Advertisement

Elektrolumineszenz in III–V-Verbindungen

Chapter
Part of the Advances in Solid State Physics book series (ASSP, volume 5)

Abstract

A survey is given of the present state of electroluminescence in III–V-compounds with particular respect to injection luminescence. First some possible mechanisms for the excitation of charge carriers by an electric field are discussed, mainly for forward biased p-n junctions with moderate and high doping levels. These are illustrated by results obtained with GaAs and GaP. Next, the various possibilities for the recombination of these excited carriers are considered. Then some results obtained with other and mixed III–V-compounds are reported. A final short comment is made on some questions that still remain to be settled.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literatur

  1. [1]
    O. W. Lossew, Telegrafia i Telefonia Nr. 18, 61 (1923).Google Scholar
  2. [2]
    R. Braunstein, Phys. Rev. 99, 1892 (1955).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. [3]
    G. A. Wolff, R. A. Hebert und J. D. Broder, Phys. Rev. 100, 1144 (1955).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. [4]
    G. A. Wolff, R. A. Hebert und J. D. Broder, Halbleiter und Phosphore, Garmisch-Partenkirchen 1956, S. 547.Google Scholar
  5. [5]
    T. S. Moss und T. H. Hawkins, Phys. Rev. 101, 1609 (1956).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. [6]
    T. S. Moss, T. H. Hawkins und S. D. Smith, Report of the Meeting on Semiconductors, Rugby 1956, S. 133.Google Scholar
  7. [7]
    T. S. Moss und T. H. Hawkins, J. Phys. Rad. 17, 712 (1956).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. [8]
    T. S. Moss, Proc. Phys. Soc. B 70, 247 (1957).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. [9]
    S. Larach und R. E. Shrader, Phys. Rev. 102, 582 (1956).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. [10]
    S. Larach und R. E. Shrader, Phys. Rev. 104, 68 (1956).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. [11]
    J. I. Pankove und M. Massoulié, Electronics Div. Abstracts, Frühjahrstagung der Elektrochem. Soc., 1962, Los Angeles.Google Scholar
  12. [12]
    R. J. Keyes und T. M. Quist, IRE Trans. Electron Devices ED 9, 503 (1962).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  13. [13]
    R. J. Keyes und T. M. Quist, Proc. IRE 50, 1822 (1962).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. [14]
    D. N. Nasledov et al., Sov. Phys.-Sol. State 4, 782 (1961).Google Scholar
  15. [15]
    R. N. Hall et al., Phys. Rev Lett. 9, 366 (1962).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. [16]
    M. I. Nathan et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 1, 62 (1962).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. [17]
    T. M. Quist et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 1, 91 (1962).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. [18]
    G. Burns und M. I. Nathan, Proc IEEE 52, 770 (1964).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. [19]
    F. Stern, Physics of the III–V Compounds, Academic Press, New York (im Druck).Google Scholar
  20. [20]
    W. Heywang, Festkörperprobleme IV, 1964.Google Scholar
  21. [21]
    W. Shockley, Bell Syst. Techn. J. 28, 435 (1949).Google Scholar
  22. [22]
    C. T. Sah et al., Proc. IRE 45, 1228 (1957).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. [23]
    R. A. Logan et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 6, 113 (1965).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. [24]
    R. L. Anderson, Proc. IEEE 51, 610 (1963).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. [25]
    W. N. Carr und J. R. Biard, J. Appl. Phys. 35, 2777 (1964).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. [26]
    H. A. Klasens, J. Phys. Chem. Sol. 7, 175 (1958).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  27. [27]
    N. R. Nail et al., J. opt. Soc. Amer. 39, 690 (1949).ADSGoogle Scholar
  28. [28]
    L. Esaki, Phys. Rev. 109, 603 (1958).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. [29]
    V. S. Bagaev et al., Fiz. Tverdogo Tela 6, 1399 (1964).Google Scholar
  30. [30]
    V. S. Bagaev et al., Proc. Symposium on Radiative Recombination in Semiconductors, Paris 1964, S. 149.Google Scholar
  31. [31]
    D. F. Nelson et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 2, 182 (1963).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. [32]
    J. I. Pankove, Phys. Rev. Lett. 9, 283 (1962).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. [33]
    C. Hilsum und A. C. Rose-Innes, Semiconducting III–V-Compounds, Pergamon Press, New York (1961).zbMATHGoogle Scholar
  34. [34]
    G. Lasher und F. Stern, Phys. Rev. 133, A 553 (1964).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. [35]
    M. I. Nathan et al., Phys. Rev. 132, 1482 (1963).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. [36]
    R. J. Archer et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 10, 483 (1963).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. [37]
    J. I. Pankove, Phys. Rev. Lett. 4, 20 (1960).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. [38]
    G. Lucovsky, Bull. Am. Phys. Soc., Ser. II 8, 110 (1963).Google Scholar
  39. [39]
    J. I. Pankove et al., Phys. Rev. 126, 956 (1962).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. [40]
    W. Baltensberger, Phil. Mag. 44, 1355 (1953).Google Scholar
  41. [41]
    P. Aigrain und J. des Cloizeaux, Compt. Rend. 241, 859 (1955).Google Scholar
  42. [42]
    F. Stern und R. M. Talley, Phys. Rev. 100, 1638 (1955).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. [43]
    R. Broom et al., Halbleiter und Phosphore, Garmisch-Partenkirchen 1956, Seite 453.Google Scholar
  44. [44]
    R. C. C. Leite et al., Phys. Rev. 137, A 1583 (1965).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. [45]
    H. S. Sommers Jr., Phys. Rev. 124, 1101 (1961).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. [46]
    R. C. C. Leite et al., Appl. Phys. Soc. April 1963.Google Scholar
  47. [47]
    R. C. C. Leite et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 4, 69 (1964).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. [48]
    J. I. Pankove, J. Appl. Phys. 35, 1890 (1964).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. [49]
    A. E. Michel und M. I. Nathan, Bull. Amer. Phys. Soc. 9, 269 (1964).Google Scholar
  50. [50]
    E. E. Loebner et al., Bull. Amer. Phys. Soc. Ser. II, 4, 45 (1951).Google Scholar
  51. [51]
    H. G. Grimmeiss et al., Phil. Res. Rep. 15, 290 (1960).Google Scholar
  52. [52]
    M. Gershenzon et al., J. Appl. Phys. 32, 1338 (1961).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. [53]
    H. C. Gorton et al., Nature 188, 303 (1960).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. [54]
    J. W. Allen et al., J. Electr. Control 7, 518 (1959).Google Scholar
  55. [55]
    R. S. Risks und M. D. Pope, Japan, J. Appl. Phys. 2, 520 (1963).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  56. [56]
    S. Iizima und M. Kikuchi, Japan J. appl. Phys. 1, 303 (1962).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. [57]
    S. Iizima und M. Kikuchi, J. Phys. Soc. Japan 16, 1784 (1961).ADSGoogle Scholar
  58. [58]
    M. Kikuchi und T. Iizuka, J. Phys. Soc. Japan 15, 935 (1960).ADSGoogle Scholar
  59. [59]
    J. W. Allen et al., Nuclear Instr. Methods 14, 355 (1961).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. [60]
    J. Mandelkorn, Proc. IRE 47, 2012 (1959).Google Scholar
  61. [61]
    H. G. Grimmeiss et al., J. Appl. Phys. Suppl. 32, 2123 (1961).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  62. [62]
    M. Gershenzon et al., Sol. State Electr. 5, 313 (1962).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  63. [63]
    Rowland, Brit. Com. and Electr., Febr. 1965.Google Scholar
  64. [64]
    D. Tolfree, J. Sci. Instrum. 41, 788 (1964).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  65. [65]
    G. J. Destriau, Chem. Phys. 33, 587 (1936).Google Scholar
  66. [66]
    siehe auch z. B. H. F. Ivey, Electroluminiscence and related Effects, Academic Press, 1963.Google Scholar
  67. [67]
    H. E. Gumlich, Elektrolumineszenz in II–VI-Verb., Festkörperprobleme V, 1965.Google Scholar
  68. [68]
    F. H. Stieltjes und L. J. Tummers, Philips Techn. Rundschau 17, 242 (1955).Google Scholar
  69. [69]
    M. Schön, Halbleiterprobleme IV, F. Vieweg u. Sohn, Braunschweig 1958, S. 283.Google Scholar
  70. [70]
    W. Shockley und W. T. Read, Phys. Rev. 87, 835 (1952).ADSCrossRefzbMATHGoogle Scholar
  71. [71]
    R. N. Hall, Phys. Rev. 87, 387 (1952).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. [72]
    W. van Roosbroeck und W. Shockley, Phys. Rev. 94, 1558 (1954).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  73. [73]
    R. A. Logan und A. G. Chynoweth, J. Appl. Phys. 33, 1649 (1962).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  74. [74]
    R. A. Logan et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 5, 41 (1964).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  75. [75]
    A. L. Edwards et al., J. Phys. Chem. Sol. 11, 140 (1959).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  76. [76]
    M. Schulz, Diplomarbeit, Braunschweig 1964.Google Scholar
  77. [77]
    W. P. Dumke, Phys. Rev. 105, 139 (1957).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. [78]
    E. E. Loebner und E. W. Poor, Phys. Rev. Lett. 3, 23 (1959).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  79. [79]
    M. Gershenzon et al., Sol. State Electr. 7, 113 (1964).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  80. [80]
    H. K. Wertheim, Phys. Rev. 104, 662 (1956).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  81. [81]
    R. J. Phelan und R. H. Rediker, Proc. Symposium on Radiative Recombination in Semiconductors, Paris 1964, S. 47.Google Scholar
  82. [82]
    A. Mooradian und H. Y. Fan, Proc. Symposium on Radiative Recombination in Semiconductors, Paris 1964, S. 39.Google Scholar
  83. [83]
    E. J. Johnson et al., Report of the Int. Conf. on the Physics of Semiconductors, Exeter 1962, S. 375.Google Scholar
  84. [84]
    J. C. Sarace et al., Phys. Rev. (im Druck).Google Scholar
  85. [85]
    M. I. Nathan und G. Burns, Phys. Rev. 129, 125 (1963).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  86. [86]
    H. G. Grimmeiss und H. Koelmans, Phys. Rev. 123, 1939 (1961).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  87. [87]
    H. G. Grimmeiss et al., J. appl. Phys. 32, 2123 (1961).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. [88]
    M. Gershenzon et al., J. appl. Phys. 36, 1528 (1965).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  89. [89]
    F. M. Ryan und W. Stickel, Electr. Div. Abstr. Spring meeting of the Electrochem. Soc. Pittsburgh, S. 75 (1963).Google Scholar
  90. [90]
    F. G. Ullman, Nature 190, 161 (1961).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. [91]
    F. G. Ullman, J. Electrochem. Soc. 109, 805 (1962).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. [92]
    J. Starkiewicz und J. W. Allen, J. Phys. Chem. Sol. 23, 881 (1962).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  93. [93]
    J. W. Allen et al., Sol. State Electr. 6, 95 (1963).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  94. [94]
    A. Phahnl, Bell. Syst. Techn. J. 43, 333 (1964).Google Scholar
  95. [95]
    H. G. Grimmeiss und H. Scholz, Phys. Lett. 8, 233 (1964).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  96. [96]
    W. Glässer, H. G. Grimmeiss und H. Scholz, Phil. Techn. Rev. 25, 20 (1963/64).Google Scholar
  97. [97]
    M. Gershenzon et al., J. appl. Phys. (im Druck).Google Scholar
  98. [98]
    S. V. Galginaitis, J. appl. Phys. 35, 295 (1964).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  99. [99]
    G. Cheroff et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 2, 173 (1963).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  100. [100]
    S. V. Galginaitis, J. appl. Phys. 36, 460 (1965).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. [101]
    H. J. Vegter (wird veröffentlicht).Google Scholar
  102. [102]
    J. W. Allen und M. E. Moncaster, Phys. Lett. 4, 27 (1963).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  103. [103]
    R. Braunstein, Phys. Rev. 99, 1892 (1955).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. [104]
    M. I. Nathan et al., Phys. Rev. 132, 1482 (1963).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. [105]
    M. I. Nathan, Sol. State Electr. 6, 425 (1963).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  106. [106]
    J. Black et al., J. appl. Phys. 34, 178 (1963).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  107. [107]
    J. Feinleib et al., Phys. Rev. 131, 2070 (1963).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  108. [108]
    G. Lucovsky und C. J. Repper, Appl. Phys. Lett. 3, 71 (1963).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  109. [109]
    W. F. J. Hare et al., IRE Trans. Electron. Devices ED 9, 503 (1962).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  110. [110]
    K. Weiser und R. S. Levitt, J. appl. Phys. 35, 2431 (1964).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  111. [111]
    I. Weiser und A. E. Michel, Proc. Symposium on Radiative Recombination in Semiconductors, Paris 1964, S. 177.Google Scholar
  112. [112]
    T. L. Larsen, Appl. Phys. Lett. 3, 113 (1963).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  113. [113]
    M. H. Pilkuhn und H. Rupprecht, Proc. Symposium on Radiative Recombination in Semiconductors, Paris 1964, S. 195.Google Scholar
  114. [114]
    T. C. Lee und W. W. Anderson, Sol. State Commun. 2, 265 (1964).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  115. [115]
    H. Ehrenreich, Phys. Rev. 120, 1951 (1960).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. [116]
    N. B. Hannay, Semiconductors, Reinhold Publ. Corp., New York, 1959.Google Scholar
  117. [117]
    J. C. Marinace, J. Electrochem. Soc. 110, 1153 (1963).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  118. [118]
    R. Braunstein et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 3, 31 (1963).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  119. [119]
    G. C. Dousmanis et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 3, 133 (1963).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  120. [120]
    R. N. Hall, Sol. St. Electr. 6, 405 (1963).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  121. [121]
    W. E. Engeler und M. Garfinkel, J. appl. Phys. 34, 2746 (1963).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  122. [122]
    H. Nelson, RCA Rev. 24, 603 (1963).Google Scholar
  123. [123]
    H. Nelson und G. C. Dousmanis, Appl. Phys. Lett. 4, 192 (1964).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  124. [124]
    B. M. Vul et al., Sov. Phys. Sol. State 6, 1146 (1964).Google Scholar
  125. [125]
    G. Winstel und K. Mettler, Proc. Symposium on Radiative Recombination in Semiconductors, Paris 1964, S. 183.Google Scholar
  126. [126]
    W. N. Carr und G. E. Pittman Proc. IEEE 52, 204 (1964).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  127. [127]
    W. N. Carr und G. E. Pittman, Appl. Phys. Lett. 3, 173 (1963).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  128. [128]
    J. I. Pankove und J. E. Berkeyheiser, Proc. IRE 50, 1976 (1962).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  129. [129]
    J. S. Prener und F. E. Williams, Phys. Rev. 101, 1427 (1956).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  130. [130]
    E. F. Apple und F. E. Williams, J. Electrochem. Soc. 106, 224 (1959).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  131. [131]
    F. E. Williams, J. Phys. Chem. Solids 12, 265 (1960).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  132. [132]
    J. J. Hopfield et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 10, 162 (1963).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. [133]
    E. F. Gross und D. S. Nedzvetskii, Sov. Phys. DOKLADY 8, 896 (1964).ADSGoogle Scholar
  134. [134]
    K. Maeda, J. Phys. Chem. Solids 26, 595 (1965).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  135. [135]
    A. T. Vink und C. Z. van Doorn, Phys. Lett. 1, 332 (1962).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  136. [136]
    M. Gershenzon et al., Proc. Intern. Conf. on Semiconductors Exeter 1962, S. 752.Google Scholar
  137. [137]
    D. G. Thomas et al., Phys. Rev. 133, A 269 (1964).ADSGoogle Scholar
  138. [138]
    D. G. Thomas et al., Proc. Symposium on Radiative Recombination in Semiconductors, Paris 1964, S. 67.Google Scholar
  139. [139]
    B. Bölger und H. Koelmans, Proc. Symposium on Radiative Recombination in Semiconductors, Paris 1964, S. 95.Google Scholar
  140. [140]
    D. G. Thomas et al., Phys. Rev. 131, 2397 (1963).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  141. [141]
    J. J. Hopfield, Proc. Int. Conf. on the Physics of Semiconductors, Paris 1964, S. 725.Google Scholar
  142. [142]
    I. Broser, Festkörperprobleme 1965.Google Scholar
  143. [143]
    M. Lax, J. Phys. Chem. Sol. 8, 66 (1959).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  144. [144]
    V. L. Bonch-Bruevich, Sov. Phys.-Sol. St. 4, 215 (1962).Google Scholar
  145. [145]
    V. L. Bonch-Bruevich und V. B. Glasko, Sov. Phys. Sol. St. 4, 371 (1962).Google Scholar
  146. [146]
    R. N. Hall, Proc. Inst. Elec. Eng. 106 B, 983 (1960).Google Scholar
  147. [147]
    D. A. Evans und P. T. Landsberg, Sol. St. Electr. 6, 169 (1963).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  148. [148]
    P. T. Landsberg und A. R. Beattie, J. Phys. Chem. Sol. 8, 73 (1959).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  149. [149]
    P. T. Landsberg und T. S. Moss, Proc. Phys. Soc. B 69, 661 (1956).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  150. [150]
    C. Benoit á la Guillaume und P. Lavallard, Report of the international Conference on the Physics of Semiconductors, Exeter 1962, S. 875.Google Scholar
  151. [151]
    G. Burns et al., Proc. IEEE 51, 1148 (1963).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  152. [152]
    K. Weiser und R. S. Levitt, Bull. Amer. Phys. Soc. 8, 29 (1963).Google Scholar
  153. [153]
    K. Weiser und R. S. Levitt, Appl. Phys. Lett. 2, 178 (1963).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  154. [154]
    K. Weiser et al., Trans. Met. Soc. AIME 230, 271 (1964).Google Scholar
  155. [155]
    T. Deutsch et al., Phys. Stat. Sol. 3, 1001 (1963).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  156. [156]
    C. Benoit á la Guillaume und P. Lavallard, Sol. State Commun. 1, 148 (1963).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  157. [157]
    R. L. Bell und K. T. Rogers, Appl. Phys. Lett. 5, 9 (1964).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  158. [158]
    B. M. Vul et al., Sov. Phys. Sol. St. 4, 2689 (1963).Google Scholar
  159. [159]
    I. Melngailis et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 5, 99 (1964).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  160. [160]
    A. R. Calawa, J. appl. Phys. 34, 1660 (1963).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  161. [161]
    W. J. Turner und G. D. Pettit, Appl. Phys. Lett. 3, 102 (1963).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  162. [162]
    I. Melngailis, Proc. Symposium on Radiative Recombination in Semiconductors, Paris 1964, S. 33.Google Scholar
  163. [163]
    I. D. Anisimova et al., Sov. Phys. Sol. State 6, 2036 (1965).Google Scholar
  164. [164]
    H. Pillar, J. Phys. Chem. Sol. 24, 425 (1963).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  165. [165]
    A. Sagar, Phys. Rev. 117, 93 (1960).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. [166]
    T. Deutsch und B. Kosicki, Bull. Amer. Phys. Soc. Ser. II 9, 60 (1964).Google Scholar
  167. [167]
    H. G. Grimmeiss und H. Koelmans, Z. Naturforschg. 14a, 264 (1959).ADSGoogle Scholar
  168. [168]
    H. G. Grimmeiss et al., Z. Naturforschg. 15a, 799 (1960).ADSGoogle Scholar
  169. [169]
    M. R. Lorenz und B. B. Binkowski, J. Electrochem. Soc. 109, 24 (1962).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  170. [170]
    G. A. Wolff et al., Phys. Rev. 114, 1262 (1959).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  171. [171]
    I. Adams et al., Electronics Div. Abstr., Spring Meeting of the Electrochem. Soc., Chicago 1960 (Abstract 53).Google Scholar
  172. [172]
    B. Stone und D. Hill, Phys. Rev. Lett. 4, 282 (1960).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  173. [173]
    C. C. Wang et al., R. C. A. Rev. 25, 159 (1964).Google Scholar
  174. [174]
    R. J. Archer et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 12, 538 (1964).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. [175]
    H. G. Grimmeiss et al., J. Phys. Chem. Sol. 16, 302 (1960).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  176. [176]
    O. G. Folberth, Z. Naturforschg. 10a, 502 (1955).ADSGoogle Scholar
  177. [177]
    W. Koster und W. Ulrich, Z. Metallk. 49, 365 (1958).Google Scholar
  178. [178]
    J. C. Woolley und J. A. Evans, Proc. Phys. Soc. 78, 354 (1961).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  179. [179]
    J. C. Woolley und K. W. Blazey, J. Phys. Chem. Sol. 25, 713 (1964).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  180. [180]
    M. S. Abrahams et al., J. Phys. Chem. Sol. 10, 204 (1959).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  181. [181]
    J. C. Woolley et al., Proc. Phys. Soc. 77, 700 (1961).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  182. [182]
    F. B. Alexander et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 4, 13 (1964).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  183. [183]
    I. Melngailis und R. H. Rediker, IEEE Trans. Electron Devices ED 10, 333 (1963).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  184. [184]
    I. Melngailis et al., Proc. IEEE 51, 1154 (1963).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  185. [185]
    N. Holonyak Jr., Appl. Phys. Lett. 3, 47 (1963).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  186. [186]
    T. A. Fulton und G. E. Fenner, Appl. Phys. Lett. 4, 9 (1964).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  187. [187]
    S. Ku und J. F. Black, Solid St. Electr. 6, 505 (1963).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. [188]
    R. Zallen und W. Paul, Phys. Rev. 134, A 1628 (1964).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. [189]
    N. Holonyak Jr., et al., Proc. IEEE 51, 364 (1963).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  190. [190]
    N. Ainslie et al., J. appl. Phys. 35, 105 (1964).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  191. [191]
    L. Kibler et al., Proc. IEEE 52, 850 (1964).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. [192]
    M. H. Pilkuhri und H. Rupprecht, Trans. Metall. Soc. AIME 230, 282 (1964).Google Scholar
  193. [193]
    G. A. Wolff et al., Phys. Rev. 114, 1262 (1959).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. [194]
    W. Paul, J. Appl. Phys. 32, 2082 (1961).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Friedr. Vieweg & Sohn Braunschweig 1966

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Philips Zentrallaboratorium51 Aachen

Personalised recommendations