Skip to main content

The Future Prospects of Xenotransplantation

  • Chapter
  • First Online:
Glycoimmunology in Xenotransplantation


In the past era, gene manipulation techniques were slowly developed and inefficient, making them very difficult to experiment with xenotransplantation. But now it is possible to create genetically modified animals quickly and accurately with CRISPR-Cas9 system. This allows the development of GGTA1 or DKO or TKO to suppress the expression of certain glycan in pigs. Moreover, the expression of hCRPs can be added, thus curbing the HARs and AXHRs that appear by the glycans during the xenotransplantation. This technique enables studies of other barriers while preventing early immune responses as much as possible. They will be SLAs and other immune-related proteins. Suppressing SLAs will significantly reduce the immune response of pigs’ APCs. Also, using substances that suppress various proteins involved in the host immunity will enhance the organ viability after implantation. But simply inhibiting multiple molecules at once to transgenic pig organs is a very difficult task. Creation of GTKO pigs and CRISPR-Cas9-based genome-wide inactivation of PERVs allowed the future possibility for xenografts in clinical trials. In addition, immune modulatory drug design will open a new way for better outcome.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this chapter

USD 29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
USD 119.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as EPUB and PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
Hardcover Book
USD 159.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Durable hardcover edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info

Tax calculation will be finalised at checkout

Purchases are for personal use only

Institutional subscriptions


  1. Yang L, Guell M, Niu D, et al. Genome-wide inactivation of porcine endogenous retroviruses (PERVs). Science. 2015;350:1101–4.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  2. Hawthorne WJ, Lew AM, Thomas HE. Genetic strategies to bring islet xenotransplantation to the clinic. Curr Opin Organ Transplant. 2016;21:476–83.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations


Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

Copyright information

© 2024 The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd.

About this chapter

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this chapter

Kim, CH. (2024). The Future Prospects of Xenotransplantation. In: Glycoimmunology in Xenotransplantation. Springer, Singapore.

Download citation

Publish with us

Policies and ethics