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Reduction of organochlorine compounds in bleach plant effluents

  • Pratima Bajpai
  • Pramod K. Bajpai
Chapter
Part of the Advances in Biochemical Engineering/Biotechnology book series (ABE, volume 57)

Abstract

Organochlorines have been a matter of concern in the pulp and paper industry for the last two decades. These compounds are produced mainly by the reactions between residual lignin present in wood fibres and the chlorine used for bleaching. Some of the organochlorine compounds are found to be toxic, mutagenic, persistent, bioaccumulating and cause harm in biological systems.

Earlier measures taken by the pulp and paper industry to solve the chlorine problem have focussed on improving effluent treatment methods. Today, the emphasis of research and development work in this area has shifted more towards improving the processes. In the search to produce pulp with non-polluting chemicals, more efficient pulping methods reducing the amount of residual lignin passing to the bleaching process and alternative bleaching methods, are being developed. There are also possibilities for treating effluent with microorganisms and enzymes to remove the dechlorinated organic material. Each option has inherent advantages and disadvantages with regard to capital costs, operating costs, ease of retrofit, fabrication and installation time. Impact on other mill unit operations is also considered in choosing the best options. Many factors have to be considered in choosing an effective and economical bleaching/treatment process that meets all the environmental guidelines.

This review describes the environmental impact of organochlorines, use of enzymatic and biological bleaching for reducing the generation of organochlorine compounds, and treatment of bleach plant effluents by biological and enzymatic methods. Advantages and limitations of various biotechnological methods are discussed.

Keywords

Kraft Pulp Lignin Peroxidase Organochlorine Compound Kappa Number Chlorine Dioxide 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

List of Abbreviations

ADI

Acceptable daily intake

AOX

Adsorbable organic halogens

BOD

Biological oxygen demand

COD

Chemical oxygen demand

CTMP

Chemi-thermomechanical pulp

DDT

Dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane

ECF

Elemental chlorine free

EOCI

Extractable organic chlorine

EOX

Extractable organic halogen

EPA

Environmental protection agency

HC

High concentration (consistency)

HRT

Hydraulic residence time

ISO

International standards organization

LMS

Laccase mediator substrate

MBC

Modified batch cooking

MCC

Modified continuous cooking

MW

Molecular weight

OKP

Oxygen bleached kraft pulp

PCB

Polychlorinated biphenyl

PCDD

Polychlorinated dibenzo dioxins

PCP

Polychlorophenol

Pow

Octanol/water partition coefficient

ppb

Parts per billion (1/109)

ppm

Parts per million (1/106)

ppt

Parts per trillion (1/1012)

RBC

Rotating biological contactor

t

metric ton

TCDD

Tetrachlorinated dibenzodioxins

TCF

Totally chloring free

TCP

Trichlorophenol

TEQ

Toxicity equivalent

TMP

Thermomechanical pulp

TNT

2,4,6-Trinitrotoluene

TOCI

Total organochlorine

Bleaching stages

C

Chlorination

(CD)

Treatment by mixing chlorine and chlorine dioxide simultaneously (Cl proportion is higher than D)

D

Chlorine dioxide treatment

D1 & D2

First and second treatment, respectively with chlorine dioxide

(DC)

Treatment by mixing chlorine dioxide and chlorine simultaneously (D proportion is higher than Cl)

E

Alkaline extraction

E1 & E2

First and second alkaline extraction respectively

Eo

Alkaline extraction in presence of oxygen

EOP

Alkaline extraction in presence of oxygen and hydrogen peroxide

EP

Alkaline extraction in presence of hydrogen peroxide

F

Fungal treatment

H

Hypochlorite treatment

L

Laccase enzyme treatment

O

Oxygen delignification/bleaching

P

Hydrogen peroxide treatment

Q

Chelation of metal

X

Xylanase enzyme treatment

Z

Ozone treatment

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Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 0120 0245 V 2 1997

Authors and Affiliations

  • Pratima Bajpai
    • 1
  • Pramod K. Bajpai
    • 1
  1. 1.Chemical Engineering DivisionThapar Corporate Research and Development CentrePatialaIndia

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