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Hemicellulose

  • Anna EbringerováEmail author
  • Zdenka Hromádková
  • Thomas Heinze
Chapter
Part of the Advances in Polymer Science book series (POLYMER, volume 186)

Abstract

Hemicelluloses, comprising the non-cellulose cell-wall polysaccharides of vegetative and storage tissues of annual and perennial plants, represent an immense renewable resource of biopolymers. They occur in a large variety of structural types, divided into four general groups, i.e., xylans, mannans, mixed linkage β-glucans, and xyloglucans. The presented review summarized recent reports on hemicelluloses, including the arabinogalactan from larch wood, focused on new plant sources, isolation methods, and characterization of structural features, physicochemical and various functional properties. Attention was paid to derivatives prepared from these polysaccharides and to application possibilities of hemicelluloses or hemicellulosic materials for food and non-food applications, including the production of composite materials and other biomaterials.

Chemical functionalization Hemicelluloses Properties Structures 

Abbreviations

AFM

Atomic force microscopy

AG

Arabinogalactan

AGX

(l-Arabino)-4-O-methyl-d-glucurono-d-xylan

AX

l-Arabino-d-xylan

Cadoxen

Cadmium complex with ethylenediamine

CHX

Complex heteroxylan

CP/MAS

Cross-polarization magic-angle spinning 13C-NMR spectroscopy

Cuoxam

Copper complex with ammonia

DMF

N,N-Dimethylformamide

DMSO

Dimethyl sulfoxide

DP

Degree of polymerization

DS

Degree of substitution

DSC

Differential scanning calorimetry

DTA

Differential thermal analysis

ESI-MS

Electrospray ion-trap mass spectrometry

FA

Ferulic acid

FeTNa

Ferric tartaric acid complex in alkaline aqueous solution

G′

Storage modul

GaM

d-Galacto-d-mannan

GAX

(4-O-Methyl-d-glucurono)-l-arabino-d-xylan

GFC/LLS

Gel filtration chromatography/laser light scattering

GGM

d-Galacto-d-gluco-d-mannan

GM

d-Gluco-d-mannan

GX

d-Glucurono-d-xylan

HMW-AX

High-molecular-weight arabinoxylan

HPAEC

High-performance anion-exchange chromatography

HPLC

High-pressure liquid chromatography

K

Huggins constant

LMW-AX

Low-molecular-weight arabinoxylan

MALDI-PSD MS

Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization post-source-decay mass spectrometry

MALDI-TOF MS

Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry

MALLS

Multi-angle laser light scattering

MGX

4-O-Methyl-d-glucurono-d-xylan

PAD

Pulsed amperometric detection

QCM-D

Quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation

Rg

Radius of gyration

SEC

Size-exclusion chromatography

Tg

Glass-transition temperature

TMP

Thermomechanical pulping

wis

Water-insoluble

ws

Water-soluble

X3

β-(1→3)-d-Xylan

XG

d-Xylo-d-glucan

Xm

β-(1→3, 1→4)-d-Xylan

Araf

l-Arabinofuranose

Arap

l-Arabinopyranose

Fucp

l-Fucopyranose

Galp

d-Galactopyranose

GlcA

d-Glucuronic acid

Glcp

d-Glucopyranose

Manp

d-Mannopyranose

MeGlcA

4-O-Methyl-d-glucuronic acid

Rhap

d-Rhamnopyranose

Xylp

d-Xylopyranose

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Authors and Affiliations

  • Anna Ebringerová
    • 1
    Email author
  • Zdenka Hromádková
    • 1
  • Thomas Heinze
    • 2
  1. 1.Center of ExcellenceSlovak Academy of Sciences, Institute of ChemistryBratislavaSlovakia
  2. 2.Center of Excellence for Polysaccharide ResearchFriedrich Schiller University of JenaJenaGermany

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