Advertisement

Historical Threads of Buddhist–Muslim Relations in Sri Lanka

Chapter

Abstract

Understanding relations between Sri Lanka’s Buddhist and Muslim communities should not commence with simple concepts of ethnic groups and boundaries and an associated identity politics. This assumes a consistency across time for such communities depicted as collective individuals; that is, as communities imagined in modern terms as discrete and internally homogenous entities. By considering relations between communities over time, this chapter argues for much closer attention to the ways that ethnicity is more of an emergent property of practical action and the larger cultural values associated with that action. The chapter concludes that the biases in Sinhala Buddhist ideology informing its sense of Sri Lankan history need to be redressed so that greater accommodation of minorities can be achieved.

Keywords

Sri Lanka Trade networks Agrarian societies Muslim minorities Pre-colonial Buddhist polities 

References

  1. Amrith, Sunil S. Crossing the Bay of Bengal: The Furies of Nature and the Fortunes of Migrants. Boston: Harvard University Press, 2013.Google Scholar
  2. Assistant Government Agent. Administration Reports. Colombo: Government Printers, 1897.Google Scholar
  3. Bastin, Rohan. “The Authentic Inner Life: Complicity and Resistance in the Tamil Hindu Revival.” In Sri Lanka: Collective Identities Revisited, Volume 1, edited by Michael Roberts. Colombo: MARGA Institute, 1997.Google Scholar
  4. ———. “Globalisation and Conflict.” In A History of Ethnic Conflict in Sri Lanka: Marga Monograph Series on Ethnic Reconciliation, No. 23, edited by Michael Roberts, Godfrey Gunatilleke, and Devanesan Nesiah. Colombo: MARGA Institute, 2001.Google Scholar
  5. ———. The Domain of Constant Excess: Plural Worship at the Munnesvaram Temples in Sri Lanka. New York and Oxford: Berghahn Books, 2002.Google Scholar
  6. Bayly, Susan. Saints, Goddesses and Kings: Muslims and Christians in South Indian Society, 1700–1900. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Carter, John Ross. On Understanding Buddhists: Essays on the Theravada Tradition in Sri Lanka. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1993.Google Scholar
  8. Chaudhuri, K.N. Asia Before Europe: Economy and Civilisation of the Indian Ocean from the Rise of Islam to 1750. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1990.Google Scholar
  9. Codrington, H.W. A Short History of Ceylon. Reprint of the 1929 Original. New Delhi: Asian Educational Services, 1994.Google Scholar
  10. De Queyroz, Father Fernaõ. The Temporal and Spiritual Conquest of Ceylon. Translated by Father S.G. Perera. Three Volumes Reprinted 1992. New Delhi: Asian Educational Services, 1930.Google Scholar
  11. De Silva, C.R. The Portuguese in Ceylon, 1617–1638. Colombo: H.W. Cave, 1972.Google Scholar
  12. De Silva, K.M. A History of Sri Lanka, 2nd ed. Colombo: Vijitha Yapa, 2005.Google Scholar
  13. de Silva, Premakumara. “Hindu and Muslim Connections to Śri Pāda.” In Religion in Context, edited by Jayadeva Uyangoda. Colombo: Social Scientists’ Association, 2007.Google Scholar
  14. ———. “Reordering of Postcolonial Sri Pāda Temple in Sri Lanka: Buddhism, State and Nationalism.” History and Sociology of South Asia 7, no. 2 (2013): 155–176.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Dewaraja, Lorna. The Muslims of Sri Lanka: One Thousand Years of Ethnic Harmony. Colombo: Lanka Islamic Foundation, 1994.Google Scholar
  16. Dewasiri, Nirmal Ranjith. The Adaptable Peasant: Agrarian Society in Western Sri Lanka Under Dutch Rule, 1740–1800. Leiden: Brill, 2008.Google Scholar
  17. Flores, Jorge Manuel. “The Straits of Ceylon, 1524–1539: The Portuguese-Mappilla Struggle Over a Strategic Area.” In Sinners and Saints: The Successors of Vasco da Gama, edited by Sanjay Subrahmanyam, 57–74. Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1998.Google Scholar
  18. Geertz, Clifford. Negara: The Theatre State in Nineteenth-Century Bali. Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1980.Google Scholar
  19. Gunasekara, B., ed. Rājāvaliya or A Historical Narrative of Sinhalese Kings from Vijaya to Vimala Dharma Surya II. Colombo: George J.A. Skeen Government Printer, 1900.Google Scholar
  20. Gunasekara, Tisaranee. “That Familiar Impasse.” The Island, 2008. http://www.island.lk/2008/10/19/features12.html. Last accessed December 5, 2016.
  21. Gunasinghe, Newton. Changing Socio-Economic Relations in the Kandyan Countryside. Colombo: Social Scientists’ Association, 1990.Google Scholar
  22. ———. “The Open-Economy and Its Impact on Ethnic Relations in Sri Lanka.” In Newton Gunasinghe: Selected Essays, edited by Sasanka Perera, 176–196. Colombo: Social Scientists’ Association, 1995.Google Scholar
  23. Gunawardana, R.A.L.H. “Irrigation and Hydraulic Society in Early Medieval Ceylon.” Past and Present 53, no. 1 (1971): 3–27.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. ———. Robe and Plough: Monasticism and Economic Interest in Early Medieval Sri Lanka. Tucson: the University of Arizona Press, 1979.Google Scholar
  25. ———. “Changing Patterns of Navigation in the Indian Ocean and Their Impact on Pre-colonial Sri Lanka.” In The Indian Ocean: Explorations in History, Commerce and Politics, edited by Satish Chandra, 54–89. New Delhi: Sage, 1987.Google Scholar
  26. ———. “The People of the Lion: The Sinhala Identity and Ideology in History and Historiography.” Reprint, Sri Lanka: History and the Roots of Conflict, edited by Jonathan Spencer, 45–86. London: Routledge, 1990.Google Scholar
  27. ———. Historiography in a Time of Ethnic Conflict: Construction of the Past in Contemporary Sri Lanka. Colombo: Social Scientists’ Association, 1995.Google Scholar
  28. ———. Periodization in Sri Lanka History: Some Reflections with Special Emphasis on the Development of the State. Colombo: Social Scientists’ Association, 2008.Google Scholar
  29. Harees, Lukman. Clouding the Crescent in Sri Lanka: A Documentary on the Hate Campaign Against the Sri Lankan Muslims. Colombo: Addictive International, 2015.Google Scholar
  30. Holt, John C. Buddhist Extremists and Muslim Minorities: Religious Conflict in Contemporary Sri Lanka. New York: Oxford University Press, 2016.Google Scholar
  31. Hussain, Asiff. Sarandib: An Ethnological Study of the Muslims of Sri Lanka. Colombo: Neptune Publications, 2011.Google Scholar
  32. Ibn Battuta. “The Observations of Ibn Battuta.” Ibn Battuta in the Maldives and Ceylon 1333–1334, translated from the French of M.M. Defremery and Sanguinetti by Albert Gray (New Delhi: Asian Educational Services, 1996). Reprint, The Sri Lanka Reader: History, Culture, Politics, edited by John Clifford Holt, 111–118. Durham and London: Duke University Press, 2011.Google Scholar
  33. Indrapala, K. The Evolution of an Ethnic Identity: The Tamils in Sri Lanka C. 300 BCE to C. 1200 CE. Colombo: MV Publications, 2005.Google Scholar
  34. Jayawardena, Kumari. Nobodies to Somebodies: The Rise of the Colonial Bourgeoisie in Sri Lanka. New Delhi: Leftword Books, 2000.Google Scholar
  35. ———. Perpetual Ferment: Popular Revolts in Sri Lanka in the 18th and 19th Centuries. Colombo: Social Scientists’ Association, 2010.Google Scholar
  36. Jiggins, Janice. Caste and Family in the Politics of the Sinhalese 1947–1976. Colombo: K.V.G. De Silva & Sons, 1979.Google Scholar
  37. Kapferer, Bruce. The Feast of the Sorcerer: Practices of Consciousness and Power. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press, 1997.Google Scholar
  38. ———. Legends of People, Myths of State: Violence, Intolerance, and Political Culture in Sri Lanka and Australia. Revised and Updated Edition. Oxford and New York: Berghahn Books, 2012.Google Scholar
  39. Leach, E.R. “Hydraulic Society in Ceylon.” Past and Present 15, no. 1 (1959): 2–26.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Liyanagamage, Amaradasa. Society, State and Religion in Premodern Sri Lanka. Colombo: Social Scientists’ Association, 2008.Google Scholar
  41. Malalgoda, Kitsiri. Buddhism in Sinhalese Society, 1750–1900: A Study of Religious Revival and Change. Berkeley, Los Angeles, and London: University of California Press, 1976.Google Scholar
  42. McGilvray, Dennis B. Crucible of Conflict: Tamil and Muslim Society on the East Coast of Sri Lanka. Durham and London: Duke University Press, 2008.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  43. McGilvray, Dennis, and Mirak Raheem. “Origins of the Sri Lankan Muslims and Varieties of the Muslim Identity.” Originally Published as Sections of the Chapter “History, Culture, and Geography: The Sources of Muslim Identity.” In Muslim Perspectives on the Sri Lankan Conflict (Washington: East–West Center, 2007). Reprint, The Sri Lanka Reader: History, Culture, Politics. Edited by John Clifford Holt, 410–419. Durham and London: Duke University Press, 2011.Google Scholar
  44. Menon, A. Sreedhara. Cultural Heritage of Kerala. 2nd ed. Madras: Viswanathan Printers, 1996.Google Scholar
  45. Mohamed, S.L. “Who Are the Moors of Ceylon?” Colombo: Moors Direct Action Committee, 1950. Reprint, The Sri Lanka Reader: History, Culture, Politics, edited by John Clifford Holt, 429–434. Durham and London: Duke University Press, 2011.Google Scholar
  46. Obeyesekere, Gananath. Land Tenure in Village Ceylon. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1967.Google Scholar
  47. ———. The Cult of the Goddess Pattini. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press, 1984.Google Scholar
  48. Peebles, Patrick. Social Change in Nineteenth Century Ceylon. Colombo: Navrang in Association with Lake House Bookshop, 1995.Google Scholar
  49. Perniola, V. The Catholic Church in Sri Lanka: The Portuguese Period Volume I, 1505–1565. Dehiwala, Sri Lanka: Tisara Prakasakayo, 1989.Google Scholar
  50. ———. The Catholic Church in Sri Lanka: The Portuguese Period Volume II, 1566–1619. Dehiwala, Sri Lanka: Tisara Prakasakayo, 1991a.Google Scholar
  51. ———. The Catholic Church in Sri Lanka: The Portuguese Period Volume III, 1620–1658. Dehiwala, Sri Lanka: Tisara Prakasakayo, 1991b.Google Scholar
  52. Ramanathan, Ponnambalam. “The Ethnology of the ‘Moors’ of Ceylon.” Journal of the Ceylon Branch of the Royal Asiatic Society, 1888. Reprint, The Sri Lanka Reader: History, Culture, Politics, edited by John Clifford Holt, 420–423. Durham and London: Duke University Press, 2011.Google Scholar
  53. Roberts, Michael. Caste Conflict and Elite Formation: The Rise of a Karāva Elite in Sri Lanka, 1500–1931. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1982.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  54. ———. Exploring Confrontation: Sri Lanka: Politics, Culture and History. Chur, Switzerland: Harwood Academic Publishers, 1994.Google Scholar
  55. Rogers, John D. Crime, Justice and Society in Colonial Sri Lanka. London: Curzon Press, 1987.Google Scholar
  56. Seneviratne, H.L. Rituals of the Kandyan State. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1978.Google Scholar
  57. Sheriff, Abdul, and Engseng Ho, eds. The Indian Ocean: Oceanic Connections and the Creation of New Societies. London: C. Hurst and Co., 2014.Google Scholar
  58. Sivathamby, Karthigesu. “The Sri Lanka Ethnic Crisis and Muslim Tamil Relationships: A Socio-Political Review.” In Facets of Ethnicity in Sri Lanka, edited by Charles Abeysekera and Newton Gunasinghe, 192–225. Colombo: Social Scientists’ Association, 1987.Google Scholar
  59. Somaratna, G.P.V. Kotahena Riot 1883: A Religious Riot in Sri Lanka. Colombo: Deepanee, 1991.Google Scholar
  60. Stirrat, R.L. On the Beach: Fishermen, Fishwives, and Traders in Post-Colonial Lanka. Delhi: Hindustan Publishing Corporation, 1988.Google Scholar
  61. Strathern, Alan. Kingship and Conversion in Sixteenth-Century Sri Lanka: Portuguese Imperialism in a Buddhist Land. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2010.Google Scholar
  62. Tambiah, Stanley J. World Conqueror and World Renouncer: A Study of Buddhism and Polity in Thailand Against a Historical Background. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1976.Google Scholar
  63. ———. Buddhism Betrayed? Religion, Politics, and Violence in Sri Lanka. Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press, 1992.Google Scholar
  64. ———. Leveling Crowds: Ethnonationalist Conflicts and Collective Violence in South Asia. Berkeley, Los Angeles, and London: University of California Press, 1996.Google Scholar
  65. Weber, Max. From Max Weber: Essays in Sociology, edited by H.H. Gerth and C. Wright Mills, London: Routledge, 1948.Google Scholar
  66. ———. The City. Translated and edited by Don Martindale and Gertrud Neuwirth. New York: The Free Press, 1958.Google Scholar
  67. Wickramasinghe, Nira. “From Hybridity to Authenticity: The Biography of a Few Kandyan Things.” In The Hybrid Island: Culture Crossings and the Invention of Identity in Sri Lanka, edited by Neluka Silva, 71–92. Colombo: Social Scientists’ Association, 2002.Google Scholar
  68. ———. Sri Lanka in the Modern Age: A History of Contested Identities. London: Hurst and Company, 2006.Google Scholar
  69. Wickremeratne, L.A. “Religion, Nationalism, and Social Change in Ceylon, 1865–1885.” Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society of Great Britain and Ireland 101, no. 2 (1969): 123–150. Reprint in Colombo: Studies in Society and Culture: Sri Lanka Past and Present, 1993.Google Scholar
  70. Woolf, Leonard. The Village in the Jungle with an Introduction by E.F.C. Ludowyk. New Delhi: Oxford University Press, 1981.Google Scholar
  71. Yalman, Nur. Under the Bo Tree: Studies in Caste, Kinship, and Marriage in the Interior of Ceylon. Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press, 1967.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© The Author(s) 2020

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Deakin UniversityMelbourneAustralia
  2. 2.University of ColomboColomboSri Lanka

Personalised recommendations