Fostering Adaptivity Through Systemic Reform: Transforming Education Through the Framework of Preparing Student Abilities and Competencies Through Education in Singapore (PACES)

Part of the Education Innovation Series book series (EDIN)


Progress in information and communications technologies (ICT) over the past two decades has precipitated significant changes in the understanding of social interaction, learning, life, and work. Yet, present day educational systems still seem mired in practices more suited to the early twentieth century, and it is not only the content, but equally the design of these systems that has failed to keep pace with modern day demands. In order for teachers and students to reach optimal capacity, therefore, new literacies, pedagogies, and assessment tools less tightly coupled with the past must form the basis of a process by which the gap between theory and application can be bridged. This chapter discusses the basis, description, and application of a proposed framework intended to guide educational practices towards fostering more adaptive dispositions among learners in Singapore. The PACES framework aims to integrate the essential skill-sets and values, supporting environment, and outcomes into a coherent approach. It considers how each of the components of knowledge, skills, and personal characteristics and mind-sets and their permutations can be applied in order to provide an adequate learning and teaching environment, so that students are sufficiently prepared for real-world situations and challenges.


Personal Characteristic Situate Learning Service Learning Situate Cognition Authentic Activity 
These keywords were added by machine and not by the authors. This process is experimental and the keywords may be updated as the learning algorithm improves.


  1. Anderson, L. M., Reder, L. M., & Simon, H. A. (1996). Situated learning and education. Educational Researcher, 25(4), 5–11.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Berkowitz, M. W., & Grych, J. H. (2000). Early character development and education. Early Education & Development, 11(1), 55–72.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  3. Brown, J. S., Collins, A., & Duguid, P. (1989). Situated cognition and the culture of learning. Educational Researcher, 18(1), 32–42.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Character Education Partnership. (n.d.). Character education partnership. Retrieved April 15, 2010, from
  5. Chua, S. (2008). A study on service learning in junior colleges in Singapore (13th–17th October 2008). Tohoku, Japan: Department of Human Development and Disabilities, Tohoku University.Google Scholar
  6. Eccles, J. S. (1999). The development of children ages 6 to 14. The Future of Children: When School is Out, 9(2), 30–44.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Griffin, M. M. (1995). You can’t get there from here: Situated learning, transfer, and map skills. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 20(1), 65–87.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Herrington, J., & Oliver, R. (1995). Critical characteristics of situated learning: Implications for the instructional design of multimedia. In J. Pearce & A. Ellis (Eds.), ASCILITE95 conference proceedings (pp. 253–262). Melbourne, VIC, Australia: University of Melbourne.Google Scholar
  9. Hung, D., Lee, S.-S., & Lim, K. Y. T. (2012). Teachers as brokers: Bridging formal and informal learning in the 21st century. KEDI Journal of Educational Policy, 9(1), 71–89.Google Scholar
  10. Karoly, L. A., & Panis, C. W. A. (2004). The 21st century at work: Forces shaping the future workforce and workplace in the United States. Santa Monica, CA: RAND Corporation.Google Scholar
  11. Koskinen, T. (2007). Foresight and road mapping. Helsinki, Finland: Teaching and Research in Engineering in Europe, Helsinki University of Technology.Google Scholar
  12. Lave, J., & Wenger, E. (1991). Situated learning: Legitimate peripheral participation. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Mahar, S., & Harford, M. (2005). Research on human learning: Background paper. East Melbourne, VIC, Australia: Department of Education and Training.Google Scholar
  14. Moynagh, M., & Worsley, R. (2003). Learning from the future Scenarios for post-16 learning. Somerset, UK: Learning and Skills Research Centre.Google Scholar
  15. Partnership for 21st Century Skills. (2007). The intellectual and policy foundations of the 21st century skills framework. Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  16. Partners in Education Transformation. (2009, August 16). Transforming education: Assessing and teaching 21st century skills. Retrieved from
  17. Piaget, J. (1937). La construction du réel chez l’enfant (6th ed.). New York: Basic Books.Google Scholar
  18. Van Eck, R. (2007). Generation G and the 21st century: How games are preparing today’s students for tomorrow’s workplace. North Dakota, ND: Instructional Design & Technology, University of North Dakota.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Singapore 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Educational Technology DivisionMinistry of EducationSingaporeSingapore
  2. 2.National Institute of EducationNanyang Technological UniversitySingaporeSingapore

Personalised recommendations