Rho-modifying C3-like ADP-ribosyltransferases

  • K. AktoriesEmail author
  • C. Wilde
  • M. Vogelsgesang
Part of the Reviews of Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology book series (REVIEWS, volume 152)


C3-like exoenzymes comprise a family of seven bacterial ADP-ribosyltransferases, which selectively modify RhoA, B, and C at asparagine-41. Crystal structures of C3 exoenzymes are available, allowing novel insights into the structure-function relationships of these exoenzymes. Because ADP-ribosylation specifically inhibits the biological functions of the low-molecular mass GTPases, C3 exoenzymes are established pharmacological tools to study the cellular functions of Rho GTPases. Recent studies, however, indicate that the functional consequences of C3-induced ADP-ribosylation are more complex than previously suggested. In the present review the basic properties of C3 exoenzymes are briefly summarized and new findings are reviewed.


Clostridium Botulinum Cytotoxic Necrotizing Factor Guanine Nucleotide Dissociation Inhibitor Bacterial Protein Toxin Chimeric Toxin 
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© Springer-Verlag 2004

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute of Experimental and Clinical Pharmacology and ToxicologyAlbert-Ludwigs University FreiburgFreiburgGermany

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