Advertisement

Structure and function of cGMP-dependent protein kinases

  • A. Pfeifer
  • P. Ruth
  • W. Dostmann
  • M. Sausbier
  • P. Klatt
  • F. Hofmann
Chapter
Part of the Reviews of Physiology, Biochemistry and Pharmacology book series (volume 135)

Keywords

Nitric Oxide Cystic Fibrosis Transmembrane Conductance Regulator Cyclic Nucleotide Dependent Protein Kinase Renin Secretion 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.

Preview

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

References

  1. Aitken A; Bilham T; Cohen P; Aswad D; Greengard P (1981) A specific substrate from rabbit cerebellum for guanosine-3′:5′-monophosphate-dependent protein kinase. III. Amino acid sequences at the two phosphorylation sites. J Biol Chem 256:3501–3506Google Scholar
  2. Aitken A, Hemmings BA, Hofmann F (1984) Identification of the residues on cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase that are autophosphorylated in the presence of cyclic AMP and cyclic GMP. Biochim Biophys Acta 790:219–225Google Scholar
  3. Alioua A, Tanaka Y, Meera P, Wallner M, Hofmann F, Ruth P, Toro L (1998) Biochemical evidence for direct phosphorylation of the maxiK channel α-subunit (hslo) by cGMP-dependent protein kinase (PKG). Biophys J 74:A211Google Scholar
  4. Ally S, Tortora G, Clair T, Grieco D, Merlo G, Katsaros D, Ogreid D, Doskeland SO, Jahnsen T, Cho-Chung-YS (1988) Selective modulation of protein kinase isozymes by the site-selective analog 8-chloroadenosine 3′,5′-cyclic monophosphate provides a biological means for control of-human colon cancer cell growth. Proc Nat Am Soc USA 85:6319–6322Google Scholar
  5. Arancio O, Kandel ER, Hawkins RD (1995) Activity-dependent long-term enhancement of transmitter release by presynaptic 3′,5′-cyclic GMP in cultured hippocampal neurons. Nature 376:74–80Google Scholar
  6. Ariano MA, Lewicki JA, Brandwein HJ, Murad F (1982) Immunohistochemical localization of guanylate cyclase within neurons of rat brain. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 79:1316–1320Google Scholar
  7. Atkinson RA, Saudek V, Huggins JP, Pelton JT (1991) 1H NMR and circular dichroism studies of the N-terminal domain of cyclic GMP dependent protein kinase: a leucine/isoleucine zipper. Biochemistry 30:9387–9395Google Scholar
  8. Biel M, Zong X, Ludwig A, Sautter A, Hofmann F (1998) Structure and function of cyclic nucleotide-gated channels. Rev Physiol Biochem Pharmacol Chapter 5Google Scholar
  9. Bliss TVP, Collinridge GL (1993) A synaptic model of memory: long-term potentiation in the hippocampus. Nature 361:31–39Google Scholar
  10. Bolshakov VV, Siegelbaum SA (1995) Regulation of hippocampal transmitter release during development and long-term potentiation. Science 269:1730–1734Google Scholar
  11. Bossemeyer D, Engh RA, Kinzel V, Ponstingl H, Huber R (1993) Phosphotransferase and substrate binding mechanism of the cAMP-dependent protein kinase catalytic subunit from porcine heart as deduced from the 2.0 A structure of the complex with Mn2+ adenylyl imidodiphosphate and inhibitor peptide PKI(5–24). EMBO J 12:849–859Google Scholar
  12. Bredt DS, Hwang PM, Snyder SH (1990) Localization of nitric oxide synthase indicating a neural role for nitric oxide. Nature 347:768–770Google Scholar
  13. Burns AJ, Lomax AEJ, Torihashi S, Sanders KM, Ward SM (1996) Interstitial cells of Cajal mediate inhibitory neurotransmission. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 93:12008–12013Google Scholar
  14. Butt E, Abel K, Krieger M, Palm D, Hoppe V, Hoppe J, Walter U (1994) cAMP-and cGMP-dependent protein kinase phosphorylation sites of the focal adhesion vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein (VASP) in vitro and in intact human platelets. J Biol Chem 269:14509–14517Google Scholar
  15. Butt E, Pöhler D, Genieser HG, Huggins JP, Bucher B (1995) Inhibition of cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase-mediated effects by (Rp)-8-bromo-PET-cyclic GMPS. Br J Pharmacol 116:3110–3116Google Scholar
  16. Calderone A, Thaik CM, Takahashi N, Chang DLF, Colucci WS (1998) Nitric oxide, atrial natriuretic peptide, and cyclic GMP inhibit the growth-promoting effects of norepinephrine in cardiac myocytes and fibroblasts. J Clin Invest 101:812–818Google Scholar
  17. Casey PJ (1995) Protein lipidation in cell signaling. Science 268:221–225Google Scholar
  18. Chao DS, Silvagno F, Xia H, Cornwell TL, Lincoln TM, Bredt DS (1997) Nitric oxide synthase and cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase concentrated at the neuromuscular endplate. Neuroscience 76:665–672Google Scholar
  19. Charles IG, Palmer RM, Hickery MS, Bayliss MT, Chubb AP, Hall VS, Moss DW, Moncada S (1993) Cloning, characterization, and expression of a cDNA encoding an inducible nitric oxide synthase from the human chondrocyte. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 90:11419–11423Google Scholar
  20. Chestukhin A, Litovchick L, Schourov D, Cox S, Taylor SS, Shaltiel S (1996) Functional malleability of the carboxyl-terminal tail in protein kinase A. J Biol Chem 271:10175–10182Google Scholar
  21. Colbran JL, Francis SH, Leach AB, Thomas MK, Jiang H, McAllister LM, Corbin JD (1992) A phenylalanine in peptide substrates provides for selectivity between cGMP-and cAMP-dependent protein kinases. J Biol Chem 267:9589–9594Google Scholar
  22. Corbin JD, Ogreid D, Miller JP, Suva RH, Jastorff B, Doskeland SO (1986) Studies of cGMP analog specificity and function of the two intrasubunit binding sites of cGMP-dependent protein kinase. J Biol Chem 261:1208–121Google Scholar
  23. Cornwell TL, Lincoln TM (1989) Regulation of intracellular Ca2+ levels in cultured vascular smooth muscle cells. J Biol Chem 264:1146–1155Google Scholar
  24. Currie MG, Fok KF, Kato J, Moore RJ, Hamra FK, Duffin KL, Smith CE (1992) Guanylin: an endogenous activator of intestinal guanylate cyclase. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 89:947–951Google Scholar
  25. De Jonge HR (1981) Cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase in intestinal brush borders. Adv Cyclic Nucleotide Res 14:315–333Google Scholar
  26. Desai KM, Zembowicz A, Sessa WC, Vane JR (1991) Nitroxergic nerves mediate vagally induced relaxation in the isolated stomach of the guinea pig. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 88:11490–11494Google Scholar
  27. Dey NB, Boerth NJ, Murphy-Ullrich JE, Chang PL, Prince CW, Lincoln TM (1998) Cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase inhibits osteopontin and thrombospondin production in rat aortic smooth muscle cells. Circ Res 82:139–146Google Scholar
  28. Diwan AH, Thompson WJ, Lee AK, Strada SJ (1994) Cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase activity in rat pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 202:728–735Google Scholar
  29. Dostmann WRG (1995) (Rp)-cAMPS inhibits the cAMP-dependent protein kinase by blocking the cAMP-induced conformational transition. FEBS Lett 375:231–234Google Scholar
  30. Dostmann WRG, Taylor SS (1991) Identifying the molecular switches that determine whether (Rp)-cAMPS functions as an antagonist or an agonist in the activation of cAMP-dependent protein kinase. Biochemistry 30:8710–8716.Google Scholar
  31. Dostmann WRG, Taylor SS, Genieser HG, Jastorff B, Doskeland SO, Ogreid D (1989) Probing the cyclic nucleotide binding sites of cAMP-dependent protein kinases I and II with analogs of adenosine 3′,5′-cyclic phosphorothioates. J Biol Chem 265:10484–10491Google Scholar
  32. Draijer R, Vaandrager AB, Nolte C, De Jonge HR, Walter U, van Hinsbergh VW (1995) Expression of cGMP-dependent protein kinase I and phosphorylation of its substrate, vasodilator-stimulated phosphoprotein, in human endothelial cells of different origin. Circ Res 77:897–905Google Scholar
  33. Eigenthaler M, Ullrich H, Geiger J, Horstrup K, Honig-Liedl P, Wiebecke D, Wlater U (1993) Defective nitrovasodilator-stimulated protein phosphorylation and calcium regulation in cGMP-dependent protein kinase-deficient human platelts of chronic myelocytic leukemia. J Biol Chem 268:13526–13531Google Scholar
  34. El-Daher SS, Eigenthaler M, Walter U, Furuichi T, Miyawaki A, Mikoshiba K, Kakkar V, Authi K (1996) Distribution and activation of cAMP-and cGMP-dependent protein kinases in highly purified human platelet plasma and intracellular membranes. Thromb. Haemostasis 76:1063–1071Google Scholar
  35. El-Husseini AE, Bladen C, Vincent SR (1995) Molecular characterization of a type II cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase expressed in the rat brain. J Neurochem 64:2814–2817Google Scholar
  36. Eliasson MJL, Blackshaw S, Schell MJ, Snyder SH (1997) Neuronal nitric oxide synthase alternatively spliced forms: prominent functional localizations in the brain. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 94:3396–3401Google Scholar
  37. Engh RA, Girod A, Kinzel V, Huber R, Bossemeyer D (1996) Crystal structures of catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase in complex with isoquinolinesulfonyl protein kinase inhibitors H7, H8, and H89. Structural implications for selectivity. J Biol Chem 271:26157–26164Google Scholar
  38. Feil R, Kellermann J, Hofmann F (1995) Functional cGMP-dependent protein kinase is phosphorylated in its catalytic domain at threonine-516. Biochemistry 34:13152–13158Google Scholar
  39. Felbel J, Trockur B, Ecker T, Landgraf W, Hofmann F (1988) Regulation of cytosolic calcium by cAMP and cGMP in freshly isolated smooth muscle cells from bovine trachea. J Biol Chem 263:16764–16771Google Scholar
  40. Field M, Rao MC, Chang EB (1989) Intestinal electrolyte transport and diarrheal disease (1) N Engl J Med 321:800–806Google Scholar
  41. Foster JL, Higgins GC, Jackson FR (1996) Biochemical properties and cellular localization of the Drosophila DG1 cGMP-dependent protein kinase. J Biol Chem 271:23322–23328Google Scholar
  42. Francis SH, Noblett BD, Todd BW, Wells JN, Corbin JD (1988) Relaxation of vascular and tracheal smooth muscle by cyclic nucleotide analogues that preferentially activate purified cGMP-dependent protein kinase. Mol Pharmacol 34:506–517Google Scholar
  43. French PJ, Bijman J, Edixhoven M, Vaandrager AB, Scholte BJ, Lohmann SM, Nairn AC, de Jonge HR (1995) Isotype-specific activation of cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator-chloride channels by cGMP-dependent protein kinase II. J Biol Chem 270:26626–26631Google Scholar
  44. Fujii M, Ogata T, Takahashi E, Yamada K, Nakabayashi K, Oishi M, Ayusawa D (1995) Expression of the human cGMP-dependent protein kinase II gene is lost upon introduction of SV40 T antigen or immortalization in human cells. FEBS Lett 375:263–267Google Scholar
  45. Gambaryan S, Häusler C, Markert T, Pohler D, Jarchau T, Walter U, Haase W, Kurtz A, Lohmann SM (1996) Expression of type II cGMP-dependent protein kinase in rat kidney is regulated by dehydration and correlated with renin gene expression. J Clin Invest 98:662–670Google Scholar
  46. Gamm DM, Francis SH, Angelotti TP, Corbin JD, Uhler MD (1995) The type II isoform of cGMP-dependent protein kinase is dimeric and possesses regulatory and catalytic properties distinct from the type I isoforms. J Biol Chem 270:27380–27388Google Scholar
  47. Gardes J, Poux JM, Gonzalez MF, Alhenc-Gelas F, Menard J (1992) Decreased renin release and constant kallikrein secretion after injection of L-NAME in isolated perfused rat kidney. Life Sci 50:987–993Google Scholar
  48. Garg UC, Hassid A, (1989) Nitric oxide-generating vasodilators and 8-bromo-cyclic guanosine monophosphate inhibit mitogenesis and proliferation of cultured rat vascular smooth muscle cells. J Clin Invest 83:1774–1777Google Scholar
  49. Geiger J, Nolte C, Butt E, Sage SO, Walter U (1992) Role of cGMP and cGMP-dependent protein kinase in nitrovasodilator inhibition of agonist-evoked calcium elevation in human platelets. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 89:1031–1035Google Scholar
  50. Giannella RA (1981) Pathogenesis of acute bacterial diarrheal disorders. Ann Rev Med 32:341–357Google Scholar
  51. Gjertsen BT, Mellgren G, Otten A, Maronde E, Genieser HG, Jastorff B, Vintermyr OK, McKnight GS, Doskeland SO (1995) Novel (Rp)-cAMPS analogs as tools for inhibition of cAMP-kinase in cell culture. Basal cAMP-kinase activity modulates interleukin-1 beta action. J Biol Chem 270:20599–20607Google Scholar
  52. Glass DB (1983) Differential responses of cyclic GMP-dependent and cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinases to synthetic peptide inhibitors. Biochem J 213:159–164Google Scholar
  53. Glass DB, Cheng HC, Kemp BE, Walsh DA (1986) Differential and common recognition of the catalytic sites of the cGMP-dependent and cAMP-dependent protein kinases by inhibitory peptides derived from the heat-stable inhibitor protein. J Biol Chem 261:12166–12171Google Scholar
  54. Glass DB, Feller MJ, Levin LR, Walsh DA (1992) Structural basis for the low affinities of yeast cAMP-dependent and mammalian cGMP-dependent protein kinases for protein kinase inhibitor peptides. Biochemistry 31:1728–1734Google Scholar
  55. Glass DB, Krebs EG (1982) Phosphorylation by guanosine 3′:5′-monophosphate-dependent protein kinase of synthetic peptide analogs of a site phosphorylated in histone H2B. J Biol Chem 257:1196–200Google Scholar
  56. Grant PG, Mannarino AF, Colman RW (1990) Purification and characterization of a cyclic GMP-stimulated cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase from the cytosol of human platelets. Thromb Res 59:105–119Google Scholar
  57. Greenberg SG, He XR, Schnermann JB, Briggs JP (1995) Effect of nitric oxide on renin secretion. I. Studies in isolated juxtaglomerular granular cells. Am J Physiol 268:F948–F952Google Scholar
  58. Greenstein-Baynash A, Hosoda K, Giaid A, Richardson JA, Emoto N, Hammer RE, Yanagisawa M (1994) Interaction of enothelin-3 with endothelin-b receptor is essential for development of epidermal melanocytes and enteric neurons. Cell 79:1277–1285Google Scholar
  59. Grunberg B; Negrescu E; Siess. W (1995) Synergistic phosphorylation of platelet rap1B by SIN-1 and iloprost. Eur J Pharmacol 288:329–333Google Scholar
  60. Gudi T, Huvar I, Meinecke M, Lohmann SM, Boss GR, Pilz RB (1996) Regulation of gene expression by cGMP-dependent protein kinase. Transactivation of the c-fos promoter. J Biol Chem 271:4597–4600Google Scholar
  61. Gudi T, Lohmann SM, Pilz RB (1997) Regulation of gene expression by cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase requires nuclear translocation of the kinase: identification of a nuclear localization signal. Mol Cell Biol 17:5244–5254Google Scholar
  62. Halbrügge M, Friedrich C, Eigenthaler M, Schanzenbacher P, Walter U (1990) Stoichiometric and reversible phophorylation of a 46-kD protein in human platelets in response to cGMP-and cAMP-elevating vasodilators. J Biol Chem 265:3088–3093Google Scholar
  63. Hanks SK, Hunter T (1995) The eukaryotic protein kinase superfamily: kinase (catalytic) domain structure and classification. FASEB J 9:576–596Google Scholar
  64. Hashimoto E; Takeda M; Nishizuka Y; Hamana K; Iwai K (1976) Studies on the sites in histones phosphorylated by adenosine 3′:5′-monophosphate-dependent and guanosine 3′:5′-monophosphate-dependent protein kinases. J Biol Chem 251:6287–6293Google Scholar
  65. He XR, Greenberg SG, Briggs JP, Schnermann JB (1995) Effect of nitric oxide on renin secretion. II. Studies in the perfused juxtaglomerular apparatus. Am J Physiol 268:F953–F959Google Scholar
  66. Heil WG, Landgraf W, Hofmann F (1987) A catalytically active fragment of cGMP-dependent protein kinase. Occupation of its cGMP-binding sites does not affect its phosphotransferase activity. Eur J Biochem 168:117–121Google Scholar
  67. Henrich WL, McAllister EA, Smith PB, Campbell WB (1988) Guanosine 3′,5′-cyclic monophosphate as a mediator of inhibition of renin release. Am J Physiol 255:F474–F478Google Scholar
  68. Herberg FW, Taylor SS, Dostmann WRG (1996) Active site mutations define the pathway for the cooperative activation of cAMP-dependent protein kinase. Biochemistry 35:2934–2942Google Scholar
  69. Hidaka H, Kobayashi R (1992) Pharmacology of protein kinase inhibitors. Annu Rev Pharmacol Toxicol 32:377–397Google Scholar
  70. Hofmann F, Dostmann W, Keilbach A, Landgraf W, Ruth P (1992) Structure and physiological role of cGMP-dependent protein kinase. Biochim Biophys Acta 1135:51–60Google Scholar
  71. Hofmann F, Gensheimer HP, Göbel, C (1985) cGMP-dependent protein kinase: Autophosphorylation changes the characteristics of binding site 1. Eur J Biochem 147:361–365Google Scholar
  72. Hofmann F, Ludwig A, Pfeifer A (1994) Cyclic GMP and the cotrol of airways smooth muscle tone. Airways Smooth Muscle: Biochemical Control of Contraction and Relaxation, D. Raeburn and M.A. Giembycz (eds); Birkhäuser Verlag Basel/Switzerland, 253–265Google Scholar
  73. Hofmann F, Sold G (1972) A protein kinase activity from rat cerebellum stimulated by guanosine-3′:5′-monophosphate. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 49:1100–1107Google Scholar
  74. Hosoda K, Hammer RE, Richardson JA, Greenstein-Baynash A, Cheung JC, Giaid A, Yanagisawa M (1994) Targeted and natural (Piebald-lethal) mutations of endothelin-b receptor gene produce megacolon associated with spotted coat color in mice. Cell 79:1267–1276Google Scholar
  75. Huang PL, Dawson TM, Bredt DS, Snyder S, Fishman M (1993) Targeted disruption of the neuronal nitric oxide synthase gene. Cell 75:1273–1286Google Scholar
  76. Huang PL, Huang Z, Mashimo H, Bloch KD, Moskowitz MA, Bevan JA, Fishman M (1995) Hypertension in mice lacking the gene for endothelial nitric oxide synthase. Nature 377:239–242Google Scholar
  77. Huizinga JD, Thuneberg L, Klüppel M, Malysz J, Mikkelsen HB, Bernstein A (1995) W/kit gene required for interstitial cells of Cajal and for intestinal pacemaker activity. Nature 373:347–349Google Scholar
  78. Ito M, Karachot L (1990) Messengers mediating long-term desensitization in cerebellar Purkinje cells. Neuroreport 1:129–132Google Scholar
  79. Ito M, Sakurai M, Tongroach P (1982) Climbing fibre induced depression of both mossy fibre responsiveness and glutamate sensitivity of cerebellar Purkinje cells. J Physiol Lond 324:113–134Google Scholar
  80. Jarchau T, Häusler C, Markert T, Pöhler D, Vandekerckhove J, De Jonge HR, Lohmann S, Walter U (1994) Cloning, expression, and in situ localization of rat intestinal cGMP-dependent protein kinase II. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 91:9426–9430Google Scholar
  81. Jiang H, Colbran JL, Francis SH, Corbin JD (1992) Direct evidence for cross-activation of cGMP-dependent protein kinase by cAMP in pig coronary arteries. J Biol Chem 267:1015–1019Google Scholar
  82. Joyce NC, DeCamilli P, Lohmann SM, Walter U (1986) cGMP-dependent protein kinase is present in high concentrations in contractile cells of the kidney vasculature. J Cyclic Nucleotide Protein Phosphor Res 11:191–198Google Scholar
  83. Kalderon D, Rubin GM (1989) cGMP-dependent protein kinase genes in Drosophila. J Biol Chem 264:10738–10748Google Scholar
  84. Kase H, Iwahashi K, Nakanishi S, Matsuda Y, Yamada K, Takahashi M, Murakata C, Sato A, Kaneko M (1987) K-252 compounds, novel and potent inhibitors of protein kinase C and cyclic nucleotide-dependent protein kinases. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 142:436–440Google Scholar
  85. Keilbach A, Ruth P, Hofmann F (1992) Detection of cGMP-dependent protein kinase isozymes by specific antibodies. Eur J Biochem 208:467–473Google Scholar
  86. Kemp BE, Pearson RB (1991) Intrasteric regulation of protein kinases and phosphatases. Biochim Biophys Acta 1094:67–76Google Scholar
  87. Kleppisch T, Pfeifer A, Klatt P, Ruth P, Montkowski A, Fässler R, Hofmann F (1998) Long-term potentiation in the hippocampal CA1 region of mice lacking the cGMP-dependent protein kinase is normal and susceptible to inhibition of NO synthase J Neurosci (in press)Google Scholar
  88. Knighton DR, Zheng JH, Ten Eyck LF, Ashford VA, Xuong NH, Taylor SS, Sowadski JM (1991) Crystal structure of the catalytic subunit of cyclic adenosine monophosphate-dependent protein kinase. Science 253:407–414Google Scholar
  89. Komalavilas P, Lincoln TM (1994) Phosphorylation of the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor by cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase. J Biol Chem 269:8701–8707Google Scholar
  90. Komalavilas P; Lincoln TM (1996) Phosphorylation of the inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor. Cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase mediates cAMP and cGMP dependent phosphorylation in the intact rat aorta. J Biol Chem 271:21933–21938Google Scholar
  91. Kume H, Hall IP, Washabau RJ, Takagi K, Kotlikoff MI (1994) Beta-adrenergic agonists regulate KCa channels in airway smooth muscle by cAMP-dependent and-independent mechanisms. J Clin Invest 93:371–379Google Scholar
  92. Kume H, Tokuma H, Tomita T (1989) Regulation of Ca2+-dependent K+-channel activity in tracheal myocytes by phophorylation. Nature 341:152–154Google Scholar
  93. Kuo JF, Greengard P (1970) Isolation and partial purification of a protein kinase activated by guanosine 3′,5′-monophosphate. J Biol Chem 245:2493–2498Google Scholar
  94. Kurtz A, Della-Bruna R, Pfeilschifter J, Taugner R, Bauer C (1986) Atrial natriuretic peptide inhibits renin release from juxtaglomerular cells by a cGMP-mediated process. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 83:4769–4773Google Scholar
  95. Landgraf W, Hofmann F (1989) The amino terminus regulates binding to and activation of cGMP-dependent protein kinase. Eur J Biochem 181:643–650Google Scholar
  96. Landgraf W, Hofmann F, Pelton JT, Huggins JP (1990) Effects of cyclic GMP on the secondary structure of cyclic GMP dependent protein kinase and analysis of the enzyme's amino-terminal domain by far-ultraviolet circular dichroism. Biochemistry 29:9921–9928Google Scholar
  97. Landgraf W, Hullin R, Göbel C, Hofmann F (1986) Phosphorylation of cGMP-dependent protein kinase increases the affinity for cyclic AMP. Eur J Biochem 154:113–117Google Scholar
  98. Lang D, Lewis MJ (1989) Endothelium-derived relaxing factor inhibits the formation of inositol trisphosphate by rabbit aorta. J Physiol 441:45–52Google Scholar
  99. Lev-Ram V, Jiang T, Wood J, Lawrence DS, Tsien RY (1997) Synergies and coincidence requirements between NO, cGMP, and Ca2+ in the induction of cerebellat long-term depression. Neuron 18:1025–1038Google Scholar
  100. Lev-Ram V, Makings LR, Keitz PF, Kao JPY, Tsien RY (1995) Long-term depression in cerebellar Purkinje neurons results from coincidence of nitric oxide and depolarization. Neuron 15:407–415Google Scholar
  101. Lincoln TM, Cornwell LT, Taylor AE (1990) cGMP-dependent protein kinase mediates the reduction of Ca2+ by cAMP in vascular smooth muscle cells. Am J Physiol 258:C399–C407Google Scholar
  102. Lincoln TM, Komalavilas P, Mac-Millan-Crow LA, Cornwell TL (1995) cGMP signaling through cAMP-and cGMP-dependent protein kinases. Adv Pharmacol 34:305–322Google Scholar
  103. Lincoln TM, Pryzwansky KB, Cornwell TL, Wyatt TA, MacMillan LA (1993). cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase in smooth muscle and neutrophils. Adv Second Messenger Phosphoprotein Res 28:121–132Google Scholar
  104. Linden DJ, Dawson TM, Dawson VL (1995) An evaluation of the nitric oxide/cGMP/cGM-dependent protein kinase cascade in the induction of cerebellar long-term depression in culture. J Neurosci 15:5098–5105Google Scholar
  105. Lohmann SM, Walter U, Miller PE, Greengard P, De-Camilli P (1981) Immunohisto-chemical localization of cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase in mammalian brain. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 78:653–657Google Scholar
  106. MacMillan-Crow LA, Lincoln TM (1994) High-affinity binding and localization of the cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase with the intermediate filament protein vimentin. Biochemistry 33:8035–8043Google Scholar
  107. MacMillan-Crow LA, Murphy Ullrich JE, Lincoln TM (1994) Identification and possible localization of cGMP-dependent protein kinase in bovine aortic endothelial cells. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 201:531–537Google Scholar
  108. Macphee CH, Reifsnyder DH, Moore TA, Lerea KM, Beavo JA (1988) Phosphorylation results in activation of a cAMP phosphodiesterase in human platelets. J Biol Chem 263:10353–10358Google Scholar
  109. Maeda H, Yamagata A, Nishikawa S, Yoshinaga K, Kobayashi S, Nishi K, Nishikawa S-I (1992) Requirement of c-kit for development of intestinal pacemaker system. Development 116:369–375Google Scholar
  110. Magrinat G, Mason SN, Shami PJ, Weinberg JB (1992) Nitric oxide modulation of human leukemia cell differentiation and gene expression. Blood 80:1880–1884Google Scholar
  111. Markert T, Vaandrager AB, Gambaryan S, Pohler D, Hausler C, Walter U, De Jonge HR, Jarchau T, Lohmann SM (1995) Endogenous expression of type II cGMP-dependent protein kinase mRNA and protein in rat intestine. Implications for cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator. J Clin Invest 96:822–830Google Scholar
  112. McDonald BJ, Moss SJ (1994) Differential phosphorylation of intracellular domains of γ-aminobutyric acid type A receptor subunits by calcium/calmodulin type 2-dependent protein kinase and cGMP-dependent protein kinase. J Biol Chem 269:18111–18117.Google Scholar
  113. McDonald BJ, Moss SJ (1997) Conserved phosphorylation of the intracellular domains of GABAA receptor β2 and β3 subunits by cAMP-dependent protein kinase, cGMP-dependent protein kinase C and Ca2+/calmodulin type II-dependent protein kinase. Neuropharmacology 36:1377–1385Google Scholar
  114. Miglietta LA, Nelson DL (1988) A novel cGMP-dependent protein kinase from Paramecium. J Biol Chem 263:16096–16105Google Scholar
  115. Mitchell RD, Glass DB, Wong CW, Angelos KL, Walsh DA (1995) Heat-stable inhibitor protein derived peptide substrate analogs: phosphorylation by cAMP-dependent and cGMP-dependent protein kinases. Biochemistry 34:528–534Google Scholar
  116. Miura Y; Kaibuchi K; Itoh T; Corbin JD; Francis SH; Takai Y (1992) Phosphorylation of smg p21B/rap1B p21 by cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase. FEBS Lett 297:171–174Google Scholar
  117. Murofushi H (1974) Protein kinases in Tetrahymena cilia. II. Partial purification and characterization of adenosine 3′,5′-monophosphate-dependent and guanosine 3′,5′-monophosphate-dependent protein kinases. Biochim Biophys Acta 370:130–139Google Scholar
  118. Ogreid D, Ekanger R, Suva RH, Miller JP, Doskeland SO (1989) Comparison of the two classes of binding sites (A and B) of type I and type II cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinases by using cyclic nucleotide analogs. Eur J Biochem 181:19–31Google Scholar
  119. Orstavik S, Solberg R, Tasken K, Nordahl M, Altherr MR, Hansson V, Jahnsen T, Sandberg M (1996) Molecular cloning, cDNA structure, and chromosomal localization of the human type II cGMP-dependent protein kinase. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 220:759–765Google Scholar
  120. Orstavik S; Sandberg M; Berube D; Natarajan V; Simard J; Walter U; Gagne R; Hansson V; Jahnsen T (1992) Localization of the human gene for the type I cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase to chromosome 10. Cytogenet-Cell-Genet., 59, 270–273Google Scholar
  121. Osborne KA, Robichon A, Burgess E, Butland S, Shaw RA, Coulthard A, Pereira HS, Greenspan RJ, Sokolowski MB (1997) Natural behavior polymorphism due to a cGMP-dependent protein kinase of Drosophila. Science 277:834–836Google Scholar
  122. Pfeifer A, Aszódi A, Seidler U, Ruth P, Hofmann F, Fässler R (1996). Intestinal secretory defects and dwarfism in mice lacking cGMP-dependent protein kinase II. Science 274:2082–2086Google Scholar
  123. Pfeifer A, Klatt P, Massberg S, Ny L, Sausbier M, Hirneiß C, Wang G-X, Korth M, Aszódi A, Andersson K-E, Krombach F, Mayerhofer A, Ruth P, Fässler R, Hofmann F (1998) Defective smooth muscle regulation in cGMP kinase I-deficient mice. EMBO J 17:3045–3051Google Scholar
  124. Pfitzer G, Hofmann F, DiSalvo J, Rüegg JC (1984) cGMP and cAMP inhibit tension development in skinned coronary arteries. Plügers Arch 401:277–280Google Scholar
  125. Pilz RB, Suhasini M, Idriss S, Meinkoth JL, Boss GR (1995) Nitric oxide and cGMP analogues activate transcription from AP-1-responsive promoters in mammalian cells. FASEB J 9:552–558Google Scholar
  126. Pöhler D, Butt E, Meissner J, Muller S, Lohse M, Walter U, Lohmann SM, Jarchau T (1995) Expression, purification, and characterization of the cGMP-dependent protein kinases I beta and II using the baculovirus system. FEBS Lett 374:419–425Google Scholar
  127. Pryzwansky KB, Kidao S, Wyatt TA, Reed W, Lincoln TM (1995) Localization of cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase in human mononuclear phagocytes. J Leukoc Biol 57:670–678Google Scholar
  128. Qian Y, Chao DS, Santillano DR, Cornwell TL, Nairn AC, Greengard P, Lincoln TM, Bredt DS (1996) cGMP-dependent protein kinase in dorsal root ganglion: relationship with nitric oxide synthase and nociceptive neurons. J Neurosci 16:3130–3188Google Scholar
  129. Rannels SR, Corbin JD (1981) Two different intrachain cAMP binding sites of cAMP-dependent protein kinases. J Biol Chem 255:7085–7088Google Scholar
  130. Rapoport RM (1989) Cylic guanosine monophosphate inhibition of contraction may be mediated through inhibition of phosphatidyl inositol hydrolysis in rat aorta. Circ Res 58:407–410Google Scholar
  131. Rapoport RM, Draznin MB, Murad F (1982) Sodium nitroprusside-induced protein phosphorylation in intact rat aorta is mimicked by 8-bromo cyclic GMP. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 79:6470–6474Google Scholar
  132. Raymond JL, Lisberger SG, Mauk MD (1996) The cerebellum: a neuronal learning machine. Science 272:1126–1131Google Scholar
  133. Reed RB, Sandberg M, Jahnsen T, Lohmann S, Francis S, Corbin J (1996) Fast and slow cyclic nucleotide-dissociation sites in cAMP-dependent protein kinase are transposed in type Iß cGMP-dependent protein kinase. J Biol Chem 271:17570–17575Google Scholar
  134. Reinhard M, Halbrügge M, Scheer U, Wiegand C, Jockusch BM, Walter U (1992) The 46/50 kDa phosphoprotein VASP purified from human platelets is a novel protein associated with actin filaments and focal contacts. Embo J 11:2063–2070Google Scholar
  135. Robertson BE, Schubert R, Hescheler J, Nelson MT (1993) cGMP-dependent protein kinase activates cAMP kinase-activated K+ channels in cerebral artery smooth muscle cells. Am J Physiol 265:C299–C303Google Scholar
  136. Ruth P, Landgraf W, Keilbach A, May B, Egleme C, Hofmann F (1991) The activation of expressed cGMP-dependent protein kinase isozymes I alpha and I beta is determined by the different amino-termini. Eur J Biochem 202:1339–1344Google Scholar
  137. Ruth P, Pfeifer A, Kamm S, Klatt P, Dostmann WRG, Hofmann F (1997). Identification of the amino acid sequences responsible for high affinity activation of cGMP kinase Iα. J Biol Chem 272:10522–10528Google Scholar
  138. Ruth P, Wang G-X, Boekhoff I, May B, Pfeifer A, Penner R, Korth M, Breer H, Hofmann F (1993) Transfected cGMP-dependent protein kinase suppresses calcium transients by inhibition of inositol 1,4,5-triphosphate production. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 90:2623–2627Google Scholar
  139. Ruth P, Kamm S, Nau U, Pfeifer A, Hofmann F (1996) A cGMP kinase mutant with increased sensitivity to the protein kinase inhibitor peptide PKI(5–24). Biol Chem 377:513–520Google Scholar
  140. Sandberg M, Butt E, Nolte C, Fischer L, Halbrugge M, Beltman J, Jahnsen T, Genieser HG, Jastorff B, Walter U (1991) Characterization of Sp-5,6-dichloro-1-beta-D-ribofuranosylbenzimidazole-3′,5′-monophosphorothioate (Sp-5,6-DCl-cBiMPS) as a potent and specific activator of cyclic-AMP-dependent protein kinase in cell extracts and intact cells. Biochemistry 279:521–527Google Scholar
  141. Sandberg M, Natarajan V, Ronander I, Kalderon D, Walter U, Lohmann S, Jahnsen T (1989) Molecular cloning and predicted full-length amino acid sequence of the type Iß isozyme of cGMP-dependent protein kinase from human placenta. FEBS Lett 255:321–329Google Scholar
  142. Sansom SC, Stockand JD, Hall D, Williams B (1997) Regulation of large calcium-activated potassium channels by protein phosphatase 2A. J Biol Chem 272:9902–9906Google Scholar
  143. Schaap P, van Ments-Cohen M, Soede RDM, Brandt R, Firtel RA, Dostmann W, Genieser HG, Jastorff B, van Haastert PJM (1993) Cell-permeable nonhydrolyzable cAMP derivatives as tools for analysis of signaling pathways controlling gene regulation in Dictyostelium. J Biol Chem 268:6323–6331Google Scholar
  144. Scholz H, Kurtz A (1993) Involvement of endothelium-derived relaxing factor in the pressure control of renin secretion from isolated perfused kidney. J Clin Invest 91:1088–1094Google Scholar
  145. Schulz S, Green CK, Yuen PS, Garbers DL (1990) Guanylyl cyclase is a heat-stable enterotoxin receptor. Cell 63:941–948Google Scholar
  146. Schuman EM, Madison DV (1991) A requirement for the intercellular messenger nitric oxide in long-term potentiation. Science 254:1503–1506Google Scholar
  147. Sekhar KR, Hatchett RJ, Shabb JB, Wolfe L, Francis SH, Wells JN, Jastorff B, Butt E Chakinala MM, Corbin JD (1992) Relaxation of pig coronary arteries by new and potent cGMP analogs that selectively activate type I alpha, compared with type I beta, cGMP-dependent protein kinase. Mol Pharm 42:103–108Google Scholar
  148. Shabb JB, Corbin JD (1992) Cyclic nucleotide-binding domains in proteins having diverse functions. J Biol Chem 267:5723–5726Google Scholar
  149. Shesely EG, Maeda N, Kim HS, Desai KM, Krege JH, Laubach VE, Sherman PA, Sessa WC, Smithies O (1996) Elevated blood pressure in mice lacking endothelial nitric oxide synthase. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 93:13176–13181Google Scholar
  150. Shesely EG, Maeda N, Kim HS, Desai KM, Krege JH, Laubach VE, Sherman PA, Sessa WC, Smithies O (1996) Elevated blood pressure in mice lacking endothelial nitric oxide synthase. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 93:13176–13181Google Scholar
  151. Shibuki K, Okada D (1991) Endogenous nitric oxide release required for long-term synaptic depression in the cerebellum. Nature 349:326–328Google Scholar
  152. Shirasawa S, Yunker AMR, Roth KA, Brown GA, Horning S, Korsmeyer SJ (1997) Enx (Hox11L1) deficient mice develop myenteric neuronal hyperplasia and megacolon. Nature Medicine 3:646–650Google Scholar
  153. Sicheri F, Moarefi I, Kuriyan J (1997) Crystal structure of the src family tyrosine kinase hck. Nature 385:602–609Google Scholar
  154. Siess W (1989) Molecular mechanisms of platelet activation. Physiol Rev 69:58–178Google Scholar
  155. Skalhegg BS, Landmark BF, Doskeland SO, Hansson V, Lea T, Jahnsen T (1992) Cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase type I mediates the inhibitory effects of 3′,5′-cyclic adenosine monophosphate on cell replication in human T lymphocytes. J Biol Chem 267:15707–15714Google Scholar
  156. Smith JA, Francis SH, Walsh KA, Kumar S, Corbin JD (1996) Autophosphorylation of type Ibeta cGMP-dependent protein kinase increases basal catalytic activity and enhances allosteric activation by cGMP or cAMP. J Biol Chem 271:20756–20762Google Scholar
  157. Sokolowski MB (1980) Foraging strategies of Drosophila melanogaster: a chromosomal analysis. Behav Genet 10:291–302Google Scholar
  158. Sonnenburg WK, Beavo JA (1994) Cyclic GMP and regulation of cyclic nucleotide hydrolysis. Adv Pharmacol 26:87–114Google Scholar
  159. Steinberg RA, Cauthron RD, Symcox MM, Shuntoh H (1993) Autoactivation of catalytic (Cα) subunit of cyclic AMP-dependent protein kinase by phosphorylation of threonine 197. Mol Cell Biol 13:2332–2341Google Scholar
  160. Steinberg RA, Gorman KB, Øgreid D, Døskeland SO, Weber IT (1991) Mutations that alter charge of type I regulatory subunit and modify activation properties of cyclic AMP-dependent Protein Kinase from Mouse S49 Lymphoma cells. J Biol Chem 266:3547–3553Google Scholar
  161. Su Y, Dostmann WRG, Herberg FW, Durick K, Xuong N-H, Ten Eyck L, Taylor SS Varughese KI (1995) Regulatory subunit of protein kinase A: structure of deletion mutant with cAMP binding domains. Science 269:807–813Google Scholar
  162. Suda M, Ogawa Y, Tanaka K, Tamura N, Yasoda A, Takigawa T, Uehira M, Nishimoto H, Itoh H, Saito Y, Shiota K, Nakao K (1998) Skeletal overgrowth in transgenic mice that overexpress brain natriuretic peptide. Proc Natl Acad Sci 95:2337–2342Google Scholar
  163. Suko J, Maurer-Fogy I, Plank B, Bertel O, Wyskovsky W, Hohenegger M, Hellmann G (1993) Phosphorylation of serine 2843 in ryanodine receptor-calcium release channel of skeletal muscle by cAMP-, cGMP-and CaM-dependent protein kinase. Biochim Biophys Acta 1175:193–206Google Scholar
  164. Takahashi SY, Kageyama T, Ohoka T, Ohnishi E (1974) Guanosine 3′,5′-monophosphate-dependent protein kinase from silkworm eggs: Purification and Properties. Insect Biochem 4:429–438Google Scholar
  165. Takio K, Wade RD, Smith SB, Krebs EG, Walsh KA, Titani K (1984) Guanosine cyclic 3′,5′-phosphate dependent protein kinase, a chimeric protein homologous with two separate protein families. Biochemistry 23:4207–4218Google Scholar
  166. Taniguchi J, Furukawa K-I, Shigekawa M (1993) Maxi K+ channels are stimulated by cyclic guanosine monophosphate-dependent protein kinase in canine coronary artery smooth muscle cells. Pflügers Arch 423:167–172Google Scholar
  167. Taylor SS, Radzio-Andzelm E (1994) Three protein kinase structures define a common motif. Structure 2:345–55Google Scholar
  168. Tegge W, Frank R, Hofmann F, Dostmann WRG (1995) Determination of cyclic nucleotide-dependent protein kinase substrate specificity by the use of peptide libraries on cellulose paper. Biochemistry 34:10569–10577Google Scholar
  169. Thomas MK, Francis SH, Corbin JD (1990) Substrate-and kinase-directed regulation of phosphorylation of a cGMP-binding phosphodiesterase by cGMP. J Biol Chem 265:14971–14978Google Scholar
  170. Turko IV, Francis SH, Corbin JD (1998) Binding of cGMP to both allosteric sites of cGMP-binding cGMP-specific phosphodiesterase (PDES) is required for its phosphorylation. Biochem J 329:505–510Google Scholar
  171. Uchida S, Sasaki S, Furukawa T, Hiraoka M, Imai T, Hirata Y, Marumo F (1993) Molecular cloning of a chloride channel that is regulated by dehydration and expressed predominantly in kidney medulla. J Biol Chem 268:3821–3824Google Scholar
  172. Uhler M (1993) Cloning and expression of a novel cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase from mouse brain. J Biol Chem 268:13586–13591Google Scholar
  173. Vaandrager AB, Edixhoven M, Bot AGM, Kroos MA, Jarchau T, Lohmann SM, Genieser H-G, De Jonge HR (1997) Endogenous Type II cGMP-dependent protein kinase exists as a dimer in membranes and can be functionally distinquished from the type I isoforms. J Biol Chem 272:11816–11823Google Scholar
  174. Vaandrager AB, Ehlert EME, Jarchau T, Lohmann SM, De Jonge HR (1996) Nterminal myristoylation is required for membrane localization of cGMP-dependent protein kinase type II. J Biol Chem 271:7025–7029Google Scholar
  175. Vaandrager AB, Smolenski A, Tilly BC, Houtsmuller AB, Ehlert EME, Bot AGM, Edixhoven M, Boomaars WEM, Lohmann SM, De Jonge HR (1998) Membrane targeting of cGMP-dependent protein kinase is required for cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator Cl-channel activation. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 95:1466–1471Google Scholar
  176. Vaandrager AB, van der Wiel E, De Jonge HR (1993) Heat-stable enterotoxin activation of immunopurified guanylyl cyclase C. Modulation by adenine nucleotides. J Biol Chem 268:19598–19603Google Scholar
  177. Van Epps-Fung C, Williams JP, Cornwell TL, Lincoln TM, McDonald JM, Radding W, Blair HC (1994) Regulation of osteoclastic acid secretion by cGMP-dependent protein kinase. Biochem Biophys Res Commun 204:565–571Google Scholar
  178. Vanderwinden J-M, Mailleux P, Schiffmann SN, Vanderhaeghen J-J, De Laet MH (1992) Nitric oxide synthase activity in infantile hypertrophic pyloric stenosis. N Engl J Med 327:511–515Google Scholar
  179. Wagner C, Pfeifer A, Ruth P, Hofmann F, Kurtz A (1998) Inhibitory role of cGMP-kinase II in the control of renin secretion and renin expression J Clin Invest (in press)Google Scholar
  180. Waldmann R, Bauer S, Göbel C, Hofmann F, Jakobs KH, Walter U (1986) Demonstration of cGMP-dependent protein kinase and cGMP-dependent phosphorylation in cell-free extracts of platelets. Eur J Biochem 158:203–208Google Scholar
  181. Wang G-R, Zhu Y, Halushka PV, Lincoln TM, Mendelsohn ME (1998) Mechanism of platelet inhibition by nitric oxide: In vivo phosphorylation of thromboxane receptor by cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 95:4888–4893Google Scholar
  182. Wanner R, Wurster B (1990) Cyclic GMP-activated protein kinase from Dictyostelium discoideum. Biochim Biophys Acta 1053:179–184Google Scholar
  183. Weber IT, Shabb JB, Corbin HD (1989) Predicted structures of the cGMP-dependent protein kinase: A key Alanine/threonine difference in evolutionary divergence of cAMP and cGMP binding sites. Biochemistry 28:6122–6127Google Scholar
  184. Weber IT, Steitz TA (1987) Structure of a complex of catabolite gene activator protein and cyclic AMP refined at 2.5 Å resolution. J Mol Biol 198:311–326Google Scholar
  185. Weber IT, Takio K, Titani K, Steitz TA (1982) The cAMP-binding domains of the regulatory subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase and the catabolite gene activator protein are homologues. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 79:7679–7683Google Scholar
  186. Weisskopf MG, Castillo PE, Zalutsky RA, Nicoll RA (1994) Mediation of hippocampal mossy fiber long-term potentiation by cyclic AMP. Science 265:1878–1882Google Scholar
  187. Wen W, Taylor S (1994) High-affinity binding of the heat-stable protein kinase inhibitor to the catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase is selectively abolished by mutation of Arg133. J Biol Chem 269:8423–8430Google Scholar
  188. Wernet W, Flockerzi V, Hofmann F (1989) The cDNA of the two isoforms of bovine cGMP-dependent protein kinase. FEBS Lett 251:191–196Google Scholar
  189. White RE, Lee AB, Shcherbatko AD, Lincoln TM, Schonbrunn A, Armstrong DL (1993) Potassium channel stimulation by natriuretic peptides through cGMP-dependent dephosphorylation. Nature 361:263–266Google Scholar
  190. Wolfe L, Francis SH, Corbin JD (1989) Properties of a cGMP-dependent monomeric protein kinase from bovine aorta. J Biol Chem 264:4157–4162Google Scholar
  191. Wood JS; Yan X; Mendelow M; Corbin D; Francis SH, Lawrence DS (1996) Precision substrate targeting of protein kinases. The cGMP-and cAMP-dependent protein kinases. J Biol Chem 271:174–179Google Scholar
  192. Wyatt TA, Lincoln TM, Pryzwansky KB (1991) Vimentin is transiently co-localized with and phosphorylated by cyclic GMP-dependent protein kinase in formylpeptide-stimulated neutrophils. J Biol Chem 266:21274–21820Google Scholar
  193. Xu RM, Carmel G, Kuret J, Cheng X (1996) Structural basis for selectivity of the isoquinoline sulfonamide family of protein kinase inhibitors. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 93:6308–6313Google Scholar
  194. Yan X, Corbin JD, Francis SH, Lawrence, DS (1996) Precision targeting of protein kinases. An affinity label that inactivates the cGMP-but not the cAMP-dependent protein kinase. J Biol Chem 271:1845–1848Google Scholar
  195. Yeaman SJ, Cohen P, Watson DC, Dixon GH (1977) The substrate specificity of adenosine 3′:5′-cyclic monophosphate-dependent protein kinase of rabbit skeletal muscle. Biochem J 162:411–421Google Scholar
  196. Yokozaki H, Tortora G, Pepe S, Maronde E, Genieser HG, Jastorff B, Cho-Chung YS (1992) Unhydrolyzable analogues of adenosine 3′:5′-monophosphate demonstrating growth inhibition and differentiation in human cancer cells. Cancer Res 52:2504–2508Google Scholar
  197. Yu S-M, Hung L-M, Lin C-C (1997) cGMP-eleating agents suppress proliferation of vascular smooth muscel cells by inhibiting the activation of epidemral growth factor signaling pathway. Circulation 95:1269–1277Google Scholar
  198. Zhao J, Trewhella J, Corbin J, Francis S, Mitchell R, Bushin R, Walsh D (1997) Progressive cyclic nucleotide-induced conformational changes in the cGMP-dependent protein kinase studied by small angle x-ray scattering in solution. J Biol Chem 272:31929–31936Google Scholar
  199. Zheng J, Knighton DR, ten Eyck LF, Karlsson R, Xuong N, Taylor SS, Sowadski JM (1993) Crystal structure of the catalytic subunit of cAMP-dependent protein kinase complexed with MgATP and peptide inhibitor. Biochemistry 32:2154–2161Google Scholar
  200. Zhuo M, Hu Y, Schultz C, Kandel ER, Hawkins RD (1994) Role of guanylyl cyclase and cGMP-dependent protein kinase in long-term potentiation. Nature 368:635–639Google Scholar
  201. Zhou X-B, Ruth P, Schlossmann J, Hofmann F, Korth M (1996) Protein phosphatase 2A is essential for the activation of Ca2+ activated K+ channels currents by cGMP-dependent protein kinase in tracheal smooth muscle and chinese hamster ovary cells. J Biol Chem 271:19760–19767Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag 1999

Authors and Affiliations

  • A. Pfeifer
    • 1
  • P. Ruth
    • 1
  • W. Dostmann
    • 1
  • M. Sausbier
    • 1
  • P. Klatt
    • 1
  • F. Hofmann
    • 1
  1. 1.Institut für Pharmakologie und Toxikologie der TUMünchenGermany

Personalised recommendations