shuter & Shooter.Google Scholar
  19. Davids, A. (1979). The Early Muslims at the Cape, 1652–1800. Iqra Research Journal, 1(1), 6–11.Google Scholar
  20. Davids, A. (1990). Words the Cape Slave Made: A Socio-Historical Linguistic Study. South African Journal of Linguistics, 8(1), 1–24.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Davids, A. (1994). Sheikh Yusuf of Macassar. Boorhanol Islam Newsletter, 28(4), 7–13.Google Scholar
  22. Davids, A. (2011). The Afrikaans of the Cape Muslims (from 1815 to 1915) (H. Willemse & S. E. Dangor, Eds.). Pretoria: Protea Book House. Google Scholar
  23. Desai, A., & Vahed, G. (2015). The South African Gandhi: Stretcher-Bearer of Empire. Stanford, CA: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  24. Devji, F. (2012). The Impossible Indian: Gandhi and the Temptation of Violence. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Dhuphelia-Meshtrie, U. (Ed.). (2000). From Cane Fields to Freedom: A Chronicle of Indian South African Life. Cape Town: Kwela Books.Google Scholar
  26. Eickelman, D. F., & Piscatori, J. (2004). Muslim Politics. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press. Google Scholar
  27. Freund, B. (2005). Review of S. Bhana & G. Vahed (2005). In The Making of a Political Reformer: Gandhi in South Africa, 1893–1914. New Delhi: Manohar Press, Transformation: Critical Perspectives on Southern Africa, 59, 122–123.Google Scholar
  28. Germain, E. (2002). Les Malais du Cap existent-ils? Archipel, 63, 173–210.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Germain, E. (2007). L’Afrique du Sud musulmane. Histoire des relations entre Indiens et Malais du Cap. Paris: IFAS-Karthala.Google Scholar
  30. Goldin, I. (1987). The Reconstitution of Coloured Identity in the Western Cape. In S. Marks & S. Trapido (Eds.), The Politics of Race, Class and Nationalism in Twentieth-Century South Africa. London: Longman.Google Scholar
  31. Green, N. (2011). Bombay Islam: The Religious Economy of the West Indian Ocean, 1840–1915. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Guha, R. (2004). Gandhi Before India. New York: Alfred A. Knopf.Google Scholar
  33. Ho, E. (2006). The Graves of Tarim: Genealogy and Mobility Across the Indian Ocean. Berkeley: University of California Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Hofmeyr, I. (2007). The Black Atlantic Meets the Indian Ocean: Forging New Paradigms of Transnationalism for the Global South—Literary and Cultural Perspectives. Social Dynamics: A Journal of African Studies, 33(2), 3–32.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Hofmeyr, I. (2013). Gandhi’s Printing Press: Experiments in Slow Reading. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press. CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Hyslop, J. (2012). Segregation Has Fallen on Evil Days: Smuts’ South Africa, Global War, and Transnational Politics, 1939–46. Journal of Global History, 7, 438–460.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Iriye, A., & Saunier, P.-Y. (Eds.). (2009). The Palgrave Dictionary of Transnational History: From the Mid-19th Century to the Present Day. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. Google Scholar
  38. Itzkin, E. (2000). Gandhi’s Johannesburg: Birthplace of Satyagraha. Johannesburg: Witwatersrand University Press and Museum Africa.Google Scholar
  39. Jacobsson, D. (1936). Fifty Golden Years of the Rand 1886–1936. London: Faber & Faber.Google Scholar
  40. Jeeves, A. H. (1985). Migrant Labour in South Africa’s Mining Economy: The Struggle for the Gold Mines Labour Supply, 1890–1920. Johannesburg: Wits University Press.Google Scholar
  41. Klotz, A. (1995). Norms in International Relations: The Struggle Against Apartheid. Ithaca, NY: Cornell University Press.Google Scholar
  42. Klotz, A. (2013). Migration and National Identity in South Africa, 1860–2010. New York: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. Laurens, H. (2009). L’empire et ses ennemis. La question impériale dans l’histoire. Paris: Seuil.Google Scholar
  44. Leyds, G. A. (1964). A History of Johannesburg: The Early Years. Cape Town: Nasionale Boekhandel Beperk. Google Scholar
  45. Lombard, D., & Aubin, J. (Eds.). (1987). Marchands et hommes d’affaires asiatiques dans l’océan Indien et dans la mer de Chine. XII–XIXe siècles. Paris: Éditions EHESS.Google Scholar
  46. Mahida, E. M. (1993). History of Muslims in South Africa: A Chronology. Durban: Arabic Study Circle.Google Scholar
  47. Majumdar, B. (2013). Citizen or Subject? Blurring Boundaries, Claiming Space. Journal of Historical Sociology, 26, 479–502.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Mandela, N. (1994). Long Walk to Freedom: The Autobiography of Nelson Mandela. London: Abacaus.Google Scholar
  49. Markovits, C. (1999). Indian Merchant Networks Outside India in the Nineteenth and Twentieth Centuries: A Preliminary Survey. Modern Asian Studies, 33(4), 883–911.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Markovits, C. (2000). The Global World of Indian Merchants, 1750–1947: Traders of Sind from Bukhara to Panama. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Google Scholar
  51. Markovits, C. (2004). The Un-Gandhian Gandhi: The Life and Afterlife of the Mahatma. London: Anthem Press.Google Scholar
  52. Maylam, P. (2001). South Africa’s Racial Past: The History and Historiography of Racism, Segregation and Apartheid. Aldershot: Ashgate.Google Scholar
  53. McDonough, S. (1994). Gandhi’s Responses to Islam. New Delhi: D. K. Printworld.Google Scholar
  54. Meer, F. (1972). An Indian’s Views on Apartheid. In N. J. Rhoodie (Ed.), South African Dialogue: Contrasts in South African Thinking on Basic Race Issues. New York: McGraw-Hill.Google Scholar
  55. Metcalf, T. R. (2007). Imperial Connections: India in the Indian Ocean Arena, 1860–1920. Berkeley, Los Angeles, and London: University of California Press.Google Scholar
  56. Narain, I. (1962). The Politics of Racialism: A Study of the Indian Minority in South Africa Down to the Gandhi–Smuts Agreement. Thesis for Doctorate of Philosophy, Agra University.Google Scholar
  57. Nason, B. (2010). The War for South Africa: The Anglo-Boer War, 1899–1902. Cape Town: Tafelberg.Google Scholar
  58. Ndlovu-Gatsheni, S. (2015). The Decolonial Mandela: Embodiment of Peace, Justice, and Humanism. Journal of Development Societies, 31(3), 305–332.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. Parsons, T. H. (1999). The British Imperial Century, 1815–1914: A World History Perspective. Lanham, MD: Rowman & Littlefield.Google Scholar
  60. Peacock, A. C. S. (Ed.). (2009). The Frontiers of the Ottoman World. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  61. Peberdy, S. (2009). Selecting Immigrants: National Identity and South Africa’s Immigration Policies, 1910–2008. Johannesburg: Wits University Press.Google Scholar
  62. Pillay, B. (1976). British Indians in the Transvaal: Trade, Politics and Imperial Relations, 1885–1906. London: Longman.Google Scholar
  63. Planert, U. (Ed.). (2016). Napoleon’s Empire: European Politics in Global Perspective. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan. Google Scholar
  64. Qureshi, M. N. (2008). Pan-Islam in British India: The Politics of the Khilafat Movement, 1918–1924. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  65. Robert, S. (1994). Children of Bondage: A Social History of the Slave Society at the Cape of Good Hope. London: Wesleyan University Press of New England. Google Scholar
  66. Rosenau, J. (1990). Turbulence in World Politics: A Theory of Change and Continuity. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  67. Saunders, C. (1988). The Making of the South African Past: Major Historians on Race and Class. Cape Town: David Philip Publishers.Google Scholar
  68. Saunier, P.-Y. (2013). Transnational History. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. Shaikh, F. (1989). Consensus and Community: Muslim Representation in Colonial India, 1860–1947. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  70. Shell, R. C.-H. (2000). Islam in Southern Africa, 1652–1998. In N. Levtzion & R. L. Pouwels (Eds.), The History of Islam in Africa (pp. 327–348). Cape Town: David Philip Publishers.Google Scholar
  71. Steyn, R. (2015). Jan Smuts: Unafraid of Greatness. Cape Town: Jonathan Ball Publishers.Google Scholar
  72. Stoler, A. L., & Cooper, F. (2013). Repenser le colonialisme. Paris: Payot (French translation).Google Scholar
  73. Swan, M. (1985). Gandhi: The South African Experience. Johannesburg: Ravan Press.Google Scholar
  74. Swan, M. (1987). Ideology in Organised Indian Politics, 1891–1948. In S. Marks & S. Trapido (Eds.), The Politics of Race, Class and Nationalism in 20th Century South Africa (pp. 182–208). New York: Longman.Google Scholar
  75. Tayob, A. (2012). Politics and Islamisation in African Public Spheres. Islamic Africa, 3(2), 139–168.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  76. Terreblanche, S. (2012). Lost in Transformation: South Africa’s Search for a New Future Since 1986. Johannesburg: KMM Review.Google Scholar
  77. Vick, B. E. (2014). The Congress of Vienna: Power and Politics After Napoleon. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. Wallerstein, I. (1974). The Rise and Future Demise of the World System: Concepts for Comparative Analysis. Comparative Studies in Society and History, 16, 387–415.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. Wallerstein, I. (1980). Capitalisme et économie-monde. Paris: Flammarion.Google Scholar
  80. Welsh, F. (2000). A History of South Africa. London: HarperCollins.Google Scholar
  81. Worden, N. (2009). New Approaches to VOC History in South Africa. South African Historical Journal, 59(1), 3–18.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  82. Worden, N. (Ed.). (2007). Contingent Lives: Social Identity and Material Culture in the VOC World. Cape Town: University of Cape Town.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.University of LyonSciences Po LyonLyonFrance

Personalised recommendations