Charge-induced structural relaxation in hydrogenated amorphous silicon

Part of the Advances in Solid State Physics book series (ASSP, volume 28)


Microscopic aspects of structural relaxation in hydrogenated amorphous silicon are reviewed with special emphasis on the reversible dangling bond creation caused by doping, charge-injection, or illumination (Staebler-Wronski effect). It is argued that breaking of weak Si−Si bonds caused by charge-trapping and nonradiative recombination provides a common explanation for metastable defect formation in amorphous silicon. In addition, the influence of hydrogen on metastable bonding configurations as well as hydrogen diffusion in amorphous silicon are discussed.


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. [1]
    Semiconductors and Semimetals, Vol. 21D, ed. by J. I. Pankove (Academic Press, New York 1984)Google Scholar
  2. [2]
    R. C. Chittick, J. H. Alexander, and H. F. Sterling, J. Electrochem. Soc. 116, 77 (1969)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. [3]
    R. C. Chittick, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 3, 255 (1970)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  4. [4]
    W. E. Spear and P. G. LeComber, Solid State Commun. 17, 1193 (1975)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  5. [5]
    W. E. Spear, Adv. Phys. 26, 811 (1977)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  6. [6]
    J. Singh, Phys. Rev. B23, 4156 (1981)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. [7]
    M. Stutzmann, Z. Phys. Chem. (Neue Folge) 151, 211 (1987)Google Scholar
  8. [8]
    M. H. Brodsky and R. S. Title, Phys. Rev. Lett 23, 581 (1969)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  9. [9]
    G. D. Cody, C. R. Wronski, B. Abeles, R. B. Stephens, and B. Brooks, Solar Cells 2, 1316 (1987)Google Scholar
  10. [10]
    R. A. Street, J. Kakalios C. C. Tsai, and T. M. Hayes, Phys. Rev. B35, 1316 (1987)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  11. [11]
    Z. E. Smith, S. Aljishi, D. Slobodin, V. Chu, S. Wagner, P. M. Lenahan, R. R. Arya, and M. S. Bennett, Phys. Rev. Lett. 57, 2450 (1986)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  12. [12]
    G. Müller, Appl. Phys. A45, 41 and 103 (1988)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. [13]
    J. C. Knights, Solar Cells 2 409 (1980)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. [14]
    D. K. Biegelsen, R. A. Street, C. C. Tsai, and J. C. Knights, Phys Rev. B20, 4839 (1979)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. [15]
    K. Zellama, P. Germain, S. Squelard, B. Bourdon, J. Fontenille, and R. Danielou, Phys. Rev. B23, 6648 (1981)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. [16]
    W. Beyer and H. Wagner, J. Appl. Phys. 53, 8745 (1982)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  17. [17]
    D. L. Staebler and C. R. Wronski, Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 292 (1977)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  18. [18]
    H. Dersch, J. Stuke, and J. Beichler, Appl. Phys. Lett. 38, 456 (1980)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  19. [19]
    M. Stutzmann, W. B. Jackson, and C. C. Tsai, Phys. Rev. B23, 32 (1986)Google Scholar
  20. [20]
    R. A. Street, D. K. Biegelsen, and J. C. Knights, Phys. Rev. B24, 969 (1981)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. [21]
    R. A. Street, Phys. Rev. Lett. 49, 1187 (1982)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  22. [22]
    W. B. Jackson and N. M. Amer, Phys. Rev. B25, 5559 (1982)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. [23]
    M. Stutzmann, D. K. Biegelsen, and R. A. Street, Phys. Rev. B35, 5666 (1987)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. [24]
    J. M. Marshall, R. A. Street, and M. J. Thompson, Phys. Rev. B29, 2331 (1984)CrossRefADSMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  25. [25]
    W. Beyer and R. Fischer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 31, 850 (1977)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  26. [26]
    W. E. Spear, P. G. LeComber, S. Kalbitzer, and G. Müller, Phil. Mag. B39, 159 (1979)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. [27]
    H.-W. Spies, D. Zangmeister, and R. Fischer, phys. stat. sol. (a) 58, 83 (1980)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  28. [28]
    J. Stuke, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 97 & 98, 1 (1987), and K. Pierz, W. Fuhs, and H. Mell, to be publsihed.CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  29. [29]
    D. L. Staebler, R. S. Crandall, and R. Williams, Appl. Phys. Lett. 39, 733 (1981)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  30. [30]
    W. den Boer, M. J. Geerts, M. Ondris, and H. M. Wentinck, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 66, 363 (1984)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. [31]
    A. R. Hepburn, J. M. Marshall, C. Main, M. J. Powell, and C. van Berkel, Phys. Rev. Lett. 56, 2215 (1986).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  32. [32]
    C. van Berkel and M. J. Powell, Appl. Phys. Lett. 51, 1094 (1987)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  33. [33]
    S. Muramatsu, N. Nakamura, S. Matsubara, H. Itoh, and T. Shimada, Jap. J. Appl. Phys. 24, L744 (1985)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  34. [34]
    D. E. Carlson, A. Catalano, R. V. D'Aiello, C. R. Dickson, and R. S. Oswald, in: Optical Effects in Amorphous Semiconductors, ed. by P. C. Taylor and S. G. Bishop, AIP Conf. Proceed. No. 120, p. 234 (American Institute of Physics, New York 1984)Google Scholar
  35. [35]
    M. Cardona and N. E. Christensen, Phys. Rev. B35, 6182 (1987)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. [36]
    B. A. Scott, J. A. Reimer, and P. A. Longeway, J. Appl. Phys. 54, 6853 (1983)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  37. [37]
    R. L. Crabb, Solar Cells 2, 23 (1980)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. [38]
    M. Stutzmann, Phil. Mag. B56, 63 (1987)Google Scholar
  39. [39]
    R. A. Street, in: Semiconductors and Semimetals, Vol. 21B, edited by J. I. Pankove, p. 197 (Academic Press, New York 1984)Google Scholar
  40. [40]
    C. Lee, W. D. Ohlsen, P. C. Taylor, H. S. Ullal, and G. P. Ceasar, Phys. Rev. B31, 700 (1985)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. [41]
    M. Stutzmann, W. B. Jackson, and C. C. Tsai, Phys. Rev. B34, 63 (1986)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. [42]
    M. Stutzmann, W. B. Jackson, and C. C. Tsai, Appl. Phys. Lett. 45, 1075 (1984)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  43. [43]
    A. Skumanich, N. M. Amer, and W. B. Jackson, Phys. Rev. B31, 2263 (1985)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  44. [44]
    M. Stutzmann, W. B. Jackson, and C. C. Tsai, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 77 & 78, 363 (1985)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  45. [45]
    D. E. Carlson, Appl. Phys. A41, 305 (1986)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. [46]
    D. E. Carlson and C. W. Magee, Appl. Phys. Lett. 33, 81 (1978)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  47. [47]
    R. A. Street, C. C. Tsai, J. Kakalios, and W. B. Jackson, Phil. Mag. B56, 305 (1987)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. [48]
    S. T. Pantelides, Phys. Rev. B36, 3479 (1987).CrossRefADSMathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  49. [49]
    R. A. Street, Solid State Commun 24, 363 (1977)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  50. [50]
    S. R. Elliott, J. Non-Cryst. Solids 81, 71 (1986)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  51. [51]
    J. W. Corbett, S. N. Sahu, T. S. ShI, and L. C. Synder, Phys. Lett. 93A, 303 (1983)ADSGoogle Scholar
  52. [52]
    S. Estreicher, Phys. Rev. B36, 9122 (1987)ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. [53]
    C. G. van de Walle, Y. Bar-Yam, and S. T. Pantelides, Fall Meeting Mat. Res. Soc. (Boston, 1987), to be publishedGoogle Scholar
  54. [54]
    One obvious exception is the formation of molecular hydrogen in internal voids. In a-Si∶H, this has been seen to occur at high temperatures (J. B. Boyce and M. Stutzmann, Phys. Rev. Lett. 54, 562 (1985), and references therein) but will not be discussed further, because H2 formation is irreversible and not directly related to the structural relaxation processes of interest hereCrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  55. [55]
    R. F. Kiefl, M. Celio, T. L. Estle, S. R. Kreitzman, G. M. Luke, T. M. Riseman, and E. J. Ansaldo, Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 224 (1988)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  56. [56]
    A. D. Marwick, G. S. Oehrlein, and N. M. Johnson, Phys. Rev. B36, 4539 (1987)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  57. [57]
    Th. Wichert, H. Skudlik, M. Deicher, G. Grübel, R. Keller, E. Recknagel, and L. Song, Phys. Rev. Lett. 59, 2087 (1987)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  58. [58]
    B. Bech Nielsen, J. U. Andersen, and S. J. Pearton, Phys. Rev. Lett. 60, 321 (1988)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  59. [59]
    M. Ohsawa, T. Hama, T. Akasaka, T. Ichimura, H. Sakai, S. Ishida, and Y. Uchida, Jap. J. Appl. Phys. 24, L838 (1985)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  60. [60]
    W. B. Jackson and J. Kakalios, Phys. Rev. B37, 1020 (1988)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  61. [61]
    A. van Wieringen and N. Warmoltz, Physica 22, 849 (1956)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  62. [62]
    E. M. Pell, Phys. Rev. 119, 1014 (1960)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  63. [63]
    T. Ichimiya and A. Furuichi, Int. J. Appl. Rad. Isot. 19, 574 (1968)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  64. [64]
    N. M. Johnson and M. D. Moyer, Appl. Phys. Lett. 46, 787 (1985)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  65. [65]
    M. Capizzi and A. Mittiga, Appl. Phys. Lett. 50, 918 (1987)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Friedr. Vieweg & Sohn Verlagsgesellschaft mbH 1988

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Max-Planck-Institut für FestkörperforschungStuttgart 80Federal Republic of Germany

Personalised recommendations