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Introduction

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Rebel Governance in the Middle East

Abstract

This chapter examines the notion of rebel governance, what constitutes rebel and why, if any, rebels need to engage in governance building. The chapter asks whether all rebels are in fact capable of building governance even if they want to and what is the relationship between external players and rebels’ willingness to engage in governance building. At the core of this chapter’s argument is the discussion of the context of rebel governance in the Middle East and North Africa region (MENA) and what makes it different from the standard definition as presented in the scholarly literature. By engaging with the findings of other chapters in the book, this section highlights the contribution this book makes to the scholarly literature and to our understanding of rebel governance as a concept and its applicability to the Middle East context.

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Notes

  1. 1.

    Ana Arjona, Nelson Kasfir, and Zachariah Cherian Mampilly, eds. Rebel Governance in Civil War (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2015); Zachariah Mampilly, Rebel Rulers (New York: Cornell University Press, 2011).

  2. 2.

    Kathleen Gallagher Cunningham and Cyanne E. Loyle, “Introduction to the Special Feature on Dynamic Processes of Rebel Governance,” Journal of Conflict Resolution 65, no. 1 (2021): 3.

  3. 3.

    Ibid., 3.

  4. 4.

    Reyko Huang, The Wartime Origins of Democratization: Civil War, Rebel Governance, and Political Regimes (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2016): 71–72.

  5. 5.

    Ibid.

  6. 6.

    Abdalhadi Alijla, “‘We Are in a Battle with the Virus’: Hamas, Hezbollah, and Covid-19,” Middle East Law and Governance (2021): 1–13. https://doi.org/10.1163/18763375-14010001.

  7. 7.

    Ana Arjona, Nelson Kasfir, and Zachariah Cherian Mampilly, eds., Rebel Governance in Civil War (New York: Cambridge University Press, 2015): 3.

  8. 8.

    Ibid.

  9. 9.

    Mampilly; Benedetta Berti, “Violent and Criminal Non-State Actors,” in The Oxford Handbook of Governance and Limited Statehood, eds. Anke Draude, Tanja A. Börzel, and Thomas Risse (New York: Oxford University Press, 2018): 272–292; Ana Arjona, “Wartime Institutions: A Research Agenda,” Journal of Conflict Resolution 58, no. 8 (2014): 1360–1389.

  10. 10.

    Karen Elizabeth Albert, “Institutions of the Weak: Rebel Institutions and the Prospects of Peace After Civil War” (PhD diss., University of Rochester, 2020).

  11. 11.

    Megan A. Stewart, “Rebel Governance: Military Boon or Military Bust? (Isard Award Article),” Conflict Management and Peace Science 37, no. 1 (2019): 17.

  12. 12.

    Abdalhadi Alijla, “The (Semi) State’s Fragility: Hamas, Clannism, and Legitimacy,” Social Sciences 10, no. 11 (2021): 437; Abdalhadi Alijla, “Hamas, Service Provision and Identity in Gaza 2020. V.1.” Orient-Institut Beirut (OIB), 2020.

  13. 13.

    Isabelle Duyvesteyn et al., “Reconsidering Rebel Governance,” in African Frontiers: Insurgency, Governance and Peacebuilding in Postcolonial States, eds. John Idriss Lahai and Tanya Lyons (New York: Ashgate Publishing, 2016): 31–40.

  14. 14.

    Jeremy M. Weinstein, Inside Rebellion: The Politics of Insurgent Violence (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 2006): 163.

  15. 15.

    Nicholai Hart Lidow, Violent Order: Understanding Rebel Governance Through Liberia’s Civil War (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2016).

  16. 16.

    Stathis Kalyvas, The Logic of Violence in Civil War (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2006).

  17. 17.

    Reyko Huang and Patricia L. Sullivan, “Arms for Education? External Support and Rebel Social Services,” Journal of Peace Research 58, no. 4 (September 2020): 794–808.

  18. 18.

    Kathleen Gallagher Cunningham, Reyko Huang, and Katherine M. Sawyer, “Voting for Militants: Rebel Elections in Civil War,” Journal of Conflict Resolution 65, no. 1 (2021): 81–107.

  19. 19.

    Huang and Sullivan.

  20. 20.

    Chimera in Greek mythology was a hybrid creature that breathed fire and was composed of different animal parts. It contains parts of a lion, a goat, and a snake.

  21. 21.

    Amnesty International, “Israel’s Apartheid against Palestinians: A Cruel System of Domination and a Crime against Humanity,” 1 February 2022, https://www.amnesty.org/en/latest/news/2022/02/israels-apartheid-against-palestinians-a-cruel-system-of-domination-and-a-crime-against-humanity/; Human Rights Watch, “A Threshold Crossed: Israeli Authorities and the Crimes of Apartheid and Persecution,” 27 April 2021, https://www.hrw.org/report/2021/04/27/threshold-crossed/israeli-authorities-and-crimes-apartheid-and-persecution.

  22. 22.

    Alijla, “The (Semi) State’s Fragility,” 437.

  23. 23.

    Ana Arjona. Rebelocracy: Social Order in the Colombian Civil War (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2017); Ana Arjona, Nelson Kasfir, and Zachariah Mampilly, eds., Rebel Governance in Civil War (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2015), 24; Kathleen Gallagher Cunningham and Cyanne E. Loyle, “Introduction to the Special Feature on Dynamic Processes of Rebel Governance,” Journal of Conflict Resolution 65, no. 1 (2021): 3–14; Corinna Jentzsch, Stathis Kalyvas, and Livia Isabella Schubiger, “Militias in Civil Wars,” Journal of Conflict Resolution 59, no. 5 (2015): 765–769; Weinstein.

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Correspondence to Ibrahim Fraihat .

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Fraihat, I., Alijla, A. (2023). Introduction. In: Fraihat, I., Alijla, A. (eds) Rebel Governance in the Middle East. Palgrave Macmillan, Singapore. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-981-99-1335-0_1

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