Skip to main content

Other Non-α1,3Gal Antigens

  • Chapter
  • First Online:
Glycoimmunology in Xenotransplantation
  • 83 Accesses

Abstract

Since understanding of the impact in xenoantigenic determinant Galα1,3Gal-R and anti-α1,3Gal Abs during xenoantigenic damages and injuries, other non-α1,3Gal glycan xenoantigens, the non-α1,3Gal epitope-reactive immune responses, and their related inflammation reactions have not well been explained. The α1,3Gal-T enzyme required for the biosynthesis of α1,3Gal-carrying antigenic epitopes [1] and α1,3Gal glycan-terminating GSLs is also discovered from bovine cells. Barone et al. [2] found and elucidated both structures of non-acidic neutral GSLs and acidic GSLs from pulmonary and aortic endothelium of naïve pig aortic vessel using α1,3Gal-specific Griffonia simplicifolia IB4 lectin, GS-IB4. To characterize the antibody reactivity of patient tissues with bioprosthetic valves of pig valves, acidic GSLs and non-acidic neural GSLs were isolated from pulmonary and aortic cusps of pig valves. The isolated GSLs have been analyzed for their characterization by MS analysis and recognition properties and patterns of glycan-binding ligands. The non-acidic neutral GSLs have been specified as globotetraosyl-Ceramide, H-type 2 pentaosyl-ceramide, Fuc-gangliotetraosyl-Ceramide, and Galα1,3neolactotetraosyl-Ceramide. The acidic GSLs contained gangliosides including GM1, GM2, GM3, Fuc-GM1, GD1a and GD3, and sulfatides. All gangliosides consisted of NeuAc residues. Significantly, the main component, NeuGc of NeuAc variant, was present in various organs of pig. To humans, it can induce development of Abs. Such glycan structures bound with complex lipids in pigs can possibly be target candidates for the immune system of human.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this chapter

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
EUR 32.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or Ebook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

Chapter
USD 29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
eBook
USD 119.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as EPUB and PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
Hardcover Book
USD 159.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Durable hardcover edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info

Tax calculation will be finalised at checkout

Purchases are for personal use only

Institutional subscriptions

References

  1. Joziasse DH, Shaper JH, Van den Eijnden DH, Van Tunen AJ, Shaper NL. Bovine alpha 1–3-galactosyltransferase: isolation and characterization of a cDNA clone. Identification of homologous sequences in human genomic DNA. J Biol Chem. 1989;264:14290–7.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  2. Barone A, Benktander J, Teneberg S, Breimer ME. Characterization of acid and non-acid glycosphingolipids of porcine heart valve cusps as potential immune targets in biological heart valve grafts. Xenotransplantation. 2014;21:510–22.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  3. Wu GD, Fujii G, Johnson E, Swensson J, Oakley O, Cramer DV. Failure of anti-Forssman antibodies to induce rejection of mouse heart xenografts. Xenotransplantation. 1999;6:90–7.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  4. Wieslander J, Mansson O, Kallin E, et al. Specificity of human-antibodies against Gal-alpha-1-3gal carbohydrate epitope and distinction from natural antibodies reacting with Gal-alpha-1-2gal or Gal-alpha-1-4 Gal. Glycoconj J. 1990;7:85–100.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  5. Yeh P, Ezzelarab M, Bovin N, et al. Investigation of potential carbohydrate antigen targets for human and baboon antibodies. Xenotransplantation. 2010;17:197–206.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  6. Young WW Jr, Hakomori SI, Levine P. Characterization of anti-Forssman (anti-Fs) antibodies in human sera: their specificity and possible changes in patients with cancer. J Immunol. 1979;123:92–6.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  7. Breimer M. Chemical and immunological identification of the forssman pentaglycosylceramide in human kidney. Glycoconj J. 1985;2:375–85.

    CAS  Google Scholar 

  8. Yamamoto F, Yamamoto M. Molecular genetic basis of porcine histo-blood group AO system. Blood. 2001;97(10):3308–10.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  9. Sprague L. On the recognition and inheritance of the soluble blood group property “Oc” of cattle. Genetics. 1958;43:913.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  10. Rasmusen BA. Gene interaction and the A–O blood-group system in pigs. Genetics. 1964;50:191.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  11. King TP, Kelly D. Ontogenic expression of histo-blood group antigens in the intestines of suckling pigs: lectin histochemical and immunohistochemical analysis. Histochem J. 1991;23:43.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  12. Aminoff D, Morgan WTJ, Watkins WM. Specific serological characters of the mucoids of hog gastric mucin. Nature. 1946;158:879.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  13. Diswall M, Angstrom J, Karlsson H, et al. Structural characterization of alpha1,3-galactosyltransferase knockout pig heart and kidney glycolipids and their reactivity with human and baboon antibodies. Xenotransplantation. 2010;17:48–60.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  14. Smith DM, Newhouse M, Naziruddin B, Kresie L. Blood groups and transfusions in pigs. Xenotransplantation. 2006;13(3):186–94.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  15. Thurin J, Blaszczyk-Thurin M. Porcine submaxillary gland GDP-L-fucose: beta-D-galactoside alpha-2-l-fucosyltransferase is likely a counterpart of the human secretor gene-encoded blood group transferase. J Biol Chem. 1995;270:26577.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  16. Rohrer GA, Vogeli P, Stranzinger G, Alexander LJ, Beattie CW. Mapping 28 erythrocyte antigen, plasma protein and enzyme polymorphisms using an efficient genomic scan of the porcine genome. Anim Genet. 1997;28:323.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  17. Meijerink E, Neuenschwander S, Fries R, et al. A DNA polymorphism influencing alpha(1,2)fucosyltransferase activity of the pig FUT1 enzyme determines susceptibility of small intestinal epithelium to Escherichia coli F18 adhesion. Immunogenetics. 2000;52:129.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  18. Barra JL, Monferran CG, Balanzino LE, Cumar FA. Escherichia coli heat-labile enterotoxin preferentially interacts with blood group A-active glycolipids from pig intestinal mucosa and A- and B-active glycolipids from human red cells compared to H-active glycolipids. Mol Cell Biochem. 1992;115:63.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  19. Johnson JR, Roberts PL, Stamm WE. P fimbriae and other virulence factors in Escherichia coli urosepsis: association with patients’ characteristics. J Infect Dis. 1987;156:225.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  20. Boren T, Falk P, Roth KA, Larson G, Normark S. Attachment of Helicobacter pylori to human gastric epithelium mediated by blood group antigens. Science. 1993;262:1892.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  21. Reguigne-Arnould I, Couillin P, Mollicone R, et al. Relative positions of two clusters of human alpha-l-fucosyltransferases in 19q (FUT1-FUT2) and 19p (FUT6-FUT3-FUT5) within the microsatellite genetic map of chromosome 19. Cytogenet Cell Genet. 1995;71:158.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  22. Hanagata G, Gasa S, Sako F, Makita A. Human blood group A and H glycolipids in porcine plasma. Evidence for acquisition of the erythrocyte antigens from plasma. FEBS Lett. 1990;261:312.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  23. Hirsch HF, Graham HA. Adsorption of Lec and Led from plasma onto red blood cells. Transfusion. 1980;20:474.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  24. Slomiany A, Slomiany BL, Horowitz MI. Structural study of the blood group A active glycolipids of hog gastric mucosa. J Biol Chem. 1974;249:1225.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  25. Rydberg L, Molne J, Strokan V, Svalander CT, Breimer ME. Histo-blood group A antigen expression in pig kidneys – implication for ABO incompatible pig-to-human xenotransplantation. Scand J Urol Nephrol. 2001;35:54.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  26. Oriol R, Ye Y, Koren E, Cooper DK. Carbohydrate antigens of pig tissues reacting with human natural antibodies as potential targets for hyperacute vascular rejection in pig-to-man organ xenotransplantation. Transplantation. 1993;56:1433–42.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  27. Rydberg L, Molne J, Strokan V, et al. Histo-blood group A antigen expression in pig kidneys–implication for ABO incompatible pig-to-human xenotransplantation. Scand J Urol Nephrol. 2001;35:54–62.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  28. Leight GS, Kirkman R, Rasmusen BA, et al. Transplantation in miniature swine. III: effects of MSLA and A-O blood group matching on skin allograft survival. Tissue Antigens. 1978;12:65.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  29. Swanson JL, Cooling L. Porcine red blood cells express a polyagglutinable red blood cell phenotype. Transfusion. 2005;45:1035. author reply 1036.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  30. Cohney S, Mouhtouris E, McKenzie IF, Sandrin MS. Molecular cloning and characterization of the pig secretor type alpha 1,2fucosyltransferase (FUT2). Int J Mol Med. 1999;3:199.

    CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  31. Darr D, McCormack KM, Manning T, et al. Comparison of Dolichos biflorus lectin and other lectin-horseradish peroxidase conjugates in staining of cutaneous blood vessels in the hairless mini-pig. J Cutan Pathol. 1990;17:9.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  32. Diswall M, Benktander J, Ångström J, Teneberg S, Breimer ME. The alpha1,3GalT knockout/alpha1,2FucT transgenic pig does not appear to have an advantage over the alpha1,3GalT knockout pig with respect to glycolipid reactivity with human serum antibodies. Xenotransplantation. 2014;21(1):57–71.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  33. Costa C, Zhao L, Burton WV, et al. Expression of the human alpha1,2-fucosyltransferase in transgenic pigs modifies the cell surface carbohydrate phenotype and confers resistance to human serum-mediated cytolysis. FASEB J. 1999;13:1762–73.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  34. Costa C, Zhao L, Burton WV, et al. Transgenic pigs designed to express human CD59 and H-transferase to avoid humoral xenograft rejection. Xenotransplantation. 2002;9:45–57.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  35. Costa C, Brokaw JL, Fodor WL. Characterization of cartilage from H-transferase transgenic pigs. Transplant Proc. 2008;40:554–6.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  36. Le Bas-Bernardet S, Tillou X, Poirier N, et al. Xenotransplantation of galactosyl-transferase knockout, CD55, CD59, CD39, and fucosyl-transferase transgenic pig kidneys into baboons. Transplant Proc. 2011;43:3426–30.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  37. Holgersson J, Jovall PA, Samuelsson BE, Breimer ME. Structural characterization of non-acid glycosphingolipids in kidneys of single blood group O and A pigs. J Biochem (Tokyo). 1990;108:766.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  38. Coddens A, Diswall M, Angstrom J, Breimer ME, Goddeeris B, Cox E, Teneberg S. Recognition of blood group ABH type 1 determinants by the FedF adhesin of F18-fimbriated Escherichia coli. J Biol Chem. 2009;284:9713–26.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  39. Bao WB, Ye L, Pan ZY, Zhu J, Du ZD, Zhu GQ, Huang XG, Wu SL. The effect of mutation at M307 in FUT1 gene on susceptibility of Escherichia coli F18 and gene expression in Sutai piglets. Mol Biol Rep. 2012;39:3131–6.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  40. Hojny J, Stratil A. Report on the pig and sheep blood group and polymorphic protein workshops (Libechov, 9 to 11 August 1978). Anim Blood Groups Biochem Genet. 1978;9:245.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  41. Saison R, Ingram DG. Production of specific haemagglutinins in pigs after receiving skin homografts. Nature. 1963;197:296. A: Academic Press, 1998: 389.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  42. Schmid DO, Buschmann HG, Hammer. Blood groups in animals. Lengerich: Pabst Science Publishers; 2003. p. 186–227.

    Google Scholar 

  43. Hojny J, Nielsen PB. Allele Ebdgjmr (E17) in the pig E blood group system. Anim Genet. 1992;23:523.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  44. Klaudy J, Hruban V, Hradecky J, Pazdera J, Pech V. The presence of blood group and lymphocyte antigens on porcine granulocytes. Anim Blood Groups Biochem Genet. 1981;12:67.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  45. Abe T, Mogi K, Oishi T, Himeno K, Hosoda T. A subclinical case of hemolytic disease of newborn pigs caused by anti-Ea. Nippon Juigaku Zasshi. 1970;32:139.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  46. Hojny J, Hradecky J, Pazdera J. The blood group factor Kf and allele Kae in the pig. Anim Blood Groups Biochem Genet. 1979;10:175.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  47. Gonzalez A, Friend M, Moreno A, Pintado CO, Vogeli P, Llanes D. A monoclonal antibody to swine erythrocytes recognizes the B blood group on the major glycophorin. Anim Genet. 1995;26:351.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  48. Onda M, Kudo S, Fukuda M. Genomic organization of glycophorin A gene family revealed by yeast artificial chromosomes containing human genomic DNA. J Biol Chem. 1994;269:13013.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  49. Hradecky J, Hruban V, Pazdera J, Klaudy J. Map arrangement of the SLA chromosomal region and the J and C blood group loci in the pig. Anim Blood Groups Biochem Genet. 1982;13:223.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  50. Cepica S, Moser G, Schroffel J Jr, et al. Chromosomal assignment of porcine EAD, EAO, LPR and P3 genes by linkage analysis. Anim Genet. 1996;27:109.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  51. Nielsen PB, Vogeli P. A new Kd subgroup designated Kg in the porcine K blood group system. Anim Blood Groups Biochem Genet. 1982;13:65.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  52. Hojny J, Schroffel J Jr, Geldermann H, Cepica S. The porcine M blood group system: evidence to suggest assignment of its M1 factor to a new system (P). Anim Genet. 1994;25(Suppl 1):99.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  53. Omi T, Vogeli P, Hagger C, et al. cDNA cloning, mapping and polymorphism of the porcine Rhesus (RH) gene. Anim Genet. 2003;34:176.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  54. Avent ND, Reid ME. The Rh blood group system: a review. Blood. 2000;95:375.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  55. Zachary AA, Leffell MS. Desensitization for solid organ and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. Immunol Rev. 2014;258(1):183–207.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  56. Breimer ME. Gal/non-Gal antigens in pig tissues and human non-Gal antibodies in the GalT-KO era. Xenotransplantation. 2011;18:215–28.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  57. Pei R, Lee JH, Shih NJ, Chen M, Terasaki PI. Single human leukocyte antigen flow cytometry beads for accurate identification of human leukocyte antigen antibody specificities. Transplantation. 2003;75(1):43–9.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  58. Tambur A, Claas F. HLA epitopes as viewed by antibodies: what is it all about? Am J Transplant. 2015;15:1148–54.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  59. Patel R, Terasaki PI. Significance of the positive crossmatch test in kidney transplantation. N Engl J Med. 1969;280:735–9.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  60. Lefaucheur C, Loupy A, Hill GS, et al. Preexisting donor-specific HLA antibodies predict outcome in kidney transplantation. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2010;21:1398–406.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  61. Cooper DK, Dou KF, Tao KS, Yang ZX, Tector AJ, Ekser B. Pig liver xenotransplantation: a review of progress toward the clinic. Transplantation. 2016;100(10):2039–47.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  62. Ladowski JM, Reyes LM, Martens GR, Butler JR, Wang ZY, Eckhoff DE, Tector M, Tector AJ. Swine leukocyte antigen (SLA) class II is a xenoantigen. Transplantation. 2017;102(2):249–54. https://doi.org/10.1097/TP.0000000000001924.

    Article  CAS  Google Scholar 

  63. Diaz Varela I, Sanchez Mozo P, Centeno Cortes A, Alonso Blanco C, Valdes CF. Cross-reactivity between swine leukocyte antigen and human anti-HLA-specific antibodies in sensitized patients awaiting renal transplantation. J Am Soc Nephrol. 2003;14(10):2677–83.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  64. Martens GR, Reyes LM, Butler JR, et al. Humoral reactivity of renal transplant-waitlisted patients to cells from GGTA1/CMAH/B4GalNT2, and SLA class I knockout pigs. Transplantation. 2017;101(4):e86–92.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  65. Smith DM, Lunney JK, Ho CS, et al. Nomenclature for factors of the swine leukocyte antigen class II system, 2005. Tissue Antigens. 2005;66(6):623–39.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  66. Wiebe C, Pochinco D, Blydt-Hansen TD, et al. Class II HLA epitope matching-A strategy to minimize de novo donor-specific antibody development and improve outcomes. Am J Transplant. 2013;13(12):3114–22.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  67. Higginbotham L, Mathews D, Breeden CA, et al. Pre-transplant antibody screening and anti-CD154 costimulation blockade promote long-term xenograft survival in a pig-to-primate kidney transplant model. Xenotransplantation. 2015;22:221–30.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  68. Martens GR, Reyes LM, Butler JR, Ladowski JM, Estrada JL, Sidner RA, Eckhoff DE, Tector M, Tector AJ. Humoral reactivity of renal transplant-waitlisted patients to cells from GGTA1/CMAH/B4GalNT2, and SLA class I knockout pigs. Transplantation. 2017;101(4):e86–92.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  69. Reyes LM, Estrada JL, Wang ZY, et al. Creating class I MHC-null pigs using guide RNA and the Cas 9 endonuclease. J Immunol. 2014;193:5751–7.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  70. Mulder A, Kardol MJ, Arn JS, et al. Human monoclonal HLA antibodies reveal interspecies crossreactive swine MHC class I epitopes relevant for xenotransplantation. Mol Immunol. 2010;47:809–15.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  71. Barreau N, Godfrin Y, Bouhours JF, et al. Interaction of anti-HLA antibodies with pig xenoantigens. Transplantation. 2000;69:148–56.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  72. Hara H, Ezzelarab M, Rood PP, et al. Allosensitized humans are at no greater risk of humoral rejection of GT-KO pig organs than other humans. Xenotransplantation. 2006;13:357–65.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  73. Satake M, Kawagishi N, Rydberg L, et al. Limited specificity of xenoantibodies in diabetic patients transplanted with fetal porcine islet cell clusters. Main antibody reactivity against alpha-linked galactose-containing epitopes. Xenotransplantation. 1994;1:89–101.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  74. Li P, Estrada JL, Burlak C, et al. Efficient generation of genetically distinct pigs in a single pregnancy usingmultiplexed single-guide RNA and carbohydrate selection. Xenotransplantation. 2015;22:20–31.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  75. Springer GF. Immunoreactive T and Tn epitopes in cancer diagnosis, prognosis, and immunotherapy. J Mol Med. 1997;75:594–602.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  76. Miyagawa S, Takeishi S, Yamamoto A, Ikeda K, Matsunari H, Yamada M, Okabe M, Miyoshi E, Fukuzawa M, Nagashima H. Survey of glycoantigens in cells from alpha1-3galactosyltransferase knockout pig using a lectin microarray. Xenotransplantation. 2010;17:61–70.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  77. Diswall M, Schuurman HJ, Dor F, Rydberg L, Breimer ME. Biochemical studies of Gal antigens in small intestine and pancreas from alpha1,3-galactosyltransferase knock-out miniture swine. Xenotransplantation. 2005;12:407.

    Google Scholar 

  78. Bojar D, Meche L, Meng G, Eng W, Smith DF, Cummings RD, Mahal LK. A useful guide to lectin binding: machine-learning directed annotation of 57 unique lectin specificities. ACS Chem Biol. 2022;17(11):2993–3012. https://doi.org/10.1021/acschembio.1c00689.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  79. Yazawa S, Furukawa K, Kochibe N. Isolation of fucosyl glycoproteins from human erythrocyte membranes by affinity chromatography using aleuria aurantia lectin. J Biochem. 1984;96(6):1737–42. https://doi.org/10.1093/oxfordjournals.jbchem.a135006.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  80. Geisler C, Jarvis DL. Effective glycoanalysis with Maackia amurensis lectins requires a clear understanding of their binding specificities. Glycobiology. 2011;21(8):988–93.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  81. Berman E, Brown JH, Lis H, Sharon N. Binding of [1-13C]galactose-labeled N-acetyllactosamine to Erythrina cristagalli agglutinin as studied by 13C-NMR. Eur J Biochem. 1985;152(2):447–51. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1432-1033.1985.tb09217.x.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  82. Fouquaert E, Peumans WJ, Smith DF, Proost P, Savvides SN, Van Damme EJM. The “old” Euonymus europaeus agglutinin represents a novel family of ubiquitous plant proteins. Plant Physiol. 2008;147:(pg. 1316-1324).

    Article  Google Scholar 

  83. Zhu A. Binding of human natural antibodies to nonalphaGal xenoantigens on porcine erythrocytes. Transplantation. 2000;69:2422–8.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  84. Milland J, Christiansen D, Sandrin MS. Alpha1,3-galactosyltransferase knockout pigs are available for xenotransplantation: are glycosyltransferases still relevant? Immunol Cell Biol. 2005;3:687–93.

    Article  Google Scholar 

  85. Galili U. Xenotransplantation and ABO incompatible transplantation: the similarities they share. Transfus Apher Sci. 2006;35:45–58.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  86. Tanemura M, Yin D, Chong AS, Galili U. Differential immune responses to alpha-gal epitopes on xenografts and allografts: implications for accommodation in xenotransplantation. J Clin Invest. 2000;105:301–10.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  87. Chihara RK, Lutz AJ, Paris LL, et al. Fibronectin from alpha 1,3-galactosyltransferase knockout pigs is a xenoantigen. J Surg Res. 2013;184:1123–33.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  88. Byrne GW, Du Z, Sun Z, Asmann YW, McGregor CG. Changes in cardiac gene expression after pig-to-primate orthotopic xenotransplantation. Xenotransplantation. 2011;18:14–27.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  89. Zhu A, Hurst R. Anti-N-glycolylneuraminic acid antibodies identified in healthy human serum. Xenotransplantation. 2002;9:376–81.

    Article  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  90. Sumitran S, Liu J, Czech KA, et al. Human natural antibodies cytotoxic to pig embryonic brain cells recognize novel non-Galalpha1,3Gal-based xenoantigens. Exp Neurol. 1999;159:347–61.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  91. Stone KR, Abdel-Motal UM, Walgenbach AW, et al. Replacement of human anterior cruciate ligaments with pig ligaments: a model for anti-non-gal antibody response in long-term xenotransplantation. Transplantation. 2007;83:211–9.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  92. Byrne GW, Stalboerger PG, Davila E, et al. Proteomic identification of non-Gal antibody targets after pig-to-primate cardiac xenotransplantation. Xenotransplantation. 2008;15:268–76.

    Article  PubMed  PubMed Central  Google Scholar 

  93. Mcgregor CG, Carpentier A, Lila N, et al. Cardiac xenotransplantation technology provides materials for improved bioprosthetic heart valves. J Thorac Cardiovasc Surg. 2011;141:269–75.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  94. Breimer ME, Bjorck S, Svalander CT, et al. Extracorporeal (“ex vivo”) connection of pig kidneys to humans 1. Clinical data and studies of platelet destruction. Xenotransplantation. 1996;3:328–39.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

  95. Valdes-Gonzalez RA, Dorantes LM, Garibay GN, et al. Xenotransplantation of porcine neonatal islets of Langerhans and Sertoli cells: a 4-year study. Eur J Endocrinol. 2005;153:419–27.

    Article  CAS  PubMed  Google Scholar 

Download references

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

Copyright information

© 2024 The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd.

About this chapter

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this chapter

Kim, CH. (2024). Other Non-α1,3Gal Antigens. In: Glycoimmunology in Xenotransplantation. Springer, Singapore. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-99-7691-1_12

Download citation

Publish with us

Policies and ethics