Towards a rigorous approach for managing process evolution

  • Minh N. Nguyen
  • Reidar Conradi
Frameworks session
Part of the Lecture Notes in Computer Science book series (LNCS, volume 1149)


Most software development projects are delivering late and over budget due to the fact that they are performing in an evolutionary and dynamic world. It has also recognized that unforeseen evolution is hard and costly but necessary to manage. This paper therefore describes the evolutionary nature of software systems and associated processes. In addition, we propose a framework for categorizing process evolution focusing on typical aspects such as origin, cause and type of process evolution, as well as how, when and by whom the change is performed. Evolution being classified by the framework is called evolution pattern. A set of typical project and product properties are identified to have major influence on evolution profile. An evolution pattern is recorded with detailed information on project context in which it occurs, product profile it develops and impacts on progress it implies. An approach is then presented guiding how to learn and reuse evolution experiences from previous and in future similar projects respectively. Together, they constitute a quantitative foundation for improving project estimates and process planning which is inspired by Quality Improvement Paradigm (QIP) and its Experience Factory [BCR94]. We are also conducting a case study at a banking software house to validate our hypotheses on improving estimates accuracy, productivity and product quality by application of the framework and approach. Realistic data on evolution, project and product profile are collected and systematically recorded for future usage in a local experience database.


process evolution software measurement experience reuse and learning categorization framework evolution pattern 


Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.

Unable to display preview. Download preview PDF.


  1. [Bas92]
    Victor R. Basili. The Experimental Paradigm in Software Engineering. In In International Workshop on Experimental Software Engineering Issues, Dagstuhl, Germany, September 1992.Google Scholar
  2. [BCR94]
    Victor R. Basili, Gianluigi Caldiera, and H. Dieter Rombach. The Experience Factory, volume 1 of Encyclopedia of Software Engineering, chapter x, pages 469–476. John Wiley Sons, 1994. J. Marciniak (editor).Google Scholar
  3. [BFG93]
    Sergio Bandinelli, Alfonso Fuggetta, and Carlo Ghezzi. Software Process Model Evolution in the SPADE Environment IEEE Trans. on Software Engineering, pages 1123–1144, December 1993. (special issue on Process Model Evolution).Google Scholar
  4. [Boe81]
    Barry W. Boehm. Software engineering economics (on COCOMO model). Prentice-Hall, 1981.Google Scholar
  5. [BR91]
    V.R. Basili and H.D. Rombach. Support for comprehensive reuse. Software Engineering Journal, pages 303–316, September 1991.Google Scholar
  6. [C+92]
    Reidar Conradi et al. Design, Use, and Implementation of SPELL, A Language for Software Process Modeling and Evolution. In [Der92], pages 167–177, 1992.Google Scholar
  7. [C+94]
    Reidar Conradi et al. EPOS: Object-Oriented and Cooperative Process Modelling. In [FKN94], pages 33–70, 1994. Also as EPOS TR 198, NTH, 31 Oct. 1993, Trondheim.Google Scholar
  8. [Cap91]
    Jones Capers. Applied Software Measurement: Assuring Productivity and Quality. Software Engineering Series. McGraw-Hill, 1991.Google Scholar
  9. [CFF94]
    Reidar Conradi, Christer Fernström, and Alfonso Fuggetta. Concepts for Evolving Software Processes. In [FKN94], pages 9–32, 1994. Also as EPOS TR 187, NTH, 9 Nov. 1992, 26 p., Trondheim.Google Scholar
  10. [CHL94]
    Reidar Conradi, Marianne Hagaseth, and Chunnian Liu. Planning Support for Cooperating Transactions in EPOS. In Proc. CAISE'94, Utrecht, pages 2–13, June 1994.Google Scholar
  11. [DeM82]
    Tom DeMarco. Controlling Software Projects: Management, Measurement and Estimation. Yourdon Press Computing Series. Prentice Hall, Inc, A Division of Simon & Schuster Englewood Cliffs, NJ 07632, 1982. ISBN 0-13-171711-1025.Google Scholar
  12. [Der92]
    Jean-Claude Derniame, editor. Proc. Second European Workshop on Software Process Technology (EWSPT92), Trondheim,Norway. 253p. Springer Verlag LNCS 635, September 1992.Google Scholar
  13. [Fen91]
    Norman E. Fenton. Software Metrics-A Rigorous Approach. Chapman&Hall, 1991.Google Scholar
  14. [FKN94]
    Anthony Finkelstein, Jeff Kramer, and Bashar A. Nuseibeh, editors. Software Process Modelling and Technology. Advanced Software Development Series, Research Studies Press/John Wiley & Sons, 1994. ISBN 0-86380-169-2, 362 p.Google Scholar
  15. [GH]
    R. D. Gordon and M. H. Halstead. An Experiment Comparing Fortran Programming Times with the Software Physics Hypothesis. In [She93], pages 17–21. From Purdue University.Google Scholar
  16. [JC93]
    M. Letizia Jaccheri and Reidar Conradi. Techniques for Process Model Evolution in EPOS. IEEE Trans. on Software Engineering, pages 1145–1156, December 1993. (special issue on Process Model Evolution).Google Scholar
  17. [Kar95]
    Even-André Karlsson, editor. Software Reuse: A Holistic Approach (The REBOOT Methodology Handbook). Wiley Series in Software Based Systems. John Wiley. 510 p., 1995. ISBN 0-471-95819-0, REBOOT report no. 8218.Google Scholar
  18. [LB85]
    M. M. Lehman and L. A. Belady. Program Evolution — Processes of Software Change. Academic Press, 1985. ISBN 0-12-442440-6.Google Scholar
  19. [LC93]
    Chunnian Liu and Reidar Conradi. Automatic Replanning of Task Networks for Process Model Evolution in EPOS. In [SP93], pages 434–450, 1993.Google Scholar
  20. [Leh94]
    Manny M. Lehman. Software Evolution, volume 2 of Encyclopedia of Software Engineering, chapter x, pages 1202–1208. Wiley and Co., 1994. J. Marciniak (editor).Google Scholar
  21. [Mad91]
    Nazim H. Madhavji. The Process Cycle. Software Engineering Journal, 6(5):234–242, September 1991.Google Scholar
  22. [Mad92]
    Nazim H. Madhavji. Environment Evolution: The Prisme Model of Changes. Transactions of Software Engineering, 18(5):380–392, May 1992.Google Scholar
  23. [McC]
    Thomas J. McCabe. A Complexity Measure. In [She93], pages 22–51. From US Department of Defense, National Security Agency.Google Scholar
  24. [MCL+95]
    Bjørn P. Munch, Reidar Conradi, Jens-Otto Larsen, Minn N. Nguyen, and Per H. Westby. Integrated Product and Process Management in EPOS. Journal of Integrated CAE, 1995. (Forthcoming in special issue on Integrated Product and Process Modeling), 30 p.Google Scholar
  25. [Mun93]
    Bjørn P. Munch. Versioning in a Software Engineering Database—the Change Oriented Way. PhD thesis, DCST, NTH, Trondheim, Norway, August 1993. 265 p. (PhD thesis NTH 1993:78).Google Scholar
  26. [NC94a]
    Minh N. Nguyen and Reidar Conradi. Classification of Meta-processes and their Models. In Proc.from the third International Conference on Software Process, Washington, USA, 10–11 October, pages 167–175, 1994.Google Scholar
  27. [NC94b]
    Minh N. Nguyen and Reidar Conradi. SPELL: A Logic Programming Language for Process Modelling. In Proc.from Workshop on Logic Programming in Software Engineering, Santa Margherita Ligure (Genova), Italy (held after the ICLP conference), 18 June, pages 15–23, 1994. Also as EPOS TR 220.Google Scholar
  28. [Ovi]
    Encuire I. Oviedo. Control Flow, Data Flow and Program Complexity. In [She93], pages 52–65. From State University of New York at Buffalo.Google Scholar
  29. [She93]
    Martin Shepperd. Software Engineering Metrics Volume 1: Measurements and Validations. International Series in Software Engineering. The McGraw-Hill International, 1993. ISBN 0-07-707410-6.Google Scholar
  30. [SP93]
    Ian Sommerville and Manfred Paul, editors. Proc. 4th European Software Engineering Conference (Garmisch-Partenkirchen, FRG), Springer Verlag LNCS 717, September 1993.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg 1996

Authors and Affiliations

  • Minh N. Nguyen
    • 1
  • Reidar Conradi
    • 1
  1. 1.Div. of Computer SystemsIDT Norwegian University of Science and Technology (NTNU)TrondheimNorway

Personalised recommendations