Advertisement

Kinetik der Emulsionspolymerisation

  • H. Gerrens
Conference paper
Part of the Advances in Polymer Science book series (POLYMER, volume 1/2)

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Literatur

  1. 1.
    Alfrey, T. jr., F. R. Mayo and F. T. Wall: Symbols of polymerization. J. Polymer Sci. 1, 581 (1946).Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    -, J. J. Bohrer and H. Mark: Copolymerization. New York-London: Interscience Publ. Inc. 1952.Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    -, E. B. Bradford, J. W. Vanderhoff and G. Oster: Optical properties of unifom particle-size latexes. J. opt. Soc. Amer. 44, 603–609 (1954).Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Atherton, E., and R. H. Peters: Some aspects of light scattering from polydisperse systems of spherical particles. Brit. J. appl. Physics 4, 344–349 (1953).Google Scholar
  5. 5.
    --: Light scattering measurements on polydisperse systems of spherical particles. Brit. J. appl. Physics 4, 366–369 (1953).Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Bakker, J.: Kinetics of the emulsion polymerization of styrene. Philips Res. Rep. 7, 344–400 (1952).Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Barb, W. G., J. H. Baxendale, P. George and K. R. Hargrave: Reactions of ferrous and ferric ions with hydrogen peroxide. Part I. The ferrous ion reaction. Trans. Faraday Soc. 47, 462–500 (1951).Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Bartholomé, E., H. Gerrens, R. Herbeck u. H. M. Weitz: Über die Kinetik der Emulsionspolymerisation von Styrol. Z. Elektrochem. 60, 334–348 (1956).Google Scholar
  9. 9.
    -,-: Die Beschleunigung der Emulsionspolymerisation von Styrol durch das System Kaliumpersulfat-Triäthanolamin. Z. Elektrochem. 61, 522–530 (1957).Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Bartlett, P. D., and R. Altschul: The polymerization of allyl compounds. I. Factors gouverning the acyl peroxide-induced polymerization of allyl acetate, and the fate of the peroxide. J. Amer. Soc. 67, 812–816 (1945).Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    Barlett, P. D., and R. Altschul: The polymerization of allyl compounds. II. Preliminary kinetic study of the peroxide-induced polymerization of allyl acetate. J. Amer. Soc. 67, 816–822 (1945).Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    -and K. Nozaki: The polymerization of allyl compounds. IV. Emulsion polymerization of allyl acetate. J. Polymer Sci. 3, 216–222 (1948).Google Scholar
  13. 13.
    -: Einige Probleme der Polymerisationskinetik. Angew.Chem. 67, 45–52 (1955).Google Scholar
  14. 14.
    Bateman, L. C.: New polymers from natural rubber. Ind. Eng. Chem. 49, 704–711 (1957).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Baxendale, J. H., M. G. Evans and G. S. Park: The mechanism and kinetics of the initiation of polymerisation by systems containing hydrogen peroxide. Trans. Faraday Soc. 42, 155–169 (1946).Google Scholar
  16. 16.
    Bevilacqua, E. M.: Grafting in natural rubber. J. Polymer. Sci. 24, 292–296 (1957).Google Scholar
  17. 17.
    Bevington, J. C., G. M. Guzman and H. W. Melville: Self-branching of vinyl polymers. Nature (Lond.) 170, 1026–1027 (1952).Google Scholar
  18. 18.
    -,-,-: Self-branching in the polymerization of vinyl acetate. Proc. roy. Soc. A 221, 437–452 (1954).Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    -,-,-: Self-branching in the polymerization of styrene. Proc. roy. Soc. A 221, 453–462 (1954).Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    Bianchi, J. P., F. P. Price and B. H. Zimm: Monodisperse polystyrene. J. Polymer Sci. 25, 27–38 (1957).Google Scholar
  21. 21.
    Bier, G., u. H. Krämer: Beitrag zur Struktur von Polyvinylchlorid. Makromol. Chem. 18/19, 151–165 (1956).Google Scholar
  22. 22.
    --: Polymerisation von Vinylchlorid und Struktur von Polyvinylchlorid. Kunststoffe 46, 498–505 (1956).Google Scholar
  23. 23.
    Billmeyer, F. W. jr.: An absorption-extrapolation light scattering method. J. Amer. Soc. 76, 4636–4639 (1954).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. 24.
    Boll, R. H., and C. M. Sliepcevich: Evaluation of errors of optical origin arising in the size analysis of a dispersion by light transmission. J. opt. Soc. Amer. 46, 200–208 (1956).Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    Bovey, F. A., and I. M. Kolthoff: The mechanism of emulsion polymerizations. III. Oxygen as a comonomer in the emulsion polymerization of styrene. J. Amer. Soc. 69, 2143–2153 (1947).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    --: The mechanism of emulsion polymerizations. IV. Kinetics of polymerization of styrene in water and detergent solutions. J. Polymer Sci. 5, 487–504 (1950).Google Scholar
  27. 27.
    --: Studies of retarders and inhibitors in the emulsion polymerization of styrene. II. Inhibitors. J. Polymer Sci. 5, 569–586 (1950).Google Scholar
  28. 28.
    --, A. J. Medalia and E. J. Meehan: Emulsion polymerization. New York-London: Interscience Publ. Inc. 1955.Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    Bradford, E. B., and J. W. Vanderhoff: Electron microscopy of monodisperse latexes. J. appl. Physics 26, 864–871 (1955).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    --and T. Alfrey jr.: The use of monodisperse latexes in an electron microscope investigation of the mechanism of emulsion polymerization. J. Coll. Sci. 11, 135–149 (1956).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. 31.
    --: The particle diameter determination of film-forming latexes by electron microscopy. Abstracts of Papers 131st Meeting. Amer. Chem. Soc. Miami/Florida, 7.–12. 4. 1957, Nr. I/67, p. 26–I.Google Scholar
  32. 32.
    Breitenbach, J. W., u. H. Schneider: Über das Molekulargewicht von Polymerisaten. Chem. Ber. B 76, 1088–1095 (1943).Google Scholar
  33. 33.
    -u. A. Schindler: Die Kinetik der durch α-Azoisobuttersäurenitril angeregten Indenpolymerisation. Mh. Chem. 83, 271–278 (1952).Google Scholar
  34. 34.
    Breitenbach, J.W. u. A. Schindler: Beeinflussung der Polymerisationsgeschwindigkeit durch Kettenübertragung bei der Polymerisation des flüssigen Vinylchlorids. Mh. Chem. 86, 437–443 (1955).Google Scholar
  35. 35.
    Brown, W. E.: Procedure for preparing latex samples for electron micrographs. J. appl. Physics 18, 273 (1947).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    Bueche, F.: Size distribution of spheres by light scattering. J. Amer. Soc. 74, 2373 (1952).Google Scholar
  37. 37.
    Burnett, G. M., and W. W. Wright: The photosensitized polymerization of vinyl chloride in tetrahydrofuran solution. Characteristics of the overall reaction. Proc. roy. Soc. A 221, 28–36 (1954).Google Scholar
  38. 38.
    --: The phososensitized polymerization of vinyl chloride in tetrahydrofuran solution. II. Theory of intermittent illumination for simultaneous monomer and mutual termination. Proc. roy. Soc. A 221, 37–41 (1954).Google Scholar
  39. 39.
    --: The photosensitized polymerization of vinyl chloride in tetrahydrofuran solution. III. Determination of the kinetic coefficients. Proc. roy. Soc. A 221, 41–53 (1954).Google Scholar
  40. 40.
    -, R. S. Lehrle, D. W. Ovenall and F. W. Peaker: Determination of particle size in emulsion polymerization of styrene: Comparison of light scattering and electron microscope method. Abstracts IUPAC-Symposium Prag 9.–15. 9. 1957, Nr. 105.Google Scholar
  41. 40a.
    -,-,-,-: Particle size and rate of emulsion polymerization: a comparison of results obtained by electron microscopy and light scattering. J. Polymer Sci. 29, 417–423 (1958).Google Scholar
  42. 40b.
    -: Rate maxima in copolymerization processes. J. Polymer Sci. 28, 642–644 (1958).Google Scholar
  43. 41.
    Carr, C. W., I. M. Kolthoff, E. J. Meehan and R. J. Stenberg: Studies on the rate of the emulsion polymerization of butadiene-styrene (75∶25) as a function of the amount and kind of emulsifier used. I. Polymerizations with commercial and pure soaps. J. Polymer Sci. 5, 191–200 (1950).Google Scholar
  44. 42.
    -,-,-and D. E. Williams: Studies on the rate of the emulsion polymerization of butadiene-styrene (75∶25) as a function of the amount and kind of emulsifier used. II. Polymerizations with fatty acid soaps, rosin soaps, and various synthetic emulsifiers. J. Polymer Sci. 5, 201–206 (1950).Google Scholar
  45. 43.
    Cheng, P. Y., and H. K. Schachman: Studies on the validity of the Einstein Viscosity Law and Stokes' Law of Sedimentation. J. Polymer Sci. 16, 19–3 (1955).Google Scholar
  46. 44.
    Cooper, W., and R. K. Smith: Dilatometry in the polymerization of styrene. J. Polymer Sci. 9, 463–465 (1952).Google Scholar
  47. 45.
    Corrin, M. L.: Kinetic treatment of emulsion polymerization. J. Polymer Sci. 2, 257–262 (1947).Google Scholar
  48. 46.
    -and W. D. Harkins: The effect of salts on the critical concentration for the formation of micelles in colloidal electrolytes. J. Amer. Soc. 69, 683–688 (1947).Google Scholar
  49. 47.
    Costanza, A. J., R. J. Coleman, R. M. Pierson, C. S. Marvel and C. King: Bis-type modifiers in polymerization. II. Comparison of effectiveness of various compounds in emulsion butadiene and bulk styrene polymerizations. J. Polymer Sci. 17, 319–340 (1955).Google Scholar
  50. 48.
    Daeves, K., u. A. Beckel: Großzahlforschung und Häufigkeitsanalyse. Ein Leitfaden. Weinheim/Bergstr. und Berlin: Verlag Chemie 1948.Google Scholar
  51. 49.
    Dandliker, W. B.: Light scattering studies of a polystyrene latex. J. Amer. Soc. 72, 5110–5116 (1950).Google Scholar
  52. 50.
    Danielson, W. E., L. Shenfil and J. W. M. DuMond: Latex particles size determination using diffraction peaks obtained with the point focusing X-ray monochromator. J. appl. Physics 23, 860–865 (1952).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  53. 51.
    Debye, P.: Light scattering in soap solutions. J. physic. Chem. 53, 1–8 (1949).Google Scholar
  54. 52.
    Dillon, R. E., L. A. Matheson and E. B. Bradford: Sintering of synthetic latex particles. J. Coll. Sci. 6, 108–117 (1951).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  55. 53.
    Donnet, J. B., R. Roth and G. Meyerhoff: On the meaning of osmotic determinations. J. Polymer Sci. 27, 591–594 (1958).Google Scholar
  56. 54.
    Ekwall, P.: Konduktometrische Titration von Natriumsalzen hochmolekularer Fettsäuren. Kolloid-Z. 45, 291–306 (1928).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  57. 55.
    -: Zur Kenntnis der Konstitution der verdünnten Seifenlösungen. III. Die Theorie der Hydrolyse. Kolloid-Z. 92, 141–157 (1940).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  58. 56.
    -u. L. G. Lindblad: Zur Kenntnis der Konstitution der verdünnten Seifenlösungen. IV. Die Hydroxylionenaktivität der Natriumlauratlösungen bei 20°. Kolloid-Z. 94, 42–57 (1941).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  59. 57.
    -: Concentration limits in association colloid solutions. J. Coll. Sci. 9, Suppl. I, 66–79 (1954).Google Scholar
  60. 58.
    Ellis, S. G.: Specimen charging in the electron microscope and some observations on the size of polystyrene latex particles. J. appl. Physics 23, 728–732 (1952).Google Scholar
  61. 59.
    Ewart, R. H., and C. I. Carr: The distribution of particle sizes in polystyrene latex. J. physic. Chem. 58, 640–644 (1954).Google Scholar
  62. 60.
    Fikentscher, H., u. W. Franke: Entwicklung der Vinylchlorid-Emulsionspolymerisate in Lu. 26 von Herbst 1935 bis Herbst 1936. I.G. Farbenindustrie AG. unveröffentlichter Bericht vom 12. 11. 1936.Google Scholar
  63. 61.
    -. u. G. Hagen: Die Lösungstheorie der Emulsionspolymerisation. I.G. Farbenindustrie AG. unveröffentlichter Bericht vom 19. 4/3. 5. 1938.Google Scholar
  64. 62.
    -: Emulsionspolymerisation und technische Auswertung. Angew. Chem. 51, 433 (1938).Google Scholar
  65. 63.
    -u. K. Herrle: Zur Kinetik der Emulsions-Polymerisation. Angew. Chem. 59, 174 (1947).Google Scholar
  66. 64.
    Flory, P. J.: The mechanism of vinyl polymerizations. J. Amer. Soc. 9, 241–253 (1937).Google Scholar
  67. 65.
    -: Principles of polymer chemistry. Ithaca, N. Y.: Cornell University Press, 1953.Google Scholar
  68. 66.
    Fordham, J. W. L., and H. L. Williams: The thermal decomposition of cumene hydroperoxide in relation to certain aspects of emulsion copolymerization. Canad. J. Res. 27 B, 943–960 (1949).Google Scholar
  69. 67.
    --: The cumene hydroperoxide-iron (II) reaction in the absence of oxygen. J. Amer. Soc. 73, 1634–1637 (1951).Google Scholar
  70. 68.
    --: The persulfate-iron (II) initiator system for free radical polymerizations. J. Amer. Soc. 73, 4855–4859 (1951).Google Scholar
  71. 69.
    Fordyce, R. G. and E. C. Chapin: Copolymerization. I. The mechanism of emulsion copolymerization of styrene and acrylonitrile. J. Amer. Soc. 69, 581–583 (1947).Google Scholar
  72. 70.
    -and G. E. Ham: Copolymerization. II. The mechanism of emulsion copolymerization of styrene und itaconic acid. J. Amer. Soc. 69, 695–696 (1947).Google Scholar
  73. 71.
    -: Copolymerization. III. The mechanism of emulsion copolymerization of styrene and acrylonitrile. J. Amer. Soc. 69, 1903–1904 (1947).Google Scholar
  74. 72.
    --: Copolymerization. VI. Mechanism of emulsion polymerization. J. Polymer Sci. 3, 891–894 (1948).Google Scholar
  75. 73.
    French, D. M.: The mechanism of vinyl acetate emulsion polymerization. American Chem. Soc., Division of Paint Plastics and Printing Ink Chemistry. Papers Presented at the New York Meeting, September 1957, Vol. 17, Nr. 2, p. 185–196.Google Scholar
  76. 73a.
    Gaylord, N. G., and F. R. Eirich: Peroxide-catalyzed polymerization of isopropenyl acetate. J. Polymer Sci. 5, 743–744 (1950).Google Scholar
  77. 74.
    Gerould, C. H.: Comments on the use of latex spheres as size standards in electron microscopy. J. appl. Physics 21, 183–184 (1950).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  78. 75.
    Gerrens, H.: Über den Geleffekt bei der Emulsionspolymerisation von Styrol. Z. Elektrochem. 60, 400–404 (1956).Google Scholar
  79. 76.
    Granath, K.: Physico-chemical investigations on Micelles of potassium myristate and laurate. Acta chem. scand. 4, 103–125 (1950).Google Scholar
  80. 77.
    -: Physico-chemical investigations on soap micelles. Acta chem. scand. 7, 297–305 (1953).Google Scholar
  81. 77a.
    Gumprecht, R. O., and C. M. Sliepcevich: Tables of light-scattering functions for spherical particles. Engineering Research Institute, University of Michigan 1951.Google Scholar
  82. 78.
    Harkins, W. D.: A general theory of the mechanism of emulsion polymerization. J. Amer. Soc. 69, 1428–1444 (1947).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  83. 79.
    -: General theory of mechanism of emulsion polymerization. II. J. Polymer Sci. 5, 217–251 (1950).Google Scholar
  84. 80.
    -: The physical chemistry of surface films. New York: Reinhold Publ. Corp. 1952. Siehe bes. Kap. 5: Mechanism of emulsion polymerization.Google Scholar
  85. 81.
    Harris, W. E., and I. M. Kolthoff: Mercaptans as promoters and modifiers in emulsion copolymerization of butadiene and styrene using potassium persulfate as catalyst. III. Calculation of molecular weights and intrinsic viscosities of polymers from mercaptan consumption. J. Polymer Sci. 2, 72–89 (1947).Google Scholar
  86. 82.
    Hart, R., et G. Smets: Vitesse de polymérisation et de copolymérisation de l'acetate d'isopropényle. J. Polymer Sci. 5, 55–67 (1950).Google Scholar
  87. 83.
    Hartman, R. E., T. D. Green, J. B. Bateman, C. A. Senseney and G. E. Hess: Preparation of uniformly dispersed specimens of particulate matter for electron microscopy. J. appl. Physics 24, 90–92 (1953).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  88. 84.
    Haward, R. N.: Polymerization in a system of discrete particles. J. Polymer Sci. 4, 273–287 (1949).Google Scholar
  89. 85.
    Hayes, R. A., and W. R. Conard: Graft copolymerization in Emulsion. Abstracs of Papers 130th Meeting of the American Chemical Society. Atlantic City, N. Y. September 16 to 21, 1956, Nr. 23/S.Google Scholar
  90. 86.
    Heller, W., and W. J. Pangonis: Light scattering of spherical colloidal particles. J. chem. Physics 22, 948–949 (1954).Google Scholar
  91. 87.
    -, J. N. Epel and R. M. Tabibian: I. Experimental verification of the Mie theory of light scattering. J. chem. Physics 22, 1777–1778 (1954).Google Scholar
  92. 88.
    -: The determination of particle size and refractive index near the turbidity maximum in monodisperse suspensions of spherical particles. J. chem. Physics 23, 342–343 (1955).Google Scholar
  93. 89.
    -, and R. M. Tabibian: Experimental investigations on the light scattering of colloidal spheres. II. Sources of error in turbidity measurements. J. Coll. Sci. 12, 25–39 (1957).Google Scholar
  94. 90.
    --: Theoretical investigations on the light scattering of colloidal spheres. I. The specific turbidity. J. chem. Physics 26, 498–506 (1957).Google Scholar
  95. 91.
    -: Theoretical investigations on the light scattering of colloidal spheres. II. Accurate interpolations of theoretical turbidity-data. J. chem. Physics 26, 920–922 (1957).Google Scholar
  96. 92.
    -: Theoretical investigations on the light scattering of colloidal spheres. III. Analytical expressions for turbidity approximating the performance of the equations prior to the first maximum. J. chem. Physics 26, 1258–1264 (1957).Google Scholar
  97. 93.
    Heller, W. and T. L. Pugh: Experimental investigations on the effect of light scattering upon she refractive index of colloidal particles. J. Coll. Sci. 12, 294–307 (1957).Google Scholar
  98. 94.
    -Light scattering and particle size of colloidal spheres dispersed in a liquid. Abstracts of Papers 131st Meeting of the American Chemical Society, Miami, Florida 7.–12. 4. 1957, Nr. I/66.Google Scholar
  99. 95.
    Hellfritz, H., u. H. Krämer: Untersuchung makromolekularer Substanzen durch osmotische Messungen. Kunststoffe 46, 450–459 (1956).Google Scholar
  100. 96.
    Hengstenberg, J.: Über die Löslichkeit von Kohlenwasserstoffen in wäßrigen Emulgatorlösungen. I.G. Farbenindustrie AG., unveröffentlichtes Referat vom 22. 2. 1938.Google Scholar
  101. 97.
    -Physikalisch-chemische Untersuchungen über die Emulsionspolymerisation. I.G. Farbenindustrie AG., unveröffentlichter Bericht vom 26. 2. 1938.Google Scholar
  102. 98.
    -: Sedimentation und Diffusion von Makromolekülen. Kapitel 8, S. 411 bis 494 in H. A. Stuart: Die Physik der Hochpolymeren, Band II. Das Makromolekül in Lösungen. Berlin, Göttingen, Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag 1953.Google Scholar
  103. 99.
    Henrici-Olivé, G., S. Olivé u. G. V. Schulz: Übertragungskonstante und Konstitution des Polymethylmethacrylates. Makromol. Chem. 23, 207–219 (1957).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  104. 100.
    --: Reaktionskinetik der Polymerisationshemmung durch molekularen Sauerstoff. Makromol. Chem. 24, 64–75 (1957).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  105. 101.
    Herzfeld, S. H., A. Roginsky, M. L. Corrin and W. D. Harkins: Monomerpolymer ratio in emulsion polymerization of styrene. J. Polymer Sci. 5, 207–215 (1950).Google Scholar
  106. 102.
    -: Critical concentrations of potassium n-alkanecarboxylates as determined by the change in color and spectrum of pinacyanole. J. physic. Chem. 56, 953–959 (1952).Google Scholar
  107. 103.
    -: Effect of salt on the critical concentrations of potassium n-alkanecarboxylates as determined by the change in color of pinacyanole. J. physic. Chem. 56, 959–963 (1952).Google Scholar
  108. 104.
    Hoff, B. M. E. van der: On the mechanism of emulsion polymerization of styrene. J. physic. Chem. 60, 1250–1254 (1956).Google Scholar
  109. 105.
    -Emulsion polymerization of styrene initiated by an oil-soluble initiator. Abstracts of Papers, 131st Meeting of the American Chemical Society. Miami, Florida 7.–12. 4. 1957, Nr. I/71.Google Scholar
  110. 106.
    -The mechanism of emulsion polymerization. Manuskript eines von H. L. Williams am 31. 7. 1957 im Institut für physikalische Chemie der Universität Mainz gehaltenen Vortrages.Google Scholar
  111. 106a.
    -The gel effect at low conversions in emulsion polymerization. Im Druck.Google Scholar
  112. 107.
    Hohenstein, W. P., and H. Mark: Polymerization of olefins and diolefins in suspension and emulsion. Part I. J. Polymer Sci. 1, 127–145 (1946).Google Scholar
  113. 108.
    --: Polymerization of olefins and diolefins in suspension and emulsion. Part II. J. Polymer Sci. 1, 549–580 (1946).Google Scholar
  114. 109.
    Horikx, M. M., and J. J. Hermans: Application of the steady state method to benzoyl peroxide initiated polymerizations of styrene. J. Polymer Sci. 11, 325–352 (1953).Google Scholar
  115. 110.
    Hutchinson, E.: The properties of detergent solutions. I. Molecular weight determined by light scattering measurements. J. Coll. Sci. 9, 191–196 (1954).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  116. 111.
    Jacobi, B.: Zur Kolloidchemie der Emulsionspolymerisation. Angew. Chem. 64, 539–543 (1952).Google Scholar
  117. 112.
    Jahnke, E., u. F. Emde: Funktionentafeln mit Formeln und Kurven. Zweite neubearbeitete Aufl. Leipzig und Berlin: B. G. Teubner 1933.Google Scholar
  118. 113.
    Johnson, I., and V. K. LaMer: The determination of the particle size of mono-dispersed systems by the scattering of light. J. Amer. Soc. 69, 1184–1192 (1947).Google Scholar
  119. 114.
    Jordanides, G., and N. H. Chamberlain: Automatic particle-sizing by successive counting. Nature (Lond.) 174, 83–84 (1954).Google Scholar
  120. 115.
    Jürgen-Lohmann, L.: Teilchengröße und Grenzflächenerscheinungen in Emulsionen. I. Eine neue Emulgiervorrichtung. Abhängigkeit der Tröpfchenradien von den mechanischen Zerteilungsbedingungen. Kolloid-Z. 124, 41–43 (1951).Google Scholar
  121. 116.
    -: Teilchengröße und Grenzflächenerscheinungen in Emulsionen. II. Abhängigkeit der Tröpfchenradien von der Emulgatorkonzentration und der Grenzflächenspannung. Kolloid-Z. 124, 77–82 (1951).Google Scholar
  122. 117.
    Jurshenko, A. I., u. N. Ss. Zwetkow: Der Einfluß der Konzentration des Initiators auf die Geschwindigkeit der Polymerisation von Polystyrol in Emulsionen. Kolloid-J. (russ.) 15, 136–144 (1953); zit. nach Chem. Zbl. 1954, 10730–10731.Google Scholar
  123. 117a.
    -, O. P. Brashnikowa u. N. M. Likholet: Decomposition potential of potassium peroxydisulfate in connection with the electrolyte composition of the reacting medium. Ukrain. Khim. Z. 21, 586–591 (1955); zit. nach Chem. Abstr. 50, 9182g (1956).Google Scholar
  124. 118.
    --: Zersetzungsgeschwindigkeit von Kaliumpersulfat in Kohlenwasserstoffemulsionen. J. allg. Chem. (UdSSR) 26 [88], 1311–1314 (1956); zit. nach Chem. Zbl. 1958, 355.Google Scholar
  125. 119.
    Kahler, H., and B. J. Lloyd jr.: Sedimentation of polystyrene latex in a swinging-tube rotor. J. physic. Chem. 55, 1344–1350 (1951).Google Scholar
  126. 119a.
    Kaichi, S., and J. Kagawa: Effect of dispersion state in the polymerization of methyl methacrylate-water system. J. chem. Soc. Japan, Ind. Chem. Sect. 58, 509–511 (1955); zit. nach Chem. Abstr. 49, 16508b (1955). Original japanisch.Google Scholar
  127. 120.
    -: Some considerations of suspension polymerization of minute droplets. Bl. chem. Soc. Japan 29, 241–245 (1956).Google Scholar
  128. 120a.
    -u. H. Okamoto: Die durch Benzoylperoxyd angeregte Emulsionspolymerisation von Methacrylsäuremethylester. J. chem. Soc. Japan, Ind. Chem. Sect. 60, 197–199 (1957); zit. nach Chem. Zbl. 1957, 10220. Original japanisch.Google Scholar
  129. 121.
    Kanamaru, K., H. Kanetsuna u. I. Terasaki: Die Wirkungsweise der Emulgiermittel bei der Emulsionspolymerisation von Methylmethacrylat. J. chem. Soc. Japan, Ind. Chem. Sect. 58, 217–220 (1955). Original japanisch.Google Scholar
  130. 122.
    -u. I. Terasaki: Die Polymerisationsgeschwindigkeit bei der Emulsionspolymerisation sowie der Polymerisationsgrad des Polymerisates. J. chem. Soc. Japan, Ind. Chem. Sect. 58, 221–224 (1955). Original japanisch.Google Scholar
  131. 123.
    Kaufman, S., and C. R. Singleterry: The critical range for micelle formation by an oil-dispersible soap in a hydrocarbon solvent. J. Coll. Sci. 7, 453–464 (1952).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  132. 124.
    Kelsey, R. H., and E. E. Hanson: A method for preparing rubber latex specimens for the electron microscope. J. appl. Physics 17, 675–677 (1946).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  133. 125.
    Kerber, R.: Der Einfluß des Sauerstoffs bei der Polymerisation von Acrylnitril. Z. Elektrochem. 61, 1256–1260 (1957).Google Scholar
  134. 126.
    Kerker, M., and V. K. LaMer: Particle size distribution in sulfur hydrosols by polarimetric analysis of scattered light. J. Amer. Soc. 72, 3516–3525 (1950).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  135. 126a.
    -: Particle size in monodisperse latex suspensions by light scattering. J. Polymer Sci. 28, 429–432 (1958).Google Scholar
  136. 127.
    Kern, S. F., and R. A. Kern: The apparent size of objects as observed in the electron microscope. J. appl. Physics 21, 705–707 (1950).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  137. 128.
    Kern, W., u. K. Feuerstein: Über die chemische Reaktion, die der Inhibierung der Polymerisation von Styrol durch Chinon zugrunde liegt. J. prakt. Chem. 158, 186–199 (1941).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  138. 129.
    -: Die Katalyse der Polymerisation ungesättigter Verbindungen mit Hilfe von Redoxsystemen. Makromol. Chem. 1, 209–228 (1947).Google Scholar
  139. 130.
    Kleinschmidt, A.: Größenbestimmung im Elektronenmikroskop mit gespreiteten monodispersen Latexteilchen. Kolloid-Z. 142, 74–76 (1955).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  140. 131.
    Klevens, H. B.: Latex particle sizes as determined by soap titration and light scattering. J. Coll. Sci. 2, 365–374 (1947).Google Scholar
  141. 132.
    -: The effects of temperature upon the critical concentration of anionic and cationic detergents. J. physic. Chem. 51, 1143–1154 (1947).Google Scholar
  142. 133.
    -: Critical micelle concentration as determined by refraction. J. physic. Chem. 52, 130–148 (1948).Google Scholar
  143. 134.
    -: Solubilization. Chem. Rev. 47, 1–74 (1950).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  144. 134a.
    Kobryner, W., et A. Banderet: Sur le greffage du polyméthacrylate de méthyle sur le caoutchouc d'Hevea. International High-Polymer Conference, Nottingham, July 21–24, 1958. Paper No. N 23.Google Scholar
  145. 135.
    Kolthoff, I. M., and W. J. Dale: The mechanism of emulsion polymerization. II. The effect of oxygen on the emulsion polymerization of styrene. J. Amer. Soc. 69, 441–446 (1947).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  146. 136.
    -and W. E. Harris: Mercaptans as promoters and modifiers in emulsion copolymerization of butadiene and styrene using potassium persulfate as catalyst. I. Mercaptans as promoters. J. Polymer Sci. 2, 41–48 (1947).Google Scholar
  147. 137.
    --: Mercaptans as promoters and modifiers in emulsion copolymerization of butadiene and styrene using potassium persulfate as catalyst. II. Mercaptans as modifiers. J. Polymer Sci. 2, 49–71 (1947).Google Scholar
  148. 138.
    -and F. A. Bovey: Studies of retarders and inhibitors in the emulsion polymerization of styrene. I. Retarders. J. Amer. Soc. 70, 791–799 (1948).Google Scholar
  149. 139.
    -and A. I. Medalia: Redox recipes. II. Redox recipes in alkaline medium initiated by the system cumene hydroperoxyde-iron-sugar at 30°. J. Polymer Sci. 5, 391–427 (1950).Google Scholar
  150. 140.
    -, E. J. Meehan and C. W. Carr: Studies on rate of emulsion polymerization of butadiene-styrene (75∶25) as a function of amount and kind of emulsifier used. III. Effect of amount of soap on rate of polymerization. J. Polymer Sci. 6, 73–81 (1951).Google Scholar
  151. 141.
    ---: Studies on rate of emulsion polymerization of butadiene-styrene (75∶25) as a function of amount and kind of emulsifier used. IV. Addition of emulsifier during reaction. Seeding effects. J. Polymer Sci. 7, 577–586 (1951).Google Scholar
  152. 142.
    -and I. K. Miller: The chemistry of persulfate. I. The kinetics and mechanism of the decomposition of the persulfate ion in aqueous medium. J. Amer. Soc. 73, 3055–3059 (1951).Google Scholar
  153. 143.
    --: The chemistry of persulfate. II. The reaction of persulfate with mercaptans solubilized in solutions of saturated fatty acid soaps. J. Amer. Soc. 73, 5118–5122 (1951).Google Scholar
  154. 144.
    --: The chemistry of persulfate. III. The reaction of persulfate with mercaptans solubilized in sodium laurate solutions in the present of unsaturated compounds. J. Amer. Soc. 74, 4419–4422 (1952).Google Scholar
  155. 145.
    -,-and E. M. Carr: Mechanism of initiation of emulsion polymerization by persulfate. J. Amer. Soc. 75, 1439–1444 (1953).Google Scholar
  156. 146.
    Kolthoff, I. M., P. R. O'Connor and J. L. Hansen: Mechanism of emulsion polymerization of styrene with persulfate as activator in the absence and presence of mercaptan and a retarder. J. Polymer Sci. 15, 459–473 (1955).Google Scholar
  157. 147.
    Krašovec, F.: Polymolecularity of Polyvinylchloride samples with different degree of conversion. Sloven. Acad. Sci. Arts, J. Stefan Inst. Physics, Rep. 3, 203–211 (1956).Google Scholar
  158. 148.
    Küchler, L.: Polymerisationskinetik. Berlin, Göttingen, Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag 1951.Google Scholar
  159. 149.
    Kutscher, R. W., u. Ss. D. Kasmin: Einfluß der Natur des Emulgators auf den thermischen Zerfall von Cumol-und 1,1-Diphenyläthanhydroperoxyd in wäßrigem Medium. Kolloid-J. (russ.) 19, 592–596 (1957).Google Scholar
  160. 150.
    La Mer, V. K., and J. W. Plesner: Rapid determination of particle size in monodisperse latex suspensions. J. Polymer Sci. 24, 147–150 (1957).Google Scholar
  161. 151.
    Leonhard, B. R., J. W. Anderegg, P. Kaesberg and W. W. Beeman: The size of latex particles by X-ray scattering. J. appl. Physics 23, 152 (1952).Google Scholar
  162. 152.
    Lewis, F. M., F. R. Mayo and W. F. Hulse: Copolymerization. II. The copolymerization of acrylonitrile, methyl methacrylate, styrene and vinylidene chloride. J. Amer. Soc. 67, 1701–1705 (1945).Google Scholar
  163. 153.
    Loshaek, S., and T. G. Fox: Cross-linked polymers. I. Factors influencing the efficiency of cross-linking in copolymers of methyl methacrylate and glykol dimethacrylates. J. Amer. Soc. 75, 3544–3550 (1953).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  164. 154.
    Marinković, V., u. A. Peterlin: Size distribution of Polyvinylchloride powder. Sloven. Acad. Sci. Arts, J. Stefan Inst. Physics, Rep. 3 225–231 (1956).Google Scholar
  165. 155.
    Maron, S. H., M. E. Elder and A. S. Powell: Electron microscopy of synthetic latices. J. appl. Physics 23, 900–905 (1952).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  166. 156.
    -,-and J. N. Ulevitch: Determination of surface area and particle size of synthetic latex by adsorption. I. Latices containing fatty acid soaps. J. Coll. Sci. 9, 89–103 (1954).Google Scholar
  167. 157.
    -,-and C. Moore: Determination of surface area and particle size of synthetic latex by adsorption. II. Latices containing rosin acid soaps. J. Coll. Sci. 9, 104–112 (1954).Google Scholar
  168. 158.
    --: Determination of surface area and particle size of synthetic latex by adsorption. III. Latices of high initial soap content. J. Coll. Sci. 9, 263–268 (1954).Google Scholar
  169. 159.
    --: Determination of surface area and particle size of synthetic latex by adsorption. IV. Latices containing DAXAD 11. J. Coll. Sci. 9, 347–352 (1954).Google Scholar
  170. 160.
    --: Determination of surface area and particle size of synthetic latex by adsorption. V. Latices emulsified with laurylamine hydrochloride. J. Coll. Sci. 9, 353–358 (1954).Google Scholar
  171. 161.
    -,-and J. N. Ulevitch: Determination of surface area and particle size of synthetic latex by adsorption. VI. Critical micelle concentrations of various emulsifiers in latex. J. Coll. Sci. 9, 382–384 (1954).Google Scholar
  172. 162.
    Matheson, M. S., E. E. Auer, E. B. Bevilacqua and E. J. Hart: Rate constants in free radical polymerization. III. Styrene. J. Amer. Soc., 73, 1700–1706 (1951).Google Scholar
  173. 163.
    Mayo, F. R.: Chain transfer in the polymerization of styrene: The reaction of solvents with free radicals. J. Amer. Soc. 65, 2324–2329 (1943).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  174. 164.
    -and C. Walling: Copolymerization. Chem. Rev. 46, 191–287 (1950).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  175. 165.
    McBain, M. E. L., and E. Hutchinson: Solubilization and related phenomena. New York: Academic Press 1955.Google Scholar
  176. 166.
    Meehan, E. J.: Variation of monomer pressure with degree of conversion in emulsion polymerization of butadiene and of butadiene-styrene. J. Amer. Soc. 71, 628–633 (1949).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  177. 167.
    -, I. M. Kolthoff and E. M. Carr: Effect of detergent on the polymerization of allyl acetate. J. Polymer Sci. 13, 113–121 (1954).Google Scholar
  178. 168.
    -,-and P. R. Sinha: Apparent transfer constants of mercaptans in emulsion polymerization. I. Role of diffusion and distribution coefficients. J. Polymer Sci. 16, 471–482 (1955).Google Scholar
  179. 169.
    -,-, N. Tamberg and C. L. Segal: Mechanism of retardation in emulsion polymerization of styrene. J. Polymer Sci. 24, 215–232 (1957).Google Scholar
  180. 170.
    -: Determination of particle size by higher order Tyndall spectra. J. Polymer Sci. 17, 590–591 (1958).Google Scholar
  181. 171.
    Meyerhoff, G.: Zur Charakterisierung semipermeabler Membranen für osmotische Zwecke. Z. Elektrochem. 61, 325–332 (1957).Google Scholar
  182. 172.
    -: Zur Bestimmung von Molekulargewichten und ihrer Verteilung bei unfraktionierten Polymeren. Z. Elektrochem. 61, 1249–1256 (1957).Google Scholar
  183. 173.
    Morton, M., and P. P. Salatiello: Cross-linking reaction in butadiene polymerization. J. Polymer Sci. 6, 225–237 (1951).Google Scholar
  184. 174.
    -,-and H. Landfield: Absolute propagation rates in emulsion polymerization. I. Butadiene in mutual system. J. Polymer Sci. 8, 111–121 (1952).Google Scholar
  185. 175.
    --: Absolute propagation rates in emulsion polymerization. II. Butadienein hydroperoxide-polyamine systems. J. Polymer Sci. 8, 215–224 (1952).Google Scholar
  186. 176.
    --: Absolute propagation rates in emulsion polymerization. III. Styrene and isoprene. J. Polymer Sci. 8, 279–287 (1952).Google Scholar
  187. 177.
    -, S. Kaizerman and M. W. Altier: Swelling of latex particles. J. Coll. Sci. 9, 300–312 (1954).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  188. 178.
    -: Molecular weights of emulsion polydienes. Ind. Eng. Chem. 47, 333–338 (1955).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  189. 179.
    -, J. A. Cala and I. Piirma: Crosslinking in isoprene polymerization. J. Polymer Sci. 15, 167–182 (1955).Google Scholar
  190. 180.
    -,-and M. W. Altier: Emulsion polymerization of chloroprene. J. Polymer Sci. 19, 547–562 (1956).Google Scholar
  191. 181.
    Mukerjee, P., and K. J. Mysels: A re-evaluation of the spectral change method of determining critical micelle concentration. J. Amer. Soc. 77, 2937–2943 (1955).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  192. 181a.
    Mysels, K. J.: Charge effects in light scattering by association colloidal electrolytes. J. Coll. Sci. 10, 507–522 (1955).Google Scholar
  193. 182.
    Naidus, H.: Emulsion polymers forpaints. Ind. Eng. Chem. 45, 712–717 (1953).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  194. 183.
    Nakagaki, M., and W. Heller: Effect of light scattering upon the refractive index of dispersed colloidal spheres. J. appl. Physics 27, 975–979 (1956).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  195. 184.
    Nassenstein, H.: Die Praxis der automatischen Dispersoidanalyse. Chem. Ing. Techn. 29, 92–104 (1957).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  196. 185.
    Nichols, F. S., and R. G. Flowers: Prediction of shrinkage in addition polymerizations. Ind. Eng. Chem. 42, 292–295 (1950).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  197. 186.
    Nisonoff, A., W. E. Messer and L. H. Howland: Determination of particle size distribution in GR-S latices. Analytic. Chem. 26, 856–861 (1954).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  198. 187.
    Orr, R. J., and H. L. Williams: Kinetics of the reaction between iron (II) and some hydroperoxides based upon cumene and cyclohexane. J. physic. Chem. 57, 925–931 (1953).Google Scholar
  199. 188.
    --: The reaction between diisopropylbenzene dihydroperoxide and iron (II) or some of its complexes in aqueous solutions of vinyl compounds. J. Amer. Soc. 78, 3273–3279 (1956).Google Scholar
  200. 188a.
    Palit, S. R., and T. Guha: Some observations on the effect of the physical nature of the separating phase on the rate of heterogeneous polymerization. International High-Polymer Conference, Nottingham, July 21–24, 1958. Paper No. N 16.Google Scholar
  201. 189.
    Patat, F.: Das Problem der Membran bei osmotischen Messungen an Hochpolymeren. Z. Elektrochem. 60, 208–218 (1956).Google Scholar
  202. 190.
    Pauw, A. de, et G. Smets: La polymérisation et la copolymérisation du vinylmésitylène. Bull. Soc. Chim. Belg. 59, 629–648 (1950).Google Scholar
  203. 191.
    Powney, J., and C. C. Addison: The properties of detergent solutions. Part II. The surface and interfacial tensions of aqueous solutions of alkyl sodium sulphates. Trans. Faraday Soc. 33, 1243–1253 (1937).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  204. 192.
    Price, C. C., and C. E. Adams: Kinetics of the emulsion polymerization of styrene. J. Amer. Soc. 67, 1674–1680 (1945).Google Scholar
  205. 193.
    Pugh, L. T., and W. Heller: Density of polystyrene and polyvinyltoluene latex particles. J. Coll. Sci. 12, 173–180 (1957).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  206. 194.
    Roe, C. P., and P. D. Brass: The rate of particle growth in persulfate initiated emulsion polymerization. J. Polymer Sci. 24, 401–416 (1957).Google Scholar
  207. 194a.
    Ryšánek, A.: A contribution to the theory of emulsion polymerization. J. Polymer Sci. 29, 557–563 (1958).Google Scholar
  208. 195.
    Scheffel, G.: Verfahren zur Herstellung von Polymerisaten und Mischpolymerisaten von Vinylverbindungen in wäßriger Emulsion. Farbwerke Hoechst AG. DAS 1004804 vom 19. 5. 1956.Google Scholar
  209. 196.
    Schindler, A.: Zur Kinetik der Übertragung an längeren α-Polymer-Ketten. Z. Elektrochem. 60, 305–306 (1956).Google Scholar
  210. 197.
    Schoot, C. J., J. Barker and K. H. Klaassens: Remark on the article by S. R. Shunmukham, V. L. Hallenbeck and R. L. Guile, emulsion polymerization of styrene. II. Effect of agitation. J. Polymer Sci. 7, 657 (1951).Google Scholar
  211. 198.
    Schulz, G. V.: Über die Löslichkeit und Fällbarkeit hochmolekularer Stoffe. Z. physik. Chem. (A) 179, 321–355 (1937).Google Scholar
  212. 199.
    -: Über die Kinetik der Kettenpolymerisationen. Z. physik. Chem. (B) 43, 25–46 (1939).Google Scholar
  213. 199a.
    -u. F. Blaschke: Die Polymerisation von Methacrylsäure-methylester unter Einwirkung von Benzoylperoxyd. (Über die Kinetik der Kettenpolymerisation XIV). Z. physik. Chem. (B) 51, 75–102 (1942).Google Scholar
  214. 200.
    -,-. u. S. Olive: Die Übertragungskonstante von Polymethylmethacrylat bei der Polymerisation von Methylmethacrylat und Styrol. J. Polymer Sci. 17, 45–50 (1955).Google Scholar
  215. 201.
    -,--: Die Übertragungskonstante von Polystyrol und Polymethylmethacrylat und das Problem der Molekülverzweigung. Z. Elektrochem. 60, 296–305 (1956).Google Scholar
  216. 202.
    -: Über die Bestimmung des mittleren Molekulargewichtes (M n) von polymolekularen Stoffen. Z. Elektrochem. 60, 199–207 (1956).Google Scholar
  217. 203.
    -u. G. Henrici: Reaktionskinetik der Polymerisationshemmung durch molekularen Sauerstoff. Makromol. Chem. 18/19, 437–454 (1956).Google Scholar
  218. 204.
    Scott, A. B., and H. V. Tartar: Electrolytic properties of solutions of paraffin-chain quaternary ammonium salts. J. Amer. Soc. 65, 692–698 (1943).Google Scholar
  219. 205.
    Scott, G. D.: Spherical particles for electron microscopy. J. appl. Physics 20, 417–418 (1949).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  220. 206.
    Scott, P. H., G. C. Clark and C. M. Sliepcevich: Light transmission measurements on multiple-scattering latex dispersions. J. physic. Chem. 59, 849–854 (1955).Google Scholar
  221. 207.
    Sharp, D. G.: Particle size and density of Dow latex 580-G-measurements with the ultracentrifuge. J. appl. Physics. 21, 71 (1950).Google Scholar
  222. 208.
    -and J. W. Beard: Size and density of polystyrene particles measured by ultracentrifugation. J. biol. Chem. 185, 247–253 (1950).Google Scholar
  223. 209.
    Shinoda, K.: The critical micelle concentrations in aqueous solutions of potassium alkyl malonates. J. physic. Chem. 59, 432–435 (1955).Google Scholar
  224. 210.
    Smets, G., et L. de Haes: Polymérisation et copolymérisation de l'α-méthylstyrène. Bull. Soc. Chim. Belg. 59, 13–33 (1950).Google Scholar
  225. 211.
    Smith, W. V.: Regulator theory in emulsion polymerization. I. Chain transfer of low molecular weight mercaptans in emulsion and oil-phase. J. Amer. Soc. 68, 2059–2064 (1946).Google Scholar
  226. 212.
    -: Regulator theory in emulsion polymerization. II. Control of reaction rate by diffusion for high molecular weight mercaptans. J. Amer. Soc. 68, 2064–2069 (1946).Google Scholar
  227. 213.
    -: Regulator theory in emulsion polymerization. III. Regulator reaction in copolymerizing systems. J. Amer. Soc. 68, 2069–2071 (1946).Google Scholar
  228. 214.
    -and R. H. Ewart: Kinetics of emulsion polymerizations. J. chem. Physics 16, 592–599 (1948).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  229. 215.
    -: The partition of acrylonitrile between styrene and water. J. Amer. Soc. 70, 2177–2179 (1948).Google Scholar
  230. 216.
    -: The kinetics of styrene emulsion polymerization. J. Amer. Soc. 70, 3695–3702 (1948).Google Scholar
  231. 217.
    -: Chain Initiation in styrene emulsion polymerization. J. Amer. Soc. 71, 4077–4082 (1949).Google Scholar
  232. 218.
    Staudinger, J. J. P.: The role of emulsifying agents in polymerization. Chem. and Ind. 1948, 563–568.Google Scholar
  233. 219.
    Stauff, J.: Die Mizellenarten wäßriger Seifenlösungen. Kolloid-Z. 89, 224–233 (1939).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  234. 220.
    -: Gleichgewichte zwischen molekularzerteilter und kolloidaler Substanz in wäßrigen Seifenzerteilungen. Z. physik. Chem. (A) 183, 55–85 (1939).Google Scholar
  235. 221.
    Stockmayer, W. H.: Note on the kinetics of emulsion polymerization. J. Polymer Sci. 24, 314–317 (1957).Google Scholar
  236. 222.
    Stromberg, R. R., and M. Swerdlow: Electron microscopy of synthetic elastomer latices. J. appl. Physics 24, 113 (1953).Google Scholar
  237. 223.
    --, and J. Mandel: Electron microscopy of synthetic elastomer latices. J. Res. Nat. Bur. Stand. 50, 299–309 (1953).Google Scholar
  238. 224.
    Stuart, H. A.: Lichtzerstreuung an Lösungen mit Kornmolekülen und Kolloidteilchen. Kapitel 9, S. 495–514 in H. A. Stuart: Die Physik der Hochpolymeren. Band II. Das Makromolekül in Lösungen. Berlin, Göttingen, Heidelberg: Springer-Verlag 1953.Google Scholar
  239. 225.
    Svedberg, T., u. K. O. Pedersen: Die Ultrazentrifuge. Dresden und Leipzig: Th. Steinkopf 1940.Google Scholar
  240. 226.
    Swallow, J. C.: Research in the plastics division of Imperial Chemical Industries Limited. Proc. roy. Soc. A 238, 1–14 (1956).Google Scholar
  241. 227.
    Tabibian, R. M., W. Heller and J. N. Epel: Experimental investigations on the light scattering of colloidal spheres. I. The specific turbidity. J. Coll. Sci. 11, 195–213 (1956).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  242. 228.
    --: Experimental investigations on the light scattering of colloidal spheres. III. The specific scattering at 90°. J. Coll. Sci. 13, 6–23 (1958).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  243. 229.
    Tartar, H. V.: A theory of the structure of the micelles of normal paraffin chain salts in aqueous solution. J. physic. Chem. 59, 1195–1199 (1955).Google Scholar
  244. 230.
    Thomas, W. M., E. H. Gleason and G. Mino: Acrylonitrile polymerization in aqueous suspension. J. Polymer Sci. 24, 43–56 (1957).Google Scholar
  245. 231.
    -and R. L. Webb: Propagation rate in acrylonitrile polymerization. J. Polymer Sci. 25, 124–125 (1957).Google Scholar
  246. 232.
    Trommsdorff, E., H. Köhle u. P. Lagally: Zur Polymerisation des Methacrylsäuremethylesters. Makromol. Chem. 1, 169–198 (1947); erstmals vorgetragen beim erweiterten makromolekularen Kolloquium in Freiburg i. Br. am 14. 7. 1944.Google Scholar
  247. 233.
    Uchida, M., and H. Nagao: Action of emulsifier upon the copolymerization of acrylonitrile and styrene. Bull. chem. Soc. Japan 29, 928–935 (1956).Google Scholar
  248. 234.
    --: Effect of emulsifier upon the composition of emulsion copolymers of acrylonitrile and water-soluble monomers. Bull. chem. Soc. Japan 30, 311–314 (1957).Google Scholar
  249. 235.
    --: Effect of emulsifier upon the compositions of emulsion copolymers of acrylnonitrile and water-insoluble monomers. Bull. chem. Soc. Japan 30, 314–319 (1957).Google Scholar
  250. 236.
    Vanderhoff, J. W., J. F. Vitkuske, E. B. Bradford and T. Alfrey jr.: Some factors involved in the preparation of uniform size latexes. J. Polymer Sci. 20, 225–234 (1956).Google Scholar
  251. 237.
    -and E. B. Bradford: An investigation of the mechanism and kinetics of emulsion polymerization by the competitive growth of monodisperse latex particles. Paper presented at the 130th Meeting of the American Chemical Society at Atlantic City, N. J. in September 1956.Google Scholar
  252. 238.
    --: An investigation of the mechanism and kinetics of emulsion polymerization by electron microscopy. TAPPI 39, 650–656 (1956).Google Scholar
  253. 239.
    --The competitive growth of monodisperse latex particles in systems where the monomer is a non-solvent for the polymer particles. Unveröffentlichtes Manuskript.Google Scholar
  254. 240.
    Vetter, R. J.: Micelle structure in aqueous solutions of colloidal electrolytes. J. physic. Chem. 51, 262–277 (1947).Google Scholar
  255. 241.
    Watson, J. L. H., and W. L. Grube: The reliability of internal standards for calibrating electron microscopes. J. appl. Physics 23, 793–798 (1952).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  256. 242.
    Wiener, H.: Polymerization in the system vinylidene chloride-potassium laurate-potassium persulfate. J. Polymer Sci. 7, 1–20 (1951).Google Scholar
  257. 243.
    Williams, H. L.: Polymerizations in emulsion. S. 111–174 in C. E. Schildknecht: Polymer processes. New York-London: Interscience Publ. Inc. 1956.Google Scholar
  258. 244.
    Williams, R. C., and R. C. Backus: Macromolecular weights determined by direct particle counting. I. The weight of the bushy stunt virus particle. J. Amer. Soc. 71, 4052–4057 (1949).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  259. 245.
    Williams, R. J., J. N. Phillips and K. J. Mysels: The critical micelle concentration of sodium lauryl sulphate at 25° C. Trans. Faraday Soc. 51, 728–737 (1955).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  260. 246.
    Willson, E. A., J. R. Miller and E. H. Rowe: Adsorption areas in the soap titration of latex for particle-size measurement. J. physic. Chem. 53, 357–374 (1949).Google Scholar
  261. 247.
    Wintgen, R., u. G. Sinn: Zum Mechanismus der Emulsionspolymerisation. I. Teilchenzahl und Teilchengröße bei der Emulsionspolymerisation des Styrols mit Nekal. Kolloid-Z. 122, 103–109 (1951).Google Scholar
  262. 248.
    -u. L. Jürgen-Lohmann: Zum Mechanismus der Emulsionspolymerisation. II. Polystyrol-Latices mit Nekal: Methodisches, Teilchenzahl und Emulgatormenge. Kolloid-Z. 122, 144–147 (1951).Google Scholar
  263. 249.
    Wintgen, R., u. L. Jürgen-Lohman: Zum Mechanismus der Emulsionspolymerisation. III. Styrol-und 2-Chlorbutadien-Latices mit Nekal und Natriumoleat. Kolloid-Z. 122, 148–153 (1951).Google Scholar
  264. 250.
    --: Zum Mechanismus der Emulsionspolymerisation. IV. Die Emulsionspolymerisation von Chloropren mit Hilfe von Poly-Chloropren-Keimen. Kolloid-Z. 123, 11–15 (1951).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  265. 251.
    -: Zum Wachstum kolloidaler Keime. Kolloid-Z. 124, 141–144 (1951).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  266. 252.
    -u. K. Neveling: Zum Mechanismus der Emulsionspolymerisation. V. Teilchenzahl in Styrol-Natriumoleat-Latices bei hoher Konzentration des Emulgators, in Styrol-Nekal und in Styrol-Natriumlaurat-Latices. Kolloid-Z. 138, 142–148 (1954).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  267. 253.
    Yamada, S., and T. Kato: Partition equilibrium of cumene hydroperoxide between water and cumene. Bull. chem. Soc. Japan 29, 919–920 (1956).Google Scholar
  268. 254.
    Yudowitch, K. L.: Latex particle size from X-ray diffraction peaks. J. appl. Physics 22, 214–216 (1951).CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  269. 254a.
    Zimm, B. H., and W. B. Dandliker: Theory of light scattering and refractive index of solutions of large colloidal particles. J. physic. Chem. 58, 644–648 (1954).Google Scholar
  270. 255.
    Zsigmondy, R.: Über amikroskopische Goldkeime, Experimentelles. Dritte Versuchsreihe. Z. physik. Chem. 56, 74–76 (1906).Google Scholar
  271. 256.
    Zwetkow1, N. Ss., u. A. J. Jurshenko: Effect of inorganic salts on the polymerization process of styrene in an Emulsion. Kolloid-J. (russ.) 18, 362–368 (1956); zit. nach Chem. Abstr. 51, 823d (1957).Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1959

Authors and Affiliations

  • H. Gerrens
    • 1
  1. 1.Ammoniak-Laboratorium der Badischen Anilin- und Soda-FabrikLudwigshafen am Rhein

Personalised recommendations