Effects of Virtual-Reality Elements on Spatial Visualization Skills of Secondary Three Students in Singapore

  • Hwee Ngee Gwee


This chapter is part of a larger study investigating the effects of a new virtual-reality elements program on the learning of geometry. The study used an experimental research design (pretest/posttest, control experimental group), to examine the effects of this new program developed by ZEPTH Pte Ltd. The focus of the study is on the spatial visualization skills, achievement in geometry, and attitude and behavior toward geometry of 249 (150 male and 99 female) secondary three students from seven schools in Singapore. Only the results of the spatial visualization skills are reported here. Students in the control group (N = 114) were taught the topic of three dimensional geometry using the “Chalk and Talk” method, while students in the experimental group (N = 135) used the virtual-reality elements program to explore the properties within the three dimensional figures on the same topic. The study has confirmed that the use of the virtual-reality elements program yielded positive results for spatial visualization skills. This can be attributed to the visual representations that the virtual-reality elements program generates for students to explore and understand the topic of three dimensional geometry, allowing the students to see the three dimensional figures on the screen instead of ‘imagining’ on the whiteboard or on paper.


3D Virtual-reality Spatial visualization Mathematics learning 



The author would like to thank National Research Foundation for supporting the FutureSchools@HCI project. Thanks should also go to Professor Yiyu Cai and Dr Winston Chen for their collaboration in this research.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media Singapore 2013

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Hwa Chong InstitutionSingaporeSingapore

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