Advertisement

Liquid crystals

Chapter
Part of the Advances in Solid State Physics book series (ASSP, volume 11)

Zusammenfassung

Ausgehend von der von Maier und Saupe entwickelten Molekularfeldtheorie wird eine kurze Beschreibung wesentlicher Eigenschaften der verschiedenen Type flüssigkristalliner Phasen—nematisch, cholesterisch und smektisch—gegeben. Näher eingegangen wird dabei auf neuere Arbeiten über die cholesterische Phase. Der zweite Abschnitt ist der quasi-elastischen Rayleigh-Streuung von Licht an der nematischen und isotropen Phase eines nematogenen Materials gewidmet. Dieser Lichtstreuffekt liefert einen wesentlichen Schlüssel für das Verständnis sowohl thermisch angeregter Fluktuationen im lokalen Ordnungsgrad als auch der Natur des isotrop-nematischen Phasenübergangs. Im letzten Abschnitt wird versucht eine Übersicht zu geben über den Einfluß elektrischer und magnetischer Felder auf die makroskopische Struktur flüssiger Kristalle. Besonders Beachtung wird dabei der feldinduzierten cholesterisch-nematischen Strukturumwandlung und der sogenannten Domänenbildung in nematischen Phasen mit negativer dielektrischen Anisotropie geschenkt, die für das Auftreten des dynamischen Lichtstreueffekts verantwortlich ist.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. (1).
    A. Saupe, Ang. Chem. 80, 99 (1968), Intern. Ed. (engl.) 7, 97 (1968).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. (2).
    I. G. Chistyakov, Sov. Phys. Usp. 9, 551 (1967).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  3. (3).
    J. L. Fergason, Sci. Amer. 211, 76 (1964), 222, (1970).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. (4).
    G. W. Gray, Molecular Structure and the Properties of Liquid, Crystals, Academic Press, London 1962.Google Scholar
  5. (5).
    A list of mesophase-forming materials has appeared in Intl. Critical Tables p. 314.Google Scholar
  6. (6).
    W. Maier and A. Saupe, Z. Naturforschg. 13a, 564 (1958), 14a, 882 (1959).ADSGoogle Scholar
  7. (7).
    I. Freund and P. M. Rentzepis, Phys. Rev. Letters 18, 393 (1968).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  8. (8).
    G. Durand and C. H. Lee, Mol. Cryst. 5, 171 (1968).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. (9).
    L. S. Goldberg and J. M. Schnur, Appl. Phys. Letters 14, 306 (1969).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  10. (10).
    W. Maier and A. Saupe, Z. phys. Chem. 6, 327 (1956).Google Scholar
  11. (11).
    W. Maier and G. Englert, Z. Phys. Chem. 13, 251 (1957).Google Scholar
  12. (12).
    W. Haas, J. Adams and J. B. Flannery, Phys. Rev. Letters 25, 1326 (1970).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  13. (13).
    P. Delord and J. Falgueirettes, Compt. Rend. 267C, 1177 (1968).Google Scholar
  14. (14).
    I. G. Chistyakov and V. M. Chaikovskii, Sov. Phys. Cryst. 12, 770 (1968).Google Scholar
  15. (15).
    A. de Vries, Mol. Cryst. and Liquid Cryst. 11, 361 (1970).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. (15a).
    N. M. Amer, Y. R. Shen and H. Rosen, Phys. Rev. Letters 24, 718 (1970).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  17. (16).
    A. Saupe and W. Maier, Z. Naturforschg 16a, 816 (1961).ADSGoogle Scholar
  18. (17).
    R. S. Porter and J. F. Johnson, Rheology 4, 317 (1967), and J. Am. Chem. Soc. 66, 1826 (1962).Google Scholar
  19. (18).
    J. L. Erickson, Appl. Mech. Rev. 20, 1029 (1967).Google Scholar
  20. (19).
    F. M. Leslie, Quart. J. Mech. Appl. Math. 19, 337 (1966).MathSciNetGoogle Scholar
  21. (20).
    M. Miesowicz, Nature 158, 27 (1946).ADSCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. (21).
    E. F. Carr, Mol. Cryst. and Liquid Cryst. 7, 253 (1969) and Advan. Chem. Ser. 63, 76 (1967).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. (22).
    I. Teucher, H. Baessler and M. M. Labes, Nature, physical sciences 229, 26 (1971).ADSGoogle Scholar
  24. (23).
    A. E. Lord and M. M. Labes, Phys. Rev. Letters 25, 570 (1970).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  25. (24).
    A good review on magnetic properties of liquid crystals is by P. Pincus, J. Appl. Phys. 41, 974 (1970).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  26. (25).
    G. Foex, Trans. Faraday Soc. 29, 958 (1933).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. (26).
    T. M. Laronge, H. Baessler and M. M. Labes, J. Chem. Phys. 51, 4186 (1969).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  28. (27).
    W. Maier and G. Meier, Z. Naturforschg. 16a, 262 (1961).ADSGoogle Scholar
  29. (28).
    W. Maier and G. Meier, Z. Naturforschg. 16a, 170 (1961).Google Scholar
  30. (29).
    R. Williams and G. Heilmeier, J. Chem. Phys. 44, 638 (1966).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  31. (30).
    H. Baessler and M. M. Labes, J. Chem. Phys. 51, 5397 (1969).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  32. (31).
    G. Friedel, Ann. Phys. 18, 273 (1922).Google Scholar
  33. (32).
    R. Dreher, G. Meier and A. Saupe, Berlin 1970.Google Scholar
  34. (33).
    H. de Vries, Acta Cryst. 4, 219 (1751).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. (34).
    J. L. Fergason, Mol. Cryst. 1, 293 (1966).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. (35).
    H. Baessler and M. M. Labes, Mol. Cryst. and Liquid Cryst. 6, 419 (1970).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. (36).
    D. W. Beneman and T. J. Scheffer, Phys. Rev. Letters 25, 577 (1970).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  38. (37).
    E. Sackmann, S. Meiboom, L. C. Snyder, A. E. Meixner and R. E. Dietz, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 90, 3567 (1968).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. (38).
    R. Kassubek and G. Meier, Mol. Cryst. and Liquid Cryst. 8, 305 (1969).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. (39).
    R. Cano, Bull. Soc. Mineral. Franc. 91, 20 (1968).Google Scholar
  41. (40).
    F. Grandjean, Compt. Rend. 172, 71 (1921).Google Scholar
  42. (41).
    H. Baessler and M. M. Labes, J. Chem. Phys. 52, 631 (1970).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  43. (42).
    J. Adams and W. Haas, Berlin 1970.Google Scholar
  44. (43).
    R. Cano and P. Chatelain, Compt. Rend. 259B, 252 (1964).Google Scholar
  45. (44).
    V. N. Alexandrov and I. G. Chistyakov, Mol. Cryst. and Liquid Cryst. 8, 19 (1969). The departure from linearity at low concentrations in the K (c)—relationship has mean-while been shown to be an artifact45.Google Scholar
  46. (45).
    W. J. A. Goossens, Mol. Cryst. and Liquid Cryst. (in press) and Physics Letters 31A, 413 (1970).Google Scholar
  47. (46).
    J. Adams and L. Leder, Chem. Phys. Letters 6, 90 (1970).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  48. (47).
    H. Baessler, T. M. Laronge and M. M. Labes, J. Chem. Phys. 51, 3213 (1969).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  49. (48).
    P. N. Keating, Mol. Cryst. and Liquid Cryst. 8, 315 (1969).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. (49).
    H. Baessler, P. A. G. Malya, W. R. Nes and M. M. Labes, Mol. Cryst. and Liquid Cryst. 6, 329 (1970).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. (50).
    G. Durand, Compt. Rend. 264B, 1251 (1967).Google Scholar
  52. (51).
    J. L. Fergason, N. N. Goldberg and R. J. Nadalin, Mol. Cryst. 1, 105 (1966).Google Scholar
  53. (52).
    R. D. Ennulat, Berlin 1970.Google Scholar
  54. (53).
    J. L. Fergason and R. D. Ennulat, Berlin 1970.Google Scholar
  55. (54).
    see for instance G. Baur, N. Riehl and P. Thoma, Z. Phys. 206, 229 (1967).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  56. (55).
    H. Sackmann and D. Demus, Mol. Cryst. 2, 81 (1966) H. Arnold, D. Demus and H. Sackmann, Z. Phys. Chem. 222, 15 (1963).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. (56).
    H. Arnold, Mol. Cryst. 2, 63 (1966), Z. Phys. Chem. 226, 146 (1964), H. Arnold and R. Roedige, Z. Phys. Chem. 231, 407 (1966).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. (57).
    H. Zocher, Z. Phys. 28, 790 (1927).Google Scholar
  59. (58).
    C. W. Oseen, Trans. Faraday Soc. 29, 883 (1933).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  60. (59).
    C. F. Frank, Disc. Faraday Soc. 25, 19 (1958).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  61. (60).
    A. Saupe, Z. Naturforschg. 15a, 815 (1960).ADSGoogle Scholar
  62. (61).
    V. Zwetkov, Acta Physicochim. USSR 18, 358 (1943).Google Scholar
  63. (62).
    W. Helfrich, J. Chem. Phys. 50, 100 (1969).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  64. (63).
    J. E. Dams, W. Haas and J. J. Wysocki, J. Chem. Phys. 50, 2458 (1969).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  65. (64).
    E. M. Barrall II and M. A. Sweeney, Mol. Cryst. 5, 257 (1969).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  66. (65).
    M. B. Rhodes, R. S. Porter, W. Chu and R. S. Stein, Mol. Cryst. and Liquid Cryst. 10, 295 (1970).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  67. (66).
    P. Chatelain, Acta Cryst. 1, 315 (1948).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  68. (67).
    L. S. Ornstein and W. Kast, Trans. Faraday Soc. 29, 931 (1933).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  69. (68).
    P. G. DeGennes, Mol. Cryst. and Liquid Cryst. 7, 325 (1969) and Physics Letters 30A, 454 (1969).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  70. (69).
    Groupe D'etude des Cristaux liquides (Orsay); J. Chem. Phys. 51, 816 (1969).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  71. (70).
    Orsay Liquid Crystal Group, Phys. Rev. Letters 22, 1361 (1969).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  72. (71).
    I. Haller and J. D. Litster, Phys. Rev. Letters 25, 1550 (1970).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  73. (72).
    P. G. DeGennes, Compt. Rend. 266B, 15 (1968).Google Scholar
  74. (73).
    J. D. Litster and T. W. Stinson III, J. Appl. Phys. 41, 996 (1970).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  75. (74).
    T. W. Stinson III and J. D. Litster, Phys. Rev. Letters 25, 503 (1970).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  76. (75).
    W. Maier and A. Saupe, Z. Naturfoschg. 15a, 287 (1960).ADSGoogle Scholar
  77. (76).
    B. Cabane and W. G. Clark, Phys. Rev. Letters 25, 91, (1970).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  78. (77).
    P. Pincus, Solid State Comm. 7, 415 (1969).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  79. (78).
    H. Baessler and M. M. Labes, J. Chem. Phys. 52, 2292 (1970).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  80. (79).
    W. Helfrich, Phys. Rev. Letters, 24, 201 (1970).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  81. (80).
    B. Deloche, B. Cabane and D. Jerome, Berlin 1970.Google Scholar
  82. (81).
    P. Chatelain, Bull. Soc. Mineral. franc. 50, 280 (1937).Google Scholar
  83. (82).
    V. K. Freedericksz and V. Zolina, Trans. Faraday Soc. 29, 919 (1933).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  84. (83).
    W. Helfrich, Phys. Rev. Letters 21, 1519 (1968).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  85. (84).
    G. H. Heilmeier and L. A. Zanoni, Appl. Phys. Letters 13, 91 (1968).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  86. (85).
    E. Sackmann and D. Rehm, Chem. Phys. Letters 4, 537 (1970).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  87. (85a).
    W. Helfrich, Appl. Phys. Letters 18, 527 (1970).Google Scholar
  88. (86).
    P. G. DeGennes, Solid State Comm. 6 163 (1968).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  89. (87).
    R. B. Meyer, Appl. Phys. Letters 9, 281 (1968).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  90. (88).
    E. Sackmann, S. Meiboom and L. C. Snyder, J. A. Chem. Soc. 89, 5982 (1967).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  91. (89).
    J. J. Wysocki, J. Adams and W. Haas, Phys. Rev. Letters 21, 1791 (1968).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  92. (90).
    H. Baessler and M. M. Labes, Phys. Rev. Letters 21, 1791 (1968).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  93. (91).
    F. J. Kahn, Phys. Rev. Letters 24, 209 (1970).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  94. (92).
    R. B. Meyer, Appl. Phys. Letters 14, 208 (1969).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  95. (93).
    H. Baessler, Habilitationsschrift, München 1970.Google Scholar
  96. (94).
    G. Durand, L. Leger, F. Rondolez and M. Veyssie, Phys. Rev. Letters, 22, 227 (1969).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  97. (95).
    G. R. Luckhurst and H. J. Smith, Berlin 1970.Google Scholar
  98. (96).
    H. Baessler and M. M. Labes, J. Chem. Phys. 51, 1846 (1969).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  99. (97).
    G. J. Gerritsma and P. v. Zanten, Berlin 1970.Google Scholar
  100. (98).
    G. H. Heilmeier, L. A. Zanoni and L. A. Barton, Proc. IEEE 56, 1162 (1968).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  101. (99).
    C. Deutsch and P. N. Keating, J. Appl. Phys. 40, 4049 (1969).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  102. (100).
    R. Williams, J. Chem. Phys. 39, 384 (1963).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  103. (101).
    A. Prinz, Berlin 1970.Google Scholar
  104. (102).
    G. Meier and A. Saupe, Mol. Cryst. 1, 515 (1966).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. (103).
    E. F. Carr, Phys. Rev. Letters 24, 807 (1970).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  106. (104).
    V. N. Tsvetkov and G. M. Mikhailov, Acta Physicochim. USSR 8, 77 (1938).Google Scholar
  107. (105).
    E. F. Carr, J. Chem. Phys. 38, 1536 (1963) and 39, 1979 (1963).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  108. (106).
    R. P. Twitchell and E. F. Carr, J Chem. Phys. 46, 2765 (1967).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  109. (107).
    W. Helfrich, J. Chem. Phys. 51, 4092 (1969).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  110. (108).
    G. H. Heilmeier and W. Helfrich, Appl. Phys. Letters 6, 155 (1970).CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  111. (109).
    G. H. Heilmeier and J. E. Goldmacher, Proc. IEEE 57, 34 (1969).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  112. (110).
    S. Meiboom and L. C. Snyder, Science 162, 1337 (1968). *** DIRECT SUPPORT *** A00AX011 00006CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Friedr. Vieweg + Sohn GmbH, Verlag 1971

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institut für Physikalische Chemie der Universität MarburgMarburgDeutschland

Personalised recommendations