The clay/water interface and its role in the environment
Data are presented to show that the surfaces of a common clay mineral, montmorillonite, modify the properties of the nearby water to a depth of at least 3.5 nm and that the value of every water property depends exponentially on t, the thickness of the films of adsorbed water, but is independent of the character of the surfaces. The viscosity and yield point are among the properties of the water that are modified. A modification of either of these properties has a commensurate effect on the flow of water between adjacent surfaces. Data are also presented to show that the surface-induced modification of the water is responsible for the swelling of the clay mineral and affects its ability to adsorb solutes. The swelling of clay reduces the permeability of the soil and the adsorption of solutes by the clay reduces their mobility. Thus, clay-water interaction has a significant impact on the convective and diffusive transport of pollutants through the soil.
Key wordsmontmorillonite clay water clay/water interface clay/water interaction pollution
Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.
- 2.Clementz DM, Low PF (1976) In: Kerker M (ed) Colloid and Interface Sci Vol 3, Academic Press, New York, pp 485–502Google Scholar
- 3.Ruiz HA, Low PF (1976) In: Kerker M (ed) Colloid and Interface Sci Vol 3, Academic Press, New York, pp 503–515Google Scholar
- 17.Steele D (1971) Theory of vibrational spectroscopy, Saunders, PhilidelphiaGoogle Scholar
- 19.Pimentel GC, McClellan AL (1960) The hydrogen bond. Freeman and Co., San FranciscoGoogle Scholar
- 21.Verwey EJW, Overbeek JThG (1948) Theory of the stability of lyophobic colloids, Elsevier, AmsterdamGoogle Scholar
- 24.Low PF (1987) In: Schultz LG, van Olphen H, Mumpton FA (eds) The Clay Minerals Soc, Bloomington, IN, pp 247–256Google Scholar
- 26.Zhang F (1992) Ph D Thesis, Purdue UnivGoogle Scholar
- 27.Young A, Low PF, McLatchie AS (1964) J Geophysical Res 69:4237–4245Google Scholar
- 30.Glasstone S, Laidler KJ, Eyring H (1941) The theory of rate processes, McGraw-Hill, New YorkGoogle Scholar