Shadow Education and Academic Success in Republic of Korea

  • Soo-yong ByunEmail author
Part of the Education in the Asia-Pacific Region: Issues, Concerns and Prospects book series (EDAP, volume 23)


This study examines the effects of different types of shadow education on academic achievement, using data from a longitudinal survey of a nationally representative sample of South Korean seventh graders. To control for pre-existing differences between students who used a particular type of shadow education and those who did not, the study employed a series of statistical models including propensity score matching techniques. Results show that the use of a particular type of shadow education (i.e., preparatory cram school) made a small difference in achievement gains in math, whereas other forms (i.e., individual tutoring, correspondence courses, on-line tutoring services, and Educational Broadcasting System [EBS]) made little difference. Limitations, implications, and future research directions are discussed.


Propensity Score Academic Achievement Propensity Score Match Private Tutoring Math Achievement 
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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Education Policy StudiesPenn State UniversityUniversity ParkUSA

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