Advertisement

Conceptualising Emerging Powers

  • Laura C. Mahrenbach
Chapter
Part of the Palgrave Handbooks in IPE book series (PHIPE)

Abstract

What, exactly, is an emerging power? While empirical scholarship-discussing states such as Brazil, India, or China have blossomed over the past 20 years, little attention has been paid to conceptualising these states. This creates confusion about emerging powers themselves as well as their impact on global affairs. I argue that systematic study of three factors—growing material (especially economic) capabilities, diplomatic ambitions, and peer recognition by others—will enable us to overcome the contemporary conceptual problems of coherence and differentiation. Doing so will require scholars of international political economy to re-evaluate theoretical assumptions embedded in today’s literature. It will also empower us to better contribute to policy discussions of emerging states. These arguments are illustrated in reference to emerging power activities in global economic governance.

References

  1. Abdenur, Adriana Erthal. 2015. Brazil as a Rising Power: Coexistence Through Universalism. In The BRICS and Coexistence: An Alternative Vision of World Order, ed. Cedric De Coning, Thomas Mandrup, and Liselotte Odgaard, 49–74. Abingdon: Routledge.Google Scholar
  2. Abdenur, Adriana Erthal, and Maiara Folly. 2015. The New Development Bank and the Institutionalization of the BRICS. Revolution 3 (1): 66–93.Google Scholar
  3. Acharya, Amitav. 2014. The End of American World Order. Cambridge: Polity Press.Google Scholar
  4. Armijo, Leslie Elliot. 2007. The BRICs Countries (Brazil, Russia, India, and China) as Analytical Category: Mirage or Insight? Asian Perspective 31 (4): 7–42.Google Scholar
  5. Armijo, Leslie Elliot, and Saori N. Katada. 2014. Theorizing the Financial Statecraft of Emerging Powers. New Political Economy: 20 (1): 1–21.Google Scholar
  6. Armijo, Leslie Elliot, and Cynthia Roberts. 2014. The Emerging Powers and Global Governance: Why the BRICS Matter. In Handbook of Emerging Economies, ed. Robert Looney, 503–524. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  7. Arnold, David J., and John A. Quelch. 1998. New Strategies in Emerging Markets. MIT Sloan Management Review, October 15.Google Scholar
  8. Barma, Naazneen, Ely Ratner, and Steven Weber. 2007. A World Without the West. The National Interest 90: 23–30.Google Scholar
  9. Bremmer, Ian, and Nouriel Roubini. 2011. A G-Zero World: The New Economic Club Will Produce Conflict, Not Cooperation. Foreign Affairs 90 (2): 1–7.Google Scholar
  10. Chin, Gregory. 2013. The Economic Diplomacy of the Rising Powers. In The Oxford Handbook of Modern Diplomacy, ed. Andrew Fenton, 881–900. Oxford: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar
  11. Cooper, Andrew F. 2014. The G20 and Contested Global Governance: BRICS, Middle Powers and Small States. Caribbean Journal of International Relations & Diplomacy 2 (3): 87–109.Google Scholar
  12. Cooper, Andrew F., and Asif B. Farooq. 2015. Testing the Club Dynamics of the BRICS: The New Development Bank from Conception to Establishment. International Organizations Research Journal 10 (2): 1–15.Google Scholar
  13. Cooper, Andrew F., and Daniel Flemes. 2013. Foreign Policy Strategies of Emerging Powers in a Multipolar World: An Introductory Review. Third World Quarterly 34 (6): 943–962.Google Scholar
  14. de Coning, Cedric, Thomas Mandrup, and Liselotte Odgaard, eds. 2015. The BRICS and Coexistence. Abingdon: Routledge.Google Scholar
  15. Destradi, Sandra. 2016. Reluctance in International Politics: A Conceptualization. European Journal of International Relations: 23 (2): 315–340.Google Scholar
  16. Drezner, Daniel W. 2007. The New New World Order. Foreign Affairs 86 (2): 34–46.Google Scholar
  17. Efstathopoulos, Charalampos. 2012. Leadership in the WTO: Brazil, India and the Doha Development Agenda. Cambridge Review of International Affairs 25 (2): 269–293.Google Scholar
  18. Fonseca, Pedro Cezar Dutra, Lucas de Oliveira Paes, and André Moreira Cunha. 2016. The Concept of Emerging Power in International Politics and Economy. Brazilian Journal of Political Economy 36 (1): 46–69.Google Scholar
  19. Friedberg, Aaron L. 2005. The Future of U.S.-China Relations: Is Conflict Inevitable? International Security 30 (2): 7–45.Google Scholar
  20. Garten, Jeffrey E. 1997. The Big Ten: The Big Emerging Markets and How They Will Change Our Lives. New York: Harper Collins.Google Scholar
  21. Gerring, John. 1999. What Makes a Concept Good? A Criterial Framework for Understanding Concept Formation in the Social Sciences. Polity 31 (3): 357–393.Google Scholar
  22. Goertz, Gary. 2005. Social Science Concepts: A User’s Guide. Princeton: Princeton University Press.Google Scholar
  23. Harmer, Andrew, and Kent Buse. 2014. The BRICS – A Paradigm Shift in Global Health? Contemporary Politics 20 (2): 127–145.Google Scholar
  24. Hopewell, Kristen. 2015. Different Paths to Power: The Rise of Brazil, India and China at the World Trade Organization. Review of International Political Economy 22 (2): 311–338.Google Scholar
  25. ———. 2016. Breaking the WTO: How Emerging Powers Disrupted the Neoliberal Project. Stanford: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
  26. Huotari, Mikko, and Thilo Hanemann. 2014. Emerging Powers and Change in the Global Financial Order. Global Policy 5 (3): 298–310.Google Scholar
  27. Hurrell, Andrew. 2006. Hegemony, Liberalism and Global Order: What Space for Would-Be Great Powers? International Affairs 82 (1): 1–19.Google Scholar
  28. Ikenberry, G. John. 2008. The Rise of China and the Future of the West. Foreign Affairs 87 (1): 23–37.Google Scholar
  29. Jordaan, Eduard. 2003. The Concept of a Middle Power in International Relations: Distinguishing Between Emerging and Traditional Middle Powers. Politikon 30 (2): 165–181.Google Scholar
  30. Kahler, Miles. 2013. Rising Powers and Global Governance: Negotiating Change in a Resilient Status Quo. International Affairs 89 (3): 711–729.Google Scholar
  31. Kennedy, Paul. 1988. The Rise and Fall of the Great Powers. London: Unwin Hyman.Google Scholar
  32. Khanna, Parag. 2009. The Second World. New York: Random House Trade Paperbacks.Google Scholar
  33. Kim, Sung Eun, and Johannes Urpelainen. 2015. Rising Regional Powers Meet the Global Leader: A Strategic Analysis of Influence Competition. International Political Science Review 36 (2): 214–234.Google Scholar
  34. Kirton, John J. 2015. Going Global: The G8’s Adaptation to Rising Powers. In Rising Powers and Multilateral Institutions, ed. Dries Lesage and Thijs Van de Graaf, 117–131. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  35. Kirton, John, Julia Kulik, and Caroline Bracht. 2014. Generating Global Health Governance Through BRICS Summitry. Contemporary Politics 20 (2): 146–162.Google Scholar
  36. Kose, M. Ayan, and Eswar S. Prasad. 2010. Emerging Markets: Resilience and Growth Amid Global Turmoil. Washington, DC: Brookings Institution Press.Google Scholar
  37. Lavenex, Sandra, and Omar Serrano. 2016. From Rule-Takers to Rule-Makers? Patterns of Adaptation, Contestation and Initiative among Emerging Powers in the World Trade Regime. In SNIS Working Paper: Swiss Network for International Studies.Google Scholar
  38. Lesage, Dries, and Thijs Van de Graaf. 2015a. Analytical Framework and Findings. In Rising Powers and Multilateral Institutions, ed. Dries Lesage and Thijs Van de Graaf, 3–18. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  39. ———, eds. 2015b. Rising Powers and Multilateral Institutions. International Political Economy Series. Ed. Timothy M. Shaw. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  40. Lesage, Dries, Peter Debaere, Sacha Dierckx, and Mattias Vermeiren. 2013. IMF Reform After the Crisis. International Politics 50 (4): 553–578.Google Scholar
  41. ———. 2015. Rising Powers and IMF Governance Reform. In Rising Powers and Multilateral Institutions, ed. Dries Lesage and Thijs Van de Graaf, 153–174. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  42. Lima, Maria Regina Soares de, and Mônica Hirst. 2006. Brazil as an Intermediate State and Regional Power: Action, Choice and Responsibilities. International Affairs 82 (1): 21–40.Google Scholar
  43. Macfarlane, S. Neil. 2006. The ‘R’ in BRICs: Is Russia an Emerging Power? International Affairs 82 (1): 41–57.Google Scholar
  44. Mahrenbach, Laura Carsten. 2015. Deconstructing ‘Emerging Powers’ and ‘Emerging Markets’: India and the United States in Global Governance. India Quarterly 71 (4): 348–364.Google Scholar
  45. Mazenda, Adrino, and Ronney Ncwadi. 2016. The Rise of BRICS Development Finance Institutions: A Comprehensive Look into the New Development Bank and the Contingency Reserve Arrangement. African East-Asian Affairs (3): 96–123. http://aeaa.journals.ac.za/pub/issue/archive.
  46. Mearsheimer, John J. 2006. China’s Unpeaceful Rise. Current History 105 (690): 160–162.Google Scholar
  47. Miller, Manjari Chatterjee. 2016. The Role of Beliefs in Identifying Rising Powers. Chinese Journal of International Politics: 9 (2): 211–238.Google Scholar
  48. Mittelman, James H. 2013. Global Bricolage: Emerging Market Powers and Polycentric Governance. Third World Quarterly 34 (1): 23–37.Google Scholar
  49. Muhr, Thomas. 2016. Beyond ‘BRICS’: Ten Theses on South–South Cooperation in the Twenty-First Century. Third World Quarterly 37 (4): 630–648.Google Scholar
  50. Narlikar, Amrita. 2010a. New Powers in the Club: The Challenges of Global Trade Governance. International Affairs 86 (3): 717–728.Google Scholar
  51. ———. 2010b. New Powers: How to Become One and How to Manage Them. London: Hurst & Company.Google Scholar
  52. ———. 2013. Introduction: Negotiating the Rise of New Powers. International Affairs 89 (3): 561–576.Google Scholar
  53. NDB. 2017. NDB’s General Strategy: 2017–2021. Shanghai: New Development Bank.Google Scholar
  54. Nel, Philip, and Ian Taylor. 2013. Bugger Thy Neighbour? IBSA and South-South Solidarity. Third World Quarterly 34 (6): 1091–1110.Google Scholar
  55. Pant, Harsh V. 2013. The BRICS Fallacy. The Washington Quarterly 36 (3): 91–106.Google Scholar
  56. Patrick, Stewart. 2010. Irresponsible Stakeholders? The Difficulty of Integrating Rising Powers. Foreign Affairs 89 (6): 44–53.Google Scholar
  57. Ramamurti, Ravi, and Jitendra V. Singh, eds. 2009. Emerging Multinationals in Emerging Markets. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
  58. Sartori, Giovanni. 1984/2009. Guidelines for Concept Analysis. In Concepts and Method in Social Science: The Tradition of Giovanni Sartori, ed. David Collier and John Gerring, 97–150. New York: Routledge.Google Scholar
  59. Schirm, Stefan A. 2010. Leaders in Need of Followers: Emerging Powers in Global Governance. European Journal of International Relations 16 (2): 197–221.Google Scholar
  60. ———. 2013. Global Politics Are Domestic Politics: A Societal Approach to Divergence in the G20. Review of International Studies 39 (3): 685–706.Google Scholar
  61. Schwab, Susan C. 2011. After Doha: Why the Negotiations Are Doomed and What We Should Do About It. Foreign Affairs 90: 104–117.Google Scholar
  62. Scott, James, and Rorden Wilkinson. 2015. China as a System Preserving Power in the WTO. In Rising Powers and Multilateral Institutions, ed. Dries Lesage and Thijs Van de Graaf, 199–218. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  63. Sharma, Ruchir. 2014. The Ever-Emerging Markets: Why Economic Forecasts Fail. Foreign Affairs 93 (1): 52–56.Google Scholar
  64. Shaw, Timothy M., Andrew F. Cooper, and Agata Antkiewicz. 2007. Global and/or Regional Development at the Start of the 21st Century? China, India and (South) Africa. Third World Quarterly 28 (7): 1255–1270.Google Scholar
  65. Straubhaar, Joseph. 2015. BRICS as Emerging Cultural and Media Powers. In Mapping BRICS Media, ed. Kaarle Nordenstreng and Daya Kishan Thussu, 87–103. London: Routledge.Google Scholar
  66. Stuenkel, Oliver. 2014. Emerging Powers and Status: The Case of the First Brics Summit. Asian Perspective 38 (1): 1–13.Google Scholar
  67. ———. 2016. The BRICS: Seeking Privileges by Constructing and Running Multilateral Institutions. Global Summitry 2 (1): 38–53.Google Scholar
  68. van Agtmael, Antoine. 1984. Emerging Securities Markets: Investment Banking Opportunities in the Developing World. London: Euromoney Publications.Google Scholar
  69. Vanaik, Achin. 2013. Capitalist Globalisation and the Problem of Stability: Enter the New Quintet and Other Emerging Powers. Third World Quarterly 34 (2): 194–213.Google Scholar
  70. Vestergaard, Jakob, and Robert H. Wade. 2015. Protecting Power: How Western States Retain Their Dominant Voice in the World Bank’s Governance. In Rising Powers and Multilateral Institutions, ed. Dries Lesage and Thijs Van de Graaf, 175–196. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  71. Vezirgiannidou, Sevasti-Eleni. 2013. The United States and Rising Powers in a Post-Hegemonic Global Order. International Affairs 89 (3): 635–651.Google Scholar
  72. Wilkinson, Rorden. 2014. ‘Emerging’ Powers and the Governance of Global Trade. In Handbook of the International Political Economy of Governance, ed. Anthony Payne and Nicola Phillips, 184–200. Northampton: Edward Elgar Publishing.Google Scholar
  73. Woods, Ngaire. 2010. Global Governance After the Financial Crisis: A New Multilateralism or the Last Gasp of the Great Powers? Global Policy 1 (1): 51–63.Google Scholar
  74. Yu, Peter K. 2008. Access to Medicines, BRICS Alliances, and Collective Action. American Journal of Law & Medicine 34 (2&3): 345–394.Google Scholar
  75. Zeng, Jinghan. 2016. China’s Date with Big Data: Will It Strengthen or Threaten Authoritarian Rule? International Affairs 92 (6): 1443–1462.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  • Laura C. Mahrenbach
    • 1
  1. 1.Bavarian School of Public PolicyTechnical University of MunichMunichGermany

Personalised recommendations