Microdeformation and Fracture in Bulk Polyolefins

  • Christopher J. G. PlummerEmail author
Part of the Advances in Polymer Science book series (POLYMER, volume 169)


The fracture properties and microdeformation behaviour and their correlation with structure in commercial bulk polyolefins are reviewed. Emphasis is on crack-tip deformation mechanisms and on regimes of direct practical interest, namely slow crack growth in polyethylene and high-speed ductile–brittle transitions in isotactic polypropylene. Recent fracture studies of reaction-bonded interfaces are also briefly considered, these representing promising model systems for the investigation of the relationship between the fundamental mechanisms of crack-tip deformation and fracture and molecular structure.


Polyethylene Polypropylene Microdeformation Fracture Slow crack growth 



Crack length (m)


Crack speed (m s−1)


Scaling constant (m s−1)


Atomic force microscopy


Craze anisotropy factor


Backscattered electron


Compact tension


Flory-Huggins interaction parameter


Craze fibril spacing (m)


Entanglement spacing (m)


Crack opening displacement (m)


Critical crack opening displacement (m)


Double edge-notched tension


Young’s modulus (GPa)


Ethylene-propylene copolymer


Ethylene-propylene rubber


Ethylene-propylene-diene monomer


Elongation at break


Strain rate (s−1)


Scaling constant (s−1)


Environmental stress cracking


Electron resonance spectroscopy


Essential work of fracture (J m−2)


Field emission gun scanning electron microscopy


Full notch creep test


Critical strain energy release rate (J m−2)


Mode I plane strain critical strain energy release rate (J m−2)


High density polyethylene


Isotactic polypropylene


Critical non-linear strain energy release rate (J m−2)


Stress intensity factor (MPa m1/2)


Critical stress intensity factor (MPa m1/2)


Scaling constant (MPa m1/2)


Mode I plane strain critical stress intensity factor (MPa m1/2)


Maximum stress intensity factor (MPa m1/2) (cyclic tests)


Fibrillar zone length (m)


Statistical step length (m)


Low density polyethylene


Linear low density polyethylene


Linear elastic fracture mechanics


Medium density polyethylene


Molar mass (g mol−1)


Entanglement molar mass (g mol−1)


Weight average molar mass (g mol−1)


Molecular weight distribution


Maleic anhydride


Poisson’s ratio


Power law exponent


Entanglement density (m−3)


Optical microscopy


Polyamide 6






Ratio of maximum to minimum K (cyclic tests)


Rapid crack propagation


Small angle X-ray scattering


Slow crack growth


Scanning electron microscopy


Small scale yielding


Interfacial crossing density (m−2)


Stress (MPa)


Craze widening stress (MPa)


Fibril breakdown stress (MPa)


Tensile yield stress (MPa)


Scaling constant (MPa)


Temperature (°C)


Time (s)


Time to break (s)


Fibril breakdown time (s)


Time constant (s)

T1, T2

Temperatures in non-isothermal welding (°C)


Transmission electron microscopy


Glass transition temperature (°C)


Interface temperature during welding (°C)


Melting temperature (°C)


Ultra-high molecular weight polyethylene


Test speed (m s−1)


Fibril volume fraction


Interface width (m)


Wide angle X-ray scattering


Creep rate coefficient (m s−1)


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.



The author acknowledges the technical support of the Centre Interdépartemental de Microscopie Electronique (CIME) of the EPFL and H.-H. Kausch, J.-A.E. Månson, C. Grein, P. Béguelin, R. Gensler, C. Creton, F. Kalb, L. Léger, A. Ghanem, A. Goldberg, P.-E. Bourban, G. Smith and many others for the opportunity to be actively involved in various aspects of this work.


  1. 1.
    Williams JG (1984) Fracture mechanics of polymers. Ellis Horwood, ChichisterGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Cotterell B, Reddel JK (1977) Int J Fracture 13:267Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Williams JG, Marshall GP (1975) Proc Roy Soc A 342:55Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Schapery RA (1984) Int J Fracture 25:195Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    Béguelin P, Barbezat M, Kausch H-H (1991) J Phys III France 1:1867Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Béguelin P (1996) PhD Thesis, EPFLGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Béguelin P, Kausch H-H (1995)Techniques for high speed testing. In: Williams JG, Pavan A (eds) Impact and dynamic fracture of polymers and composites. Mechanical Engineering Publications, LondonGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bassett DC (1981) Principles of polymer morphology. Cambridge University Press, CambridgeGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Butler JH, Joy DC, Bradley GF, Krause SJ (1995) Polymer 36:1781Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Binning G, Quate CF, Gerber C (1986) Phys Rev Lett 56:930Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Coulon G, Castelein G, G’Sell C (1998) Polymer 40:95Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    Butler MF, Donald AM, Bras W, Mant GR, Derbyshire GE, Ryan AJ (1995) Macromolecules 28:6383Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    Butler MF, Donald AM, Ryan AJ (1997) Polymer 38:5521Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Butler MF, Donald AM (1998) Macromolecules 31:6234Google Scholar
  15. 15.
    Bartczak Z, Galeski A (1999) Polymer 40:3677Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Engstrom P, Fiedler S, Riekel C (1995) Rev Sci Instrum 66:1348Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Sawyer LC, Grubb DT (1987) Polymer microscopy. Chapman and Hall, LondonGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Plummer CJG, Scaramuzzino P, Kausch H-H (2000) Polym Eng Sci 40:1306Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Gensler R, Plummer CJG, Grein C, Kausch H-H (2000) Polymer 41:3809Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Friedrich K (1983) Adv Polym Sci 52–53:225Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    van der Wal A, Verheul AJJ, Gaymans RJ (1999) Polymer 40:6067Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    Hamouda HBH, Simaos-Betbeder M, Grillon F, Blouet P, Billon N, Piques R (2001) Polymer 42:5425Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Grein C, Béguelin P, Plummer CJG, Kausch H-H, Tézé L, Germain Y (2000) Influence of the morphology on the impact fracture behaviour of iPP/EPR blends. In: Williams JG, Pavan A (eds) Fracture of polymers, composites and adhesives, ESIS Publication 27. Elsevier, OxfordGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Grein C, Plummer CJG, Kausch H-H, Germain Y, Béguelin P (2002) Polymer 43:3279Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Adams WW, Yang D, Thomas EL (1986) J Mater Sci 21:2239Google Scholar
  26. 26.
    Gensler R (1998) PhD Thesis, EPFLGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    Lin L, Argon AS (1994) J Mater Sci 29:294Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    Narisawa I, Ishakawa M (1990) Adv Polym Sci 91-92Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Peterlin A (1977) Poly Eng Sci 17:183Google Scholar
  30. 30.
    Huang YL, Brown N (1990) J Polym Sci–Polym Phys Edn 28:2007Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    Huang Y, Brown N (1991) J Polym Sci–Polym Phys Edn 29:129Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Plummer CJG, Cudre Mauroux N, Kausch H-H (1994) Polym Eng Sci 34:318Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    Kramer EJ (1983) Adv Polym Sci 52–53:1Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Plummer CJG, Kausch H-H (1996) J Macromol Sci–Phys B35:637Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Kramer EJ, Berger LL (1990) Adv Polym Sci 91–92:1Google Scholar
  36. 36.
    Donald AM J (1985) Mater Sci 20:2634Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Plummer CJG, Donald AM (1990) Macromolecules 23:3929Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    McLeish TCB, Plummer CJG, Donald AM (1989) Polymer 30:1651Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    Dugdale DS (1960) J Mech Phys Solid 8:100Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    Stojimirovic A, Chudnovsky A (1992) Int J Fract 57:281Google Scholar
  41. 41.
    Stojimirovic A, Kadota K, Chudnovsky A (1992) J Appl Polym Sci 46:1051Google Scholar
  42. 42.
    Williams JG, Hadavinia H (2002) J Mech Phys Solid 50:809Google Scholar
  43. 43.
    Chudnovsky A, Sehanobish K, Wu S (2000) J Pressure Vessel Technol 122:152Google Scholar
  44. 44.
    Chudnovsky A, Shulkin Y (1999) Int J Fracture 97:83Google Scholar
  45. 45.
    Pandya KC, Ivankovic A, Williams JG (2000) Polym Eng Sci 40:1765Google Scholar
  46. 46.
    Pandya KC, Williams JG (2000) Plast Rubber Comp 29:439Google Scholar
  47. 47.
    Pandya KC, Ivankovic A, Williams JG (2000) Plast Rubber Comp 29:447Google Scholar
  48. 48.
    Plummer CJG, Creton C, Kalb F, Léger L (1998) Macromolecules 31:6164Google Scholar
  49. 49.
    Kalb F, Léger L, Plummer CJG, Creton C, Marcus P, Magalhaes A (2001) Macromolecules 34:2702Google Scholar
  50. 50.
    Brown HR (1991) Macromolecules 24:2752Google Scholar
  51. 51.
    Sha Y, Hui CY, Ruina A, Kramer EJ (1997) Acta Materiala 45:3555Google Scholar
  52. 52.
    Sha Y, Hui CY, Kramer EJ (1999) J Mater Sci 34:3695Google Scholar
  53. 53.
    Sha Y, Hui CY, Ruina A, Kramer EJ (1995) Macromolecules 28:2450Google Scholar
  54. 54.
    Miller P, Buckley DJ, Kramer EJ (1991) J Mater Sci 26:4445Google Scholar
  55. 55.
    Creton C, Kramer EJ, Brown HR, Hui CJ (2002) Adv Poly Sci 156:53Google Scholar
  56. 56.
    Jones RE, Bradley WL (1987) Forensic Eng 1:47Google Scholar
  57. 57.
    Kausch H-H (1987) Polymer fracture, 2nd edn. Springer, Heidelberg Berlin New YorkGoogle Scholar
  58. 58.
    Fleissner M (1998) Polym Eng Sci 38:330Google Scholar
  59. 59.
    Richard K, Diedrich G, Gaube E (1959) Kunststoffe 49:616Google Scholar
  60. 60.
    Levers PS (1998) Plast Rubber Comp Proc Appl 27:410Google Scholar
  61. 61.
    Parsons M, Stepanov EV, Hiltner A, Baer E (2000) J Mater Sci 36:5747Google Scholar
  62. 62.
    Parsons M, Stepanov EV, Hiltner A, Baer E (2000) J Mater Sci 35:2659Google Scholar
  63. 63.
    Ward AL, Lu X, Huang Y, Brown N (1991) Polymer 32:2127Google Scholar
  64. 64.
    Lagaron JM, Pastor JM, Kip BJ (1999) Polymer 40:1629Google Scholar
  65. 65.
    Nemeth P, Marosfalvi J (2001) Polym Degrad Stabil 73:245Google Scholar
  66. 66.
    Kramer E, Koppelmann J (1987) Polym Eng Sci 27:945Google Scholar
  67. 67.
    Gedde UW, Viebke J, Leijström H, Ifwarson M (1994) Polym Eng Sci 34:1773Google Scholar
  68. 68.
    Viebke J, Gedde UW (1998) Polym Eng Sci 38:1244Google Scholar
  69. 69.
    Pinter G, Lang RW (2001) Plast Rubber Comp 30:94Google Scholar
  70. 70.
    Beech SH, Mallinson JN (1998) Plast Rubber Comp Proc 27:410Google Scholar
  71. 71.
    G’Sell C, Hiver JM, Dahoun A, Souahi A (1992) J Mater Sci 27:1Google Scholar
  72. 72.
    Favier V, Giroud T, Strijko E, Hiver JM, G’Sell C, Hellinckx S, Goldberg A (2002) Polymer 43:1375Google Scholar
  73. 73.
    Plummer CJG, Goldberg A, Ghanem A (2001) Polymer 42:9551Google Scholar
  74. 74.
    Lu XC, Brown N (1997) Polymer 38:5749Google Scholar
  75. 75.
    Chan MKV, Williams JG (1983) Polymer 24:234Google Scholar
  76. 76.
    Brown N, Lu X (1995) Polymer 36:543Google Scholar
  77. 77.
    Lagaron JM, Capaccio C, Rose LJ, Kip BJ (2000) J Appl Polym Sci 77:283Google Scholar
  78. 78.
    G’Sell C, Favier V, Giroud T, Hiver JM, Goldberg A, Hellinckx S (2000) Proc 11th international conference on deformation, yield and fracture of polymers,10–18th April. Cambridge, UK, p 73Google Scholar
  79. 79.
    O’Connell PA, Bonner MJ, Duckett RA, Ward IM (1995) Polymer 36:2355Google Scholar
  80. 80.
    Duan D-M, Williams JG (1998) J Mater Sci 33:625Google Scholar
  81. 81.
    Huang Y, Kinloch AJ (1992) Polymer 33:1331Google Scholar
  82. 82.
    Lagaron JM, Dixon NM, Gerard DL, Need W, Kip BJ (1998) Macromolecules 31:5845Google Scholar
  83. 83.
    Brown N, Lu XC, Huang YL, Qian RZ (1991) Makromol Chem Makromol Symp 41:55Google Scholar
  84. 84.
    Brown N, Lu X, Huang Y, Harrison IP, Ishikawa N (1992) Plast Rubber Comp Proc Appl 17:255Google Scholar
  85. 85.
    Egan BJ, Delatycki O (1995) J Mater Sci 30:3307Google Scholar
  86. 86.
    Lu XC, Ishikawa N, Brown N (1996) J Polym Sci Part B–Polym Phys 34:1809Google Scholar
  87. 87.
    Lu X, Wang Q, Brown N (1988) J Mater Sci 23:643Google Scholar
  88. 88.
    Bubeck RA, Baker HM (1982) Polymer 23:1680Google Scholar
  89. 89.
    Channell AD, Clutton EQ (1992) Polymer 33:4108Google Scholar
  90. 90.
    Böhm LL, Enderle HF, Fleissner M (1992) Adv Mater 4:231Google Scholar
  91. 91.
    Fleissner M (1982) Angew Makromol Chem 105:167Google Scholar
  92. 92.
    Dayal U, Mathur AB, Shashikant (1996) J Appl Polym Sci 59:1223Google Scholar
  93. 93.
    Stephenne V, Daoust D, Debras G, Dupire M, Legras R, Michel J (2000) J Appl Polym Sci 82:916Google Scholar
  94. 94.
    Hubert L, David L, Seguela R, Vigier G, Degoulet C, Germain Y (2001) Polymer 42:8425Google Scholar
  95. 95.
    Lu XC, Brown N, Shaker M (1998) J Polym Sci Part B–Polym Phys 36:2349Google Scholar
  96. 96.
    Lu XC, Brown N, Shaker M (1995) J Polym Sci Part B–Polym Phys 33:153Google Scholar
  97. 97.
    G’Sell C, Dahoun A (1994) Mater Sci Eng A175:183Google Scholar
  98. 98.
    Shah A, Stepanov EV, Klein M, Hiltner A, Baer E (1998) J Mater Sci 33:3313Google Scholar
  99. 99.
    Shah A, Stepanov EV, Capaccio G, Hiltner A, Baer E (1998) J Polym Sci Part B–Polym Phys 36:2355Google Scholar
  100. 100.
    Parsons M, Stepanov EV, Hiltner A, Baer E (1999) J Mater Sci 34:3315Google Scholar
  101. 101.
    Harcup JP, Duckett RA, Ward IM (2000) Polym Eng Sci 40:635Google Scholar
  102. 102.
    Harcup JP, Duckett RA, Ward IM (2000) Polym Eng Sci 40:627Google Scholar
  103. 103.
    van der Wal A, Mulder JJ, Gaymans RJ (1998) Polymer 39:5467Google Scholar
  104. 104.
    Gensler R, Plummer CJG, Kausch H-H, Kramer E, Pauquet J-R, Zweifel H (2001) Polym Degrad Stabil 67:195Google Scholar
  105. 105.
    Lutz C (1991) PhD Thesis, StuttgartGoogle Scholar
  106. 106.
    Olley RH, Bassett DC (1989) Polymer 30:399Google Scholar
  107. 107.
    Norton DR, Keller A (1985) Polymer 26:704Google Scholar
  108. 108.
    Aboulfaraj M, G’Sell C, Ulrich B, Dahoun A (1995) Polymer 36:731Google Scholar
  109. 109.
    Coulon G, Castelein G, G’Sell C (1999) Polymer 40:95Google Scholar
  110. 110.
    Pluta M, Bartczak Z, Galeski A (2000) Polymer 41:2271Google Scholar
  111. 111.
    Plummer CJG, Kausch H-H (1996) Macromol Chem Phys 197:2047Google Scholar
  112. 112.
    Grein C (2001) PhD Thesis, EPFLGoogle Scholar
  113. 113.
    Karger-Kocsis J, Varga J, Ehrenstein GW (1997) J Appl Polym Sci 64:2057Google Scholar
  114. 114.
    Tjong SC, Shen JS, Li RKY (1996) Polym Eng Sci 36:100Google Scholar
  115. 115.
    Ouederni M, Phillips PJ (1995) J Polym Sci Part B–Polym Phys 33:1313Google Scholar
  116. 116.
    Plummer CJG, Menu P, Cudré Mauroux N, Kausch H-H (1995) J Appl Polym Sci 55:489Google Scholar
  117. 117.
    van der Wal A, Mulder JJ, Gaymans RJ (1998) Polymer 39:5477Google Scholar
  118. 118.
    Keith HD, Padden FJJ, Walter NM, Wickhoff HW (1959) J Appl Phys 30:1485Google Scholar
  119. 119.
    Garbaraczyk J, Paukzta D (1981) Polymer 22:562Google Scholar
  120. 120.
    Huang MR, Li XG, Fang BR (1995) J Appl Polym Sci 56:1323Google Scholar
  121. 121.
    Karger-Kocsis J (1996) Polymer Bull 36:117Google Scholar
  122. 122.
    Gahleitner MW (1996) J Appl Polym Sci 61:649Google Scholar
  123. 123.
    Li JX, Cheung WL, Chan CM (1999) Polymer 40:3641Google Scholar
  124. 124.
    Chu F, Yamaoka T, Ide H, Kimura Y (1994) Polymer 35:3442Google Scholar
  125. 125.
    Riekel C, Karger-Kocsis J (1999) Polymer 40:541Google Scholar
  126. 126.
    Li JX, Cheung WL (1998) Polymer 39:6935Google Scholar
  127. 127.
    Karger-Kocsis J, Varga J (1996) J Appl Polym Sci 62:291Google Scholar
  128. 128.
    Labour T (1999) PhD Thesis, Ecole Centrale de LyonGoogle Scholar
  129. 129.
    Dompas D, Groeninckx G, Isogawa M, Hasegawa T, Kadokura M (1995) Polymer Commun 36:437Google Scholar
  130. 130.
    van der Wal A, Nijhof R, Gaymans RJ (1999) Polymer 40:6031Google Scholar
  131. 131.
    van der Wal A, Gaymans RJ (1999) Polymer 40:6045Google Scholar
  132. 132.
    van der Wal A, Verheul AJJ, Gaymans RJ (1999) Polymer 40:6057Google Scholar
  133. 133.
    Ramsteiner F (1983) Kunststoffe 72:148Google Scholar
  134. 134.
    Karger-Kocsis J, Kulesnev VN (1982) Polymer 23:699Google Scholar
  135. 135.
    Vincent PI (1974) Polymer 15:111Google Scholar
  136. 136.
    Jacoby P, Bersted BH, Kissel WJ, Smith CE (1986) J Polym Sci 24:461Google Scholar
  137. 137.
    Creton C, Kramer EJ, Brown HR, Hui CY (1992) Macromolecules 25:3075–3088Google Scholar
  138. 138.
    Karger-Kocsis J (ed) (1999) Polypropylene—an A to Z reference. Kluwer, DodrechtGoogle Scholar
  139. 139.
    Kukaleva N, Jollands M, Cser F, Kosior E (2000) J Appl Polym Sci 76:1011Google Scholar
  140. 140.
    Bucknall CB (1977) Toughened plastics. Appl Sci PubGoogle Scholar
  141. 141.
    Jang BZ, Uhlmann DR, Van der Sande JB (1985) Polym Eng Sci 25:98Google Scholar
  142. 142.
    Jang BZ, Uhlmann DR, Van der Sande JB (1985) J Appl Polym Sci 30:2485Google Scholar
  143. 143.
    Jang BZ, Uhlmann DR, Van der Sande JB (1984) J Appl Polym Sci 29:3409Google Scholar
  144. 144.
    Jang BZ, Uhlmann DR, Van der Sande JB (1984) J Appl Polym Sci 29:4377Google Scholar
  145. 145.
    Karger-Kocsis J, Csikai I (1997) Polym Eng Sci 241Google Scholar
  146. 146.
    Chou CJ, Vijayan K, Kirby D, Hiltner A, Baer E (1988) J Mater Sci 23:2521Google Scholar
  147. 147.
    Chou CJ, Vijayan K, Kirby D, Hiltner A, Baer E (1988) J Mater Sci 23:2533Google Scholar
  148. 148.
    Lazzeri A, Bucknall CB (1995) Polymer 36:2895Google Scholar
  149. 149.
    Wu S (1990) Polym Eng Sci 30:753Google Scholar
  150. 150.
    Dukanszky B, Tudos F, Kallo A, Bodor G (1989) Polymer 30:1399Google Scholar
  151. 151.
    Ramsteiner F (1991) Acta Polymerica 42:584Google Scholar
  152. 152.
    van der Wal A, Nijhof R, Gaymans RJ (1998) Polymer 39:6781Google Scholar
  153. 153.
    Kalfoglou NK (1985) Angew Makromol Chem 129:103Google Scholar
  154. 154.
    Wei GX, Sue HJ, Chu J, Huang CY, Kong KC (2000) J Mater Sci 35:555Google Scholar
  155. 155.
    Liang JZ (2002) J Appl Polym Sci 83:1547Google Scholar
  156. 156.
    Fortelny I, Navratilova E, Kovar J (1991) Angew Makromol Chem 118:195Google Scholar
  157. 157.
    Magalhães AML, Borggreve RJM (1995) Macromolecules 28:5841Google Scholar
  158. 158.
    Plummer CJG, Béguelin P, Kausch H-H (1999) Colloids Surf A 153:551Google Scholar
  159. 159.
    Sue H-J (1992) J Mater Sci 27:3098Google Scholar
  160. 160.
    Dwyer SM, Boutini OM, Shu C (1996) Compounded polypropylene products. In: Moore EP (ed) Polypropylene handbook. Hanser, Münich, p 211Google Scholar
  161. 161.
    Dompas D, Groeninckx G (1994) Polymer 35:4743Google Scholar
  162. 162.
    Karger-Kocsis J (1996) Polym Eng Sci 36:203Google Scholar
  163. 163.
    Zheng W, Leng Y, Zhu X (1996) Plast Rubber Comp Proc Appl 25:490Google Scholar
  164. 164.
    Li WD, Li RKY (1997) Polym Testing 16:563Google Scholar
  165. 165.
    Ferrer-Balas D, Maspoch ML, Martinez AB, Ching E, Li RKY, Mai YW (2001) Polymer 42:2665Google Scholar
  166. 166.
    Cole PJ, Macosko CW (2000) J Plast Film Sheeting 16:213Google Scholar
  167. 167.
    Helfand E, Tagami Y (1971) J Polym Sci Part B–Polym Phys 9:741Google Scholar
  168. 168.
    Kinloch AJ (1987) Adhesion and adhesives. Chapman and Hall, New YorkGoogle Scholar
  169. 169.
    Xue YQ, Tervoort TA, Rastogi S, Laemstra PJ (2000) Macromolecules 33:7084Google Scholar
  170. 170.
    Smith GD, Plummer CJG, Bourban P-E, Månson J-AE (2001) Polymer 42:6247Google Scholar
  171. 171.
    Smith GD, Toll S, Månson J-AE (1994) Interface healing in PP in Proc Flow processes in composite materials. 7–9 July, Galway, IrelandGoogle Scholar
  172. 172.
    Zanetto J-E, Plummer CJG, Bourban P-E, Månson J-EA (2001) Polym Eng Sci 41:890Google Scholar
  173. 173.
    Gerard JF, Kotek J, Colbeaux A, Fenouillot F, Wautier H (2003) Abst AM Chem Soc (in press)Google Scholar
  174. 174.
    Boucher E, Folkers JP, Hervet H, Leger L, Creton C (1996) Macromolecules 29:774Google Scholar
  175. 175.
    Boucher E, Folkers JP, Creton C, Hervet H, Léger L (1997) Macromolecules 30:2102Google Scholar
  176. 176.
    Kalb F (1998) PhD Thesis, Collège de FranceGoogle Scholar
  177. 177.
    Plummer CJG, Kausch H-H, Creton C, Kalb F, Léger L (1998) Proc IUPAC world polymer congress—Macro 98. 13-17 July, Brisbane, AustraliaGoogle Scholar

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Laboratoire de Technologie de Composites et Polymères (LTC), Institut des MatériauxEcole Polytechnique Fédérale de Lausanne (EPFL)LausanneSwitzerland

Personalised recommendations