Advertisement

(S)wordswoman versus (S)wordsman: Maxine Hong Kingston and Frank Chin

  • King-Kok Cheung
Chapter

Abstract

(S)WORDSWOMAN AND (S)WORDSMAN interweaves the gender debates involving Maxine Hong Kingston and Frank Chin with an analysis of the two writers’ verbal pyrotechnics. It correlates the historical debasement of Asian men in the United States with the traditional subjugation of women in China, and cautions against boosting manhood by subscribing to patriarchal conventions of masculinity. Concomitantly, it demonstrates how Kingston and F. Chin retool Chinese classics to create a usable past relevant to their concerns as Chinese American female and male, respectively. By invoking the Chinese heroic tradition to voice their gender and cultural nationalist concerns, these two writers launch a transnational literary tradition that straddles the dyadic ideal of wen-wu (literary arts and martial arts)—writing and fighting.

Keywords

Chinese Classic Water Margin Asian American Community Asian American Manhood White Acceptance 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Works Cited

  1. Althusser, Louis Pierre. Lenin and Philosophy and Other Essays. Trans. Ben Brewster. New York: Monthly Review Press, 1971.Google Scholar
  2. Asians in America. Asians in America. 3 February 2014. <http://www.asiansinamerica.org/news/is-crime-against-asian-americans-going-up-or-down/> (accessed 30 December 2014).
  3. Baldwin, James. The Fire Next Time. New York: Vintage, 1962.Google Scholar
  4. Bambara, Toni Cade. “On the Issue of Roles.” The Black Woman: An Anthology. Ed. Toni Cade Bambara. York: Mentor-NAL, 1970. 101–110.Google Scholar
  5. Benstock, Shari, ed. The Private Self: Theory and Practice of Women’s Autobiographical Writings. Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press, 1988.Google Scholar
  6. Bonetti, Kay. “An Interview with Maxine Hong Kingston [1986].” Conversations with Maxine Hong Kingston. Ed. Paul Skenazy and Tera Martin. Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 1998. 33–46.Google Scholar
  7. Bowra, C. M. Heroic Poetry. London: Macmillan, 1952.Google Scholar
  8. Butler, Judith. Senses of the Subject. New York: Fordham University Press, 2015.Google Scholar
  9. Chan, Jeffery Paul. “The Mysterious West.” New York Review of Books, 28 April 1977: 41.Google Scholar
  10. Chan, Jeffery Paul, Frank Chin, Lawson Fusao Inada, Shawn Wong, eds. The Big Aiiieeeee! An Anthology of Asian American Writers. New York: New American Library-Meridian, 1991.Google Scholar
  11. ——. “Introduction.” The Big Aiiieeeee! An Anthology of Chinese American and Japanese American Literature. Ed. Jeffery Paul Chan, et al. New York: New American Library-Meridian, 1991. xi–xvi.Google Scholar
  12. Chan, Justin. Where Are All the Asian Americans in Hollywood? 20 August 2014. <http://www.complex.com/pop-culture/2014/08/asian-americans-in-hollywood> (accessed 20 August 2014).
  13. Cheung, Floyd. “Early Chinese American Autobiography: Reconsidering the Works of Yan Phou Lee and Yung Wing.” Recovered Legacies: Authority and Identity in Early Asian American Literature. Ed. Keith Lawrence and Floyd Cheung. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2005. 24–40.Google Scholar
  14. Cheung, King-Kok, and Stan Yogi, eds. Asian American Literature: An Annotated Bibliography. New York: Modern Language Association, 1988.Google Scholar
  15. Cheung, King-Kok. “‘Don’t Tell’: Imposed Silences in The Color Purple and The Woman Warrior.” PMLA (1988): 162–174.Google Scholar
  16. ——. “Talk-Story: Counter-Memory in Maxine Hong Kingston’s China Men.” Tamkang Review: A Quarterly of Comparative Studies Between Chinese and Foreign Literatures 24.1 (1993): 21–37.Google Scholar
  17. ——. “The Woman Warrior versus The Chinaman Pacific: Must a Chinese American Critic Choose between Feminism and Heroism?” Conflicts in Feminism. Ed. Marianne Hirsch and Evelyn Fox Keller. New York: Routledge, 1990. 234–251.Google Scholar
  18. Chin, Frank, and Jeffery Paul Chan. “Racist Love.” Seeing Through Shuck. Ed. Richard Kostelanetz. New York: Ballantine, 1972. 65–79.Google Scholar
  19. Chin, Frank. “Come All Ye Asian American Writers of the Real and the Fake.” The Big Aiiieeeee! An Anthology of Asian American Writers. Ed. Jeffery Paul Chan, et al. New York: New American Library-Meridian, 1991. 1–92.Google Scholar
  20. ——. “Confessions of the Chinatown Cowboy.” Bulletin of Concerned Asian Scholars 4.3 (1972): 58–70.Google Scholar
  21. ——. Donald Duk. Minneapolis: Coffee House Press, 1991c.Google Scholar
  22. ——. “‘Kung Fu’ Is Unfair to Chinese.” New York Times, 24 March 1974a: 137.Google Scholar
  23. ——. The Chinaman Pacific & Frisco R. R. Co. Minneapolis: Coffee House Press, 1988.Google Scholar
  24. ——. “The Most Popular Book in China.” Quilt 4 (1984): 6–12.Google Scholar
  25. ——. “This Is Not An Autobiography.” Genre 18.2 (1985): 109–130.Google Scholar
  26. Chin, Frank, Jeffery Paul Chan, Lawson Fusao Inada, and Shawn Hsu Wong, eds. Aiiieeeee! An Anthology of Asian-American Writers. Washington: Howard University Press, 1974/1983.Google Scholar
  27. Chu, Patricia P. Assimilating Asians: Gendered Strategies of Authorship in Asian America. Durham: Duke University Press, 2000.Google Scholar
  28. ——. “Tripmaster Monkey, Frank Chin, and the Chinese Heroic Tradition.” American Quarterly 53.3 (1997): 117–139.Google Scholar
  29. Clifford, Jamese. “Introduction: Partial Truths.” Writing Culture: The Poetics and Politics of Ethnography. Ed. James Clifford and George Marcus. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1986. 1–26.Google Scholar
  30. Crenshaw, Kimberlé. “Demarginalizing the Intersection of Race and Sex: A Black Feminist Critique of Antidiscrimination Doctrine, Feminist Theory and Antiracist Politics.” University of Chicago Legal Forum (1989): 139–167.Google Scholar
  31. De Lauretis, Teresa. Technologies of Gender: Essays on Theory, Film, and Fiction. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1987.Google Scholar
  32. Duara, Prasenjit. “Superscribing Symbols: The Myth of Guandi, Chinese God of War.” Journal of Asian Studies 47.4 (1988): 778–795.Google Scholar
  33. Eakin, Paul John. Fictions in Autobiography: Studies in the Art of Self-Invention. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1985.Google Scholar
  34. Eng, David L., and Alice Y. Hom, eds. Q & A: Queer in Asian America. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1998.Google Scholar
  35. Enke, Anne, ed. Transfeminist Perspectives in and beyond Transgender and Gender Studies. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 2012.Google Scholar
  36. Espiritu, Yen Le. “All Men Are Not Created Equal: Asian men in U.S. History.” Men’s Lives. Ed. Michael S. Kimmel and Michael A. Messner. 4th ed. Boston: Allyn & Bacon, 1997. 35–44.Google Scholar
  37. Fang, Hong [方红]. The Ethnic Trickster in Maxine Hong Kingston’s Tripmaster Monkey: His Fake Book. Hong Kong: Hong Kong University Press, 2003.Google Scholar
  38. Fong, Katheryn M. “An Open Letter/Review.” Bulletin for Concerned Asian Scholars 9.4: 67–69. 9.4 (1977): 67–69.Google Scholar
  39. Friedman, Susan Stanford. “Gender and Genre Anxiety: Elizabeth Barrett Browning and H.D. as Epic Poets.” Tulsa Studies in Women’s Literature 5.2 (1986): 203–228.Google Scholar
  40. Gilligan, Carol. In a Different Voice: Psychological Theory and Women’s Development. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1982.Google Scholar
  41. Goellnicht, Donald C. “Tang Ao in America: Male Subject Positions in China Men.” Reading the Literatures of Asian America. Ed. Shirley Geok-lin Lim and Amy Ling. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1992. 191–212.Google Scholar
  42. Goodman, Lizbeth. Gender and Literature. New York: Routledge, 1996.Google Scholar
  43. Gubar, Susan. “‘The Blank Page’ and the Issues of Female Creativity.” Critical Inquiry 8 (1981): 243–263.Google Scholar
  44. hooks, bell. Ain’t I a Woman? Black Women and Feminism. Boston: South End Press, 1982.Google Scholar
  45. Iwamura, Jane Naomi. Virtual Orientalism: Asian Religions and American Popular Culture. New York: Oxford University Press, 2011.Google Scholar
  46. Jardine, Alice, and Paul Smith, eds. Men in Feminism. New York: Methuen, 1987.Google Scholar
  47. Jelinek, Estelle, ed. Women’s Autobiography: Essays in Criticism. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1980.Google Scholar
  48. Jen, Gish. Tiger Writing: Art, Culture, and the Interdependent Self. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2012.Google Scholar
  49. Jill, Nelson. “An Interview with Ishmael Reed The Return of the Nigger Breakers: A Ghetto Reading and Writing Rat Responds to His Critics.” Counterpunch, 18 May 2010.Google Scholar
  50. Johnson, Barbara. The Feminist Difference: Literature, Psychoanalysis, Race, and Gender. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2000.Google Scholar
  51. Johnson, Diane. “‘Ghosts’: Rev. of The Woman Warrior by Maxine Hong Kingston.” New York Review of Books, 3 February 1977: 19+.Google Scholar
  52. Juhasz, Suzanne. “Towards a Theory of Form in Feminist Autobiography: Kate Millet’s Fear of Flying and Sita; Maxine Hong Kingston’s The Woman Warrior.” International Journal of Women’s Studies 2.1 [1979]: 62. 2.1 (1979): 62–75.Google Scholar
  53. Kang, Laura Hyun Yi. Compositional Subjects: Enfiguring Asian/American Women. Durham: Duke University Press, 2002.Google Scholar
  54. Kim, Elaine H. Asian American Literature: An Introduction to the Writings and Their Social Context. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1982.Google Scholar
  55. ——. “Asian American Writers: A Bibliographical Review.” American Studies International 22.2 (1984b): 41–78.Google Scholar
  56. ——. “Asian Americans and American Popular Culture.” Dictionary of Asian American History. Ed. Hyung-Chan Kim. New York: Greenwood Press, 1986. 99–114.Google Scholar
  57. ——. “‘Such Opposite Creatures’: Men and Women in Asian American Literature.” Michigan Quarterly Review 29.1 (1990): 68–93.Google Scholar
  58. King, Katherine Callen. Achilles: Paradigms of the War Hero from Homer to the Middle Ages. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1991.Google Scholar
  59. Kingston, Maxine Hong. China Men. New York: Vintage, 1980.Google Scholar
  60. ——. “Cultural Mis-readings by American Reviewers.” Asian and Western Writers in Dialogue: New Cultural Identities. Ed. Guy Amirthanayagam. London: Macmillan, 1982. 55–65.Google Scholar
  61. ——. “San Francisco’s Chinatown: A View from the Other Side of Arnold Genthe’s Camera.” American Heritage 30.1 (1978): 35–47.Google Scholar
  62. ——. The Woman Warrior: Memoirs of a Girlhood among Ghosts. New York: Vintage International, 1976, 1989a.Google Scholar
  63. ——. Tripmaster Monkey: His Fake Book. New York: Knopf, 1989b.Google Scholar
  64. Lauter, Paul. “Race and Gender in the Shaping of the American Literary Canon: A Case Study from the Twenties” Feminist Criticism and Social Change: Sex, Class and Race in Literature and Culture. Ed. Judith Newton and Deborah Rosenfelt. New York: Methuen, 1985. 19–44.Google Scholar
  65. Lee, Josephine. Performing Asian America: Race and Ethnicity on the Contemporary Stage. Philadelphia: Temple University Press, 1998.Google Scholar
  66. Lee, Robert G. “In Search of the Historical Guan Gong.” Asian America 1 (1992): 28–43.Google Scholar
  67. ——. “The Woman Warrior as an Intervention in Asian American Historiography.” Approaches to Teaching Maxine Hong Kingston’s The Woman Warrior. Ed. Shirley Geok-lin Lim. New York: MLA, 1991. 52–63.Google Scholar
  68. Li, David Leiwei. “Can Maxine Hong Kingston Speak? The Contingency of The Woman Warrior.” Asian American Literature. Ed. David Leiwei Li. 4 vols.New York: Routledge, 2012. II: 213–233.Google Scholar
  69. Li, Ju-Chen. Flowers in the Mirror.《镜花缘》. Ed. Tai-Yi Lin. Trans. Tai-Yi Lin. London: Peter Owen, 1965.Google Scholar
  70. Li, Wenxin. “Review of Sau-ling Cynthia Wong’s Maxine Hong Kingston’s The Woman Warrior: A Casebook.” Rocky Mountain Review (2000): n.p.Google Scholar
  71. Louie, Kam. Theorizing Chinese Masculinity: Society and Gender in China. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002.Google Scholar
  72. Lowe, Lisa. Immigrant Acts: On Asian American Cultural Poetics. Durham: Duke University Press, 1996.Lye, Colleen. “Asian American 1960s.” The Routledge Companion to Asian American and Pacific Islander Literature. Ed. Rachel C. Lee. New York: Routledge, 2014. 213–223.Google Scholar
  73. ——. “Introduction: In Dialogue with Asian American Studies and Racial Form.” Representations 99 (2007): 1–6.Google Scholar
  74. Lye, Colleen. “Asian American 1960s.” The Routledge Companion to Asian American and Pacific Islander Literature. Ed. Rachel C. Lee. New York: Routledge, 2014. 213–223.Google Scholar
  75. Ma, Sheng-Mei. Deathly Embrace: Orientalism and Asian American Identity. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2000.Google Scholar
  76. Marchetti, Gina. Romance and the “Yellow Peril”: Race, Sex, and Discursive Strategies in Hollywood Fiction. Berkeley: University of California Press, 1993.Google Scholar
  77. McCunn, Ruthanne Lum. Chinese Yankee. San Francisco: Design Enterprises of San Francisco, 2014.Google Scholar
  78. McDonald, Dorothy Ritsuko. “Introduction.” The Chickencoop Chinaman and The Year of the Dragon: Two Plays by Frank Chin. Ed. Frank Chin. Seattle: University of Washington Press, 1981. ix–xxix.Google Scholar
  79. Jardine, Alice, and Paul Smith, eds. Men in Feminism. New York: Methuen, 1987.Google Scholar
  80. Miller, Nancy K. Getting Personal: Feminist Occasions and Other Autobiographical Acts. New York: Routledge, 1991.Google Scholar
  81. Mullen, Harryette. The Cracks Between What We Are and What We Are Supposed to Be. Tuscaloosa: University of Alabama Press, 2012.Google Scholar
  82. Nee, Victor G., and Brett De Bary Nee. Longtime Californ’: A Documentary Study of an American Chinatown 1973. New York: Pantheon, 1981.Google Scholar
  83. Nguyen, Viet. “The Remasculinization of Chinese America: Race, Violence, and the Novel.” American Literary History 12.1 (2000): 130–157.Google Scholar
  84. Ono, Kent A., and Vincent N. Pham. Asian Americans and the Media. Cambridge: Polity Press, 2009.Google Scholar
  85. Rabine, Leslie W. “No Lost Paradise: Social Gender and Symbolic Gender in the Writings of Maxine Hong Kingston.” Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society 12 (1987): 471–492.Google Scholar
  86. Reed, Ishmael. “Complaint.” New York Review of Books 21 October 1982. <http://www.nybooks.com/articles/archives/1982/oct/21/complaint/> (accessed 4 January 2015).Google Scholar
  87. Renato, Constantino. “Notes on Historical Writing for the Third World.” Journal of Contemporary Asia 10.3 (1980): 233–240.Google Scholar
  88. Romero, Dennis. “Racist, Anti-Asian Flier Rocks UCLA, USC Campuses.” L.A. Weekly 11 February 2014. <http://www.laweekly.com/news/racist-anti-asian-flier-rocks-ucla-usc-campuses-4431258> (accessed 25 February 2015).Google Scholar
  89. Said, Edward. Orientalism. New York: Vintage, 1979.Google Scholar
  90. Samarth, Manini. “Affirmations: Speaking the Self into Being.” Parnassus: Poetry in Review 17.1 (1992): 88–101.Google Scholar
  91. Schenck, Celeste. “All of a Piece: Women’s Poetry and Autobiography.” Life/Lines: Theorizing Women’s Autobiography. Ed. Bella Brodzki and Celeste Schenck. Ithaca: Cornell University Press, 1988.Google Scholar
  92. Shih, Shu-mei. “Exile and Intertextuality in Maxine Hong Kingston’s China Men.” The Literature of Emigration and Exile. Ed. James Whitlark and Wendell Aycock. Lubbock: Texas Tech University Press, 1992. 65–77.Google Scholar
  93. Slotkin, Richard. Regeneration through Violence: The Mythology of the American Frontier, 1600–1860. Middleton: Wesleyan University Press, 1973.Google Scholar
  94. Smith, Sidonie, and Julia Watson. Reading Autobiography: A Guide for Interpreting Life Narratives, Second Edition. 2nd ed. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2010.Google Scholar
  95. Smith, Sidonie. A Poetics of Women’s Autobiography: Marginality and the Fictions of Self-Representation. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1987.Google Scholar
  96. Stanton, Donna. The Female Autograph. New York: New York Literary Forum, 1984.Google Scholar
  97. Takaki, Ronald. Strangers from a Different Shore: A History of Asian Americans. Boston: Little, Brown, 1989.Google Scholar
  98. Tong, Benjamin R. “Critic of Admirer Sees Dumb Racist.” San Francisco Journal, 11 May 1977: 20.Google Scholar
  99. ——. “The Ghetto of the Mind.” Amerasia 1.3 (1971): 1–31.Google Scholar
  100. Wang, Xiaoxue. “A New Historicist Analysis of the Rewriting of Chinese American History in Donald Duk.” Cross-Cultural Communications 10.2 (2014): 118–124.Google Scholar
  101. What’s Wrong with Frank Chin? By Curtis Choy and Jean Lau. Dir. Curtis Choy. Chonk Moonhunter Productions, 2005.Google Scholar
  102. Wolf, Christa. Cassandra: A Novel and Four Essays. Trans. Jan van Heurck. New York: Farrar, 1984.Google Scholar
  103. Wong, Nellie. “The Woman Warrior.” Bridge (1978): 46–48.Google Scholar
  104. Wong, Sau-ling Cynthia. “Autobiography as Guided Chinatown Tour? Maxine Hong Kingston’s The Woman Warrior and the Chinese-American Autobiographical Controversy.” Lives, Multicultural Autobiography: American. Ed. James Robert Payne. Knoxville: U of Tennessee P, 1992. 248–279.Google Scholar
  105. Wong, Shelley Sunn. “Unnaming the Same: Theresa Hak Kyung Cha’s DICTEE.” Feminist Measures: Soundings in Poetry and Theory. Ed. Lynn Keller and Miller Christianne. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 1994. 43–68.Google Scholar
  106. Woo, Deborah. “Maxine Hong Kingston: The Ethnic Writer and the Burden of Dual Authenticity.” Amerasia 16.1 (1990): 173–200.Google Scholar
  107. Yalom, Marilyn. “The Woman Warrior as Postmodern Autobiography.” Approaches to Teaching Kingston’s The Woman Warrior. Ed. Shirley Geok-lin Lim. New York: Modern Language Association, 1991. 108–115.Google Scholar
  108. Yamamoto, Traise. “Asian American Autobiography/Memoir.” The Routledge Companion to Asian American and Pacific Islander Literature. Ed. Rachel C. Lee. New York: Routledge, 2014. 379–391.Google Scholar
  109. Zhang, Ya-Jie. “A Chinese Woman’s Response to Maxine Hong Kingston’s The Woman Warrior.” The Woman Warrior: A Casebook. Ed. Sau-ling Cynthia Wong. New York: Oxford University Press, 1999. 17–21.Google Scholar
  110. Zhao, Wenshu. “Why Does Frank Chin Insist on the Authenticity of His Chinese Culture?-A Belated Response to Frank Chin from a “Distractor”.” 《跨国语境下的美洲华裔文学与文化研究》. Ed. Aimin Cheng and Wenshu Zhao. Nanjing: Nanjing University Press, 2011. 151–169.Google Scholar
  111. Zhao, Wenshu. “Why Is There Orientalism in Chinese American Literature?” Global Perspectives on Asian American Literature. Ed. Guiyou Huang and Wu Bing. Beijing: Foreign Language Teaching and Research Press, 2008. 239–258.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • King-Kok Cheung
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of EnglishUniversity of California, Los AngelesLos AngelesUSA

Personalised recommendations