Skip to main content

A Study of Muslim Women Entrepreneurs’ SMEs Challenges and Motivation in the Asia Pacific Region

  • Chapter
  • First Online:
Open Innovation in Small Business

Abstract

Almost half of the population of those who are employed are women. Nonetheless, they encounter several issues and difficulties juggling their family and job obligations. In Asian Pacific nations, men are expected to be the primary caregiver for their families, and women must be their subservient. Being in charge of their own business is one way for women to have more freedom with their family time. As a result, they have a very high level of drive to work for their business. A mixed-method quantitative and qualitative technique is used to gather research data for this study. Using a quantitative research method, IBM SPSS is used to do a descriptive analysis of the survey data. Most respondents in Vietnam, Thailand, and Pakistan are inspired to start their businesses by personal, family, social, market, networking, and legal considerations. Parallel to this, a quantitative study in Vietnam and Thailand identifies similar factors like personal, family, social, political, and economic factors. In addition to these elements, Muslim women in these two neighbouring nations confront personal, economic, political, and governance obstacles.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in via an institution to check access.

Access this chapter

Subscribe and save

Springer+ Basic
EUR 32.99 /Month
  • Get 10 units per month
  • Download Article/Chapter or eBook
  • 1 Unit = 1 Article or 1 Chapter
  • Cancel anytime
Subscribe now

Buy Now

Chapter
USD 29.95
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
eBook
USD 99.00
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Available as EPUB and PDF
  • Read on any device
  • Instant download
  • Own it forever
Hardcover Book
USD 129.99
Price excludes VAT (USA)
  • Durable hardcover edition
  • Dispatched in 3 to 5 business days
  • Free shipping worldwide - see info

Tax calculation will be finalised at checkout

Purchases are for personal use only

Institutional subscriptions

Similar content being viewed by others

References

  • Ahmad SZ (2011) Evidence of the characteristics of women entrepreneurs in the kingdom of Saudi Arabia. An empirical investigation. Int J Gend Entrep 3(2):123–143

    Google Scholar 

  • Alina Z (2013) Micro-entrepreneurship and Islamic economic system. Bus J Entrep 1:91–101

    Google Scholar 

  • Al-Saidi R, Belwal R, Al-Badi R (2011) Women entrepreneurship in the al-Batinah region of Oman: an identification of barriers. J Int Women’s Stud 12(3):58–75

    Google Scholar 

  • Amaratunga D, Baldry D, Sarshar M, Newton R (2002) Quantitative and qualitative research in the built environment. Work Study 51(1):17–31

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Anwar MU, Rashid AG (2011) Female entrepreneurs: a review of the literature and proposed conceptual framework. In: Proceedings of 2nd international conference on business management. pp 1–30. (ISBN: 978–969–9368–06–6)

    Google Scholar 

  • Avin RM, Kinney LP (2014) Trends in female entrepreneurship in Vietnam. In: Preliminary paper presented at the 23th annual conference on feminist economics. Sponsored by Iaffe, University of Ghana, Accra, Ghana, June 27–29

    Google Scholar 

  • Benzing C, Chu HM, Callanan G (2005) A regional comparison of the motivation and problems of Vietnamese women. J Dev Entrep 10(1):3–27

    Google Scholar 

  • Braun V, Clarke V (2006) Using thematic analysis in psychology. Qual Res Psychol 3(2):77–101

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Bunck JM (1997) Women and post-cold war socialism: the cases of Cuba and Vietnam. Cuba in Transition. In: Annual proceedings of the association for the study of the Cuban economy (ASCE), vol 7 (30th November).

    Google Scholar 

  • Chuthamas C, Aminul Islam M, Thiyada K, Dayang Hasliza MY (2011) Factors affecting business success of small and medium enterprises (SMEs) in Thailand. Asian J Soc Sci 7(5):180−190

    Google Scholar 

  • Creswell JW, Creswell JD (2018) Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches. SAGE Publications Inc., Thousand Oaks, California

    Google Scholar 

  • David PF, Hung CM (2012) Entrepreneurs in China and Vietnam: motivations and problems. Int J Entrep 16(Special Issue):95–112

    Google Scholar 

  • Field E, Jayachandran S, Pande R (2010) Do traditional institutions constrain female entrepreneurship? a field experiment on business training in India. Am Econ Rev 100(2):125–129

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Franzke S, Wu J, Froese FJ, Chan ZX (2022) Female entrepreneurship in Asia: a critical review and future directions. Asian Bus Manag 21:343–372

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Goheer NA (2003) Women entrepreneurs in Pakistan: how to improve their bargaining power. International Labour Organization (ILO), Geneva

    Google Scholar 

  • Gooty S, Narekapudi N (2022) Enabling women’s entrepreneurship in Asia and the Pacific through smart legislative and policy reforms. https://www.unescap.org/blog/enabling-womens-entrepreneurship-asia-and-pacific-through-smart-legislative-and-policy-reforms. Accessed 26 Feb 2023

  • Hampel-Milagrosa A, Pham VH, Nguyen AQ, Nguyen TT (2010) Gender related obstacles to Vietnamese women entrepreneurs. United Nations Industrial Development Organization, Vienna

    Google Scholar 

  • Hatcher C, Terjesen S, Planck M (2007) Towards a new theory of entrepreneurship of culture and gender: a grounded study of Thailand’s most successful female entrepreneurship. AGSE, Australia

    Google Scholar 

  • Holmen M, Thaw TM, Saarelainen E (2011) Female entrepreneurship in Afghanistan. J Dev Entrep 16(3):307–331

    Google Scholar 

  • Ilhaamie AGA (2017) Muslim women entrepreneurs’ motivation in SMEs: a quantitative study in Asia Pacific countries. Asian Econ Financ Rev 7(1):27–42

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Ilhaamie AGA, Rosmawani CH, Siti Arni B, Hasan Al-Banna M (2015) The motivation of Muslim women entrepreneurs in China SMEs: towards trading halal goods and service. In: Suhaili S, Mohd Abd. Wahab FMB, Nor ‘Azzah K, Ahmad Sufyan CA (eds) Perspektif Industri Halal Perkembangan dan Isu-isu, pp 191–207. UM Press, KL

    Google Scholar 

  • Ilhaamie AGA, Siti Arni B, Rosmawani CH, Hasan Al-Banna M (2014) Challenges of Malaysian muslim women in SMEs. IJMIT 5(6):428−433

    Google Scholar 

  • International Finance Corporation (2011) Strengthening access to finance for women-owned SMEs in developing countries. Washington

    Google Scholar 

  • International Labour Organization (ILO) (2011) Women’s entrepreneurship development in Vietnam: learning from good practices. ILO Country Office for Vietnam, Vietnam

    Google Scholar 

  • Jackson K, Bazeley P (2019) Qualitative data analysis with NVIVO, 3rd edn. SAGE Publications Ltd., London

    Google Scholar 

  • Jawad S (2010) Women and small business entrepreneurship in Pakistan. In: Fielden S, Davidson M (eds) International research handbook on successful women entrepreneurs. Edward Elgar, Cheltenham & New York, pp 117–131

    Google Scholar 

  • Johnsson A, Kongsinsuwan S (2008) Female entrepreneurs in Sweden and Thailand–differences and similarities in motivation. Master Thesis in Business Administration, Malardalens Hogskola, School of Sustainable Development of Society and Technology, Sweden

    Google Scholar 

  • Kalyani B, Kumar D (2011) Motivational factors, entrepreneurship and education: a study with reference to women in SMEs. Far East J Psychol Bus 3(3):14–35

    Google Scholar 

  • Khalique M, Ramayah T, Hinaa K Nassir Shaari JA (2020) Islamic entrepreneurship: a systematic review of future challenges and prospects of Pakistani SMEs. Int J Econ, Manag Account 28(2):277−295

    Google Scholar 

  • Khan I (2014) Women chamber of commerce and industry. JWE 1(2):62–91

    Google Scholar 

  • Le QV, Raven PV (2015) Woman entrepreneurship in rural Vietnam: success and motivational factors. J Dev Areas 49(2):57–76

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Le DB, Nguyen DH, Pham NT, Do KY, Dao TT (2011) Creation of an enabling environment for women entrepreneur in Vietnam: mainstreaming gender issues in government policy on enterprise development. ILO, Hanoi

    Google Scholar 

  • Lerner M, Brush C, Hisrich R (1997) Israeli women entrepreneurs: an examination of factors affecting performance. J Bus Ventur 12:315–339

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Madiha SD, Shakoor A, Abdul R (2017) Small and medium-size enterprises in Pakistan: definition and critical issues. Pak Bus Rev 46–70

    Google Scholar 

  • Mahmood S (2011) Microfinance and women entrepreneurs in Pakistan. Int J Gend Entrep 3(3):265–274

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Mahmood B, Khalid S, Muhammad Sohail M, Babak I (2012) Exploring the motivation and barriers in way of Pakistani female entrepreneurs. Br J Educ, Soc & Behav Sci 2(4):353–368

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Mat ABC, Mansor NB (2010) The significance of psychology and environment dimensions for Malaysian Muslim women entrepreneurship venturing. Int J Hum Sci 7(1):253–269

    Google Scholar 

  • Meyer N, Mostert C (2016) Perceived barriers and success factors of female entrepreneurs enrolled in an entrepreneurial programme. Int J Soc Sci Humanit Stud 8(1):48–66

    Google Scholar 

  • Mohsin AK, Lei H (2020) Factor analysis for the development of women entrepreneurship in SMEs: an empirical evidence from Bangladesh. Chin Bus Rev 19(1):22–35

    Google Scholar 

  • Nguyen T (2006) Voices of Vietnamese women entrepreneurs. International Finance Corporation, Washington

    Google Scholar 

  • Nguyen HA, Hoang TG, Du VHT, Hoang BT (2016) A review of women’s entrepreneurship in Vietnam taking into account sociocultural norms and the institutional ecosystem. Working paper No.11/2016/August 2016. World Trade Institute

    Google Scholar 

  • Nguyen LTT (2020) Sustainability model of Vietnamese women entrepreneurship. Doctorate Thesis of Business Administration, School of Business and Tourism, Southern Cross University

    Google Scholar 

  • Osman I, Zainal Ariffin A, Ahmad NH, Husin A, Abu Bakar S, Tanwir ND (2009) Following the trail of women homestay entrepreneurs in Malaysia: understanding their motivation and empowerment. TEAM J Hosp & Tour 6(1):24–35

    Google Scholar 

  • Perri DF, Chu HM (2012) Entrepreneurs in China and Vietnam: motivations and problems. Int J Entrep 16(1):93–112

    Google Scholar 

  • Poon JPH, Thai DT, Naybor D (2012) Social capital and female entrepreneurship in rural regions: evidence from Vietnam. Appl Geogr 308–315

    Google Scholar 

  • Quan LV, Peter RV (2015) Woman entrepreneurship in rural Vietnam: success and motivational factors. J Dev Areas 49(2):57–77

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Rehman S, Roomi MA (2012) Gender and work life balance: a phenomenological study of women entrepreneurs in Pakistan. J Small Bus Enterp Dev 19(2):209–228

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Roomi MA, Parrott G (2008) Barriers to development and progression of women entrepreneurs in Pakistan. J Entrep 17(1):59–72

    Google Scholar 

  • Roomi MA (2006) Women entrepreneurs in Pakistan, profile, challenges and practical recommendations. Doctoral Researcher Paper, School of Management Royal Holloway, University of London, London

    Google Scholar 

  • Sadi MA, Al-Ghazali BM (2010) Doing business with impudence: a focus on women entrepreneurship in Saudi Arabia. Afr J Bus Manage 4(1):001–011

    Google Scholar 

  • Salfiya Ummah MAC, Choy CS, Sulaiha Beevi A (2021) Factors influencing business performance of small and medium enterprises: a case study in Sri Lanka. J Asian Financ, Econ Bus 8(4):0201−0212

    Google Scholar 

  • Scheela W, Van Hoa TT (2004) Women entrepreneurs in a transition economy: the case of Vietnam. Int J Manag Decis Mak 5(1):1–20

    Google Scholar 

  • Shabbir A, Di Gregorio S (1996) An examination of the relationship between women’s personal goals and structural factors influencing their decision to start a business: the case of Pakistan. Amama J Bus Ventur 11:507–552

    Article  Google Scholar 

  • Shaikh Ali SH, Mansor N, Ahmad N (2004) Factors that motivate women to be the entrepreneur. In: Proceeding of the 3rd international conference on SMEs in a global economy, UiTM and University of Wollongong, Malaysia

    Google Scholar 

  • Shmailan A (2014) Female entrepreneurs in Saudi Arabia: a comparison of barriers and motivations: moving from disenfranchisement to empowerment. Elit Res J Educ Rev 2(2):6–21

    Google Scholar 

  • SME Development in Pakistan (2013) Issues and remedies, pp 1–40. https://www.yumpu.com/en/document/read/21465643/sme-development-in-pakistan-issues-and-remedies-government. Accessed 25 Feb 2023

  • SMEDA (2003) What is SME definition? http://www.smeda.org/index.php?option=com_fsf&view=faq&catid=3&faqid=48. Accessed 26 Feb 2023

  • Syed J (2010) Chapter 11: women and small business entrepreneurship in Pakistan. In: Fielden SL, Davidson MJ (eds) International research handbook on successful women entrepreneurs. Edward Elgar Publishing, Inc., USA

    Google Scholar 

  • Thailand Gender & Development Institute (1998) Country briefing paper on women in Thailand

    Google Scholar 

  • Thakur R, Walsh J (2013) Characteristics of Thai women entrepreneurs: a case study of SMEs operating in Lampang municipality area. J Soc Dev Sci 4(4):174–181

    Google Scholar 

  • The Vietnam Women Entrepreneurs Council (VWEC) (2007a) Women’s entrepreneurship development in Vietnam. International Labour Organization (ILO), Vietnam

    Google Scholar 

  • The Vietnam Women Entrepreneurs Council (VWEC) (2007b) Women’s entrepreneurship development in Vietnam. International Labour Organization in Vietnam, Vietnam

    Google Scholar 

  • Ullah MM, Mohamed T, Yousuf F (2013) Women entrepreneurship: an Islamic perspective. Eur J Bus Manag (EJBM) 5(11): 253–269. Special Issue on Islamic Management and Business

    Google Scholar 

  • Warangkana T (2015) Determinants of business performance among women entrepreneurs in Southern Thailand. Doctorate Thesis of Business Administration, Universiti Utara Malaysia, Sintok

    Google Scholar 

  • Women Empowerment through Business Member Organizations: Vietnam’s Landscape. Dutsch Employer Cooperation Programme. International Training Center.

    Google Scholar 

  • Yoshino N, Farhad T-H, Phadet C, Baburam N (2015) The importance of SMEs in Thai economy. Retrieved from Asia Pathways, http://www.asiapathways-adbi.org/2015/07/importance-of-smes-in-the-thai-economy/. Accessed 25 Feb 2023

  • Yusof R (2011) How religious values affect entrepreneurial behaviours among Muslim businesswomen in the district of Pendang, Kedah. NIEW J 3:25–46

    Google Scholar 

  • Zhu L, Orhan K, Chu HM, Chu A (2015) Female entrepreneurship: evidence from Vietnam. J Bus Entrep 26(3):103–128

    Google Scholar 

Download references

Acknowledgements

We want to express our sincere appreciation to RP012C-13HNE for supporting this study.

Author information

Authors and Affiliations

Authors

Corresponding author

Correspondence to Hasan Al-Banna Mohamed .

Editor information

Editors and Affiliations

Rights and permissions

Reprints and permissions

Copyright information

© 2023 The Author(s), under exclusive license to Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd.

About this chapter

Check for updates. Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this chapter

Abdul Ghani Azmi, I., Che Hashim, R., Mohamed, H.AB., Sahol Hamid, N. (2023). A Study of Muslim Women Entrepreneurs’ SMEs Challenges and Motivation in the Asia Pacific Region. In: Rafiki, A., Dana, LP., Nasution, M.D.T.P. (eds) Open Innovation in Small Business. Contributions to Environmental Sciences & Innovative Business Technology. Springer, Singapore. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-99-5142-0_13

Download citation

Publish with us

Policies and ethics