Syn- and post-eruptive mechanism of the Alaskan Ukinrek Maars in 1977

  • G. Büchel
  • V. Lorenz
Formation of Maars
Part of the Lecture Notes in Earth Sciences book series (LNEARTH, volume 49)


The two alkali olivine basaltic Ukinrek Maars (East Maar and West Maar) and one scoria cone within East Maar erupted within eleven days (March 30–April 9, 1977) on the Alaskan Peninsula, 13 km north of Mt. Peulik, an andesite volcano of the Aleutian Range. The East Maar, with a diameter of 300 m, is located within a small graben system striking N 1100 E, oblique to the Aleutian trench in a distance of 350 km. On these tensional faults two eruption centres occur: The East Maar and a scoria cone on the southeastern margin of its crater bottom. The scoria cone was active more or less during the whole eruption activity of East Maar. The West Maar, with a diameter of 140 m, is located just west of the East Maar. In the West Maar, after the first of three eruption cycles, feeder dike fragments were thrown out. They indicate that the explosion chamber migrated downwards during the maar formation. After the eruption activity, both craters filled up with ground-water and the coneshaped talus fans continued to grow on the crater floors, modified by gravity sliding and lahars.


Scoria Cone Tundra Soil Crater Wall Crater Floor Juvenile Clast 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. DeMets, C., Gordon, R.G., Argus, D.F. & Stein, S. (1990): Current plate motions. Geophysics J. Int., 101: 425–478.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Dreibus, G.; Graup, G.; Lorenz, V. & Wänke, H. (1986): Int. Volcanol. Congr., Hamilton, New Zealand, abstracts, p. 147.Google Scholar
  3. Estabrook, C.H. & Jacob, K.H. (1991): Stress indicators in Alaska. In: Slemmons, D.B., Engdahl, E.R., Zoback, M.D. & Blackwell, D.D. (eds.), Neotectonics of North America, 387–399, Geol. Soc.; Boulder, Colorado.Google Scholar
  4. Fisher, R.V. & Schmincke, H.-U., (1984): Pyroclastic rocks. 472 p., Springer, Berlin.Google Scholar
  5. Kienle, J., Kyle, P.R., Self, S., Motyka, R.J. & Lorenz, J. (1980): Ukinrek Maars, Alaska, I. April 1977 eruption sequence, petrology and tectonic setting. J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res., 7: 11–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Larter, R.C.L. & Allison, I. (1983): An inexpensive device for modelling strike-slip and oblique-slip fault zones. J. Geol. Educ., 31: 200–205.Google Scholar
  7. Lorenz, V. (1973): On the formation of maars. Bull. Volcanol., 37: 183–204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Lorenz, V. (1974): Vesiculated tuffs and associated features. Sedimentology, 21: 273–291.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Lorenz, V. (1985): Maars and diatremes of phreatomagmatic origin, a review. Trans. Geol. Soc. S. Afr., 88: 459–470.Google Scholar
  10. Lorenz, V. (1986): On the growth of maars and diatremes and its relevance to the formation of tuff rings. Bull. volcanol., 48: 265–274.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Lorenz, V. & Zimanowski, B. (1983): Fragmentation of alkali-basaltic magmas and wall-rocks by explosive volcanism. In: Kornprobst, J. (ed.), Kimberlites. III: Documents, 15–25, Ann. Sci. Univ., Clermont-Fd.Google Scholar
  12. Minster, J.B. & Jordan, T.H. (1978): Present-day plate motions. J. Geophys. Res., 83: 5331–5354.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Moore, J.G., (1967): Base surge in recent volcanic eruption. Bull. Volcanol., 30: 337–363.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Nakamura, K. & Uyeda, S. (1980): Stress gradient in arc-back regions and plate subduction. J. Geophys. Res., 85: 6419–6428.Google Scholar
  15. Rosi, M. (1992): A model for the formation of vesiculated tuffs by the coalesce of accretionary lapilli. Bull. volcanol., 54: 429–435.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Schumacher, R. & Schmincke, H.-U. (1991): Internal structure and occurrence of accretionary lapilli—a case study at Laacher See Volcano. Bull. volcanol., 53: 612–634.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Self, S., Kienle, J. & Huot, J.-P. (1980): Ukinrek Maars, Alaska, II. Deposits and formation of the 1977 craters. J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res., 7: 39–65.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Stone, D.B. & Wallace, K.W. (1987): A Geological framwork of Alaska. Episodes, 10: 283–289.Google Scholar
  19. Walker, G.P.L., (1983): Ignimbrites types and ignimbrite problems. J. Volcanol. Geotherm. Res., 17: 65–68.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Wasburn, A.L. (1979): Geocryology. A survey of periglacial processes and environments. 406 p., Edward Arnold; London.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1993

Authors and Affiliations

  • G. Büchel
    • 1
  • V. Lorenz
    • 2
  1. 1.Institut für GeowissenschaftenUniversität MainzMainzGermany
  2. 2.Institut für GeologieUniversität WürzburgWürzburgGermany

Personalised recommendations